We plan to take up two major revolts where the details can help you answer some static questions @IAS Mains. Post that, we will help you with a consolidated table on the all the major uprisings and revolts in India (leaving none!) and then will cover the revolts of North East India in a separate table.
Santhals: Live in Daman-i-koh= area between Bhagalpur and Rajmahal
Uprising = ‘hool’ in Santhal language
This was one of the most massive revolt
Social conditions which drove them to insurrection
How did the fire broke?
Belief in the magic
They believed that their actions had the blessings of God. Sido and Kanhu, the principal rebel leaders, claimed that Thakur (God) had communicated with them and told them to take up arms and fight for independence.
Non tribal help
Rebellion = ‘ulgulan’ in Munda language | Leader = Birsa Munda
For over 30 years the Munda sardars had been struggling against the destruction of their system of common land holdings by the intrusion of jagirdar, thikadar (revenue farmers) and merchant moneylenders.
The Break Out:
The form of the revolt:
Birsa was captured in the beginning of February 1900 and died in jail in June. The rebellion had failed. But Birsa entered the realms of legend.
This series is a part of How to crack the Tribal Issues for IAS Mains?. For a much detailed understanding, read up with all the post in this section as we develop this story in full.