Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Mangrove forests in India
Mains level: Significance of mangroves
- Maharashtra state cabinet approved the Mangrove Protection and Employment Generation Scheme for 2017-18 and has made Rs 15 crore budgetary provision for it.
- This special scheme to preserve mangroves on public and private land and to provide employment opportunities — linked to mangrove cover — to people of the selected areas. The decision will help in protecting mangroves on around 30,000 hectares.
- Employment would be generated by setting up businesses such as crab farming, bee keeping, rice farming, fish farming and tourism. The businesses can be run through a committee or by an individual
- It will help in many people coming forward voluntarily for preserving mangroves.
- Committees would be set up in villages having mangrove cover to ensure group benefits by forming organisational structure.
- The committee will also prepare a micro plan for mangrove preservation, protection, setting up protection fences and improving quality of mangroves.
- A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
- The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S.
- Mangroves are salt tolerant trees, also called halophytes, and are adapted to life in harsh coastal conditions. They contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action. They are adapted to the low oxygen (anoxic) conditions of waterlogged mud.