Any doubts?

  1. Profile photo of Don John Don John

    What is NSCN R ??

    1. Profile photo of Ankur Loonia Ankur Loonia

      National Socialist Council of Nagaland(Reformation)

      1. Profile photo of Ankur Loonia Ankur Loonia

        On April 6, 2015 a new faction NSCN (Reformation) was formed. Y. Wangtin Konyak and P. Tikhak officially announced the formation of a new Naga political group going by the name ‘National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Reformation)’ or NSCN (R). The decision came after Wangtin Konyak, a senior minister(Kilonser) and personal secretary to Khaplang and Tikhak, the spokesperson of the outfit were expelled by Khaplang after misunderstanding arose over the recent abrogation of ceasefire with the Government of India.

        The duo, wanted to continue with the ceasefire maintaining that “violence has never served a good purpose and the Naga political problem can only be resolved through peace and negotiation” while Khaplang had it abrogated because the “14 years of ceasefire between NSCN (K) and India has become a mockery and futile exercise.” The primary agenda of the new NSCN-R would be to “develop a sense of brotherhood among the Naga family and to rebuild the trust and faith among the Naga society.

  2. Profile photo of Amit Bhardwaj Amit Bhardwaj

    Well coming to the contemporary times, does ILP violates an Indian citizen’s fundamental right to reside anywhere in the country? Well, no it does not? Why? Because where on one side our constitution given us certain fundamental rights at the same time it imposes certain restrictions on the same fundamental right to protect the interests of weaker/vulnerable sections in these case the indigenous tribes.

    Coming to the peach issue. It is a multifaceted problem which should not be confined to just the armed unrest. How can a person from North-East have a peaceful mind when he is being labelled a derogatory racial references in the so called mainland Indian. Shall not such profiling germinate anger towards the perpetrators and provide a fertile ground for the opportunists to garner support for demanding separate state/control?

    While we are developing mega food parks, SEZs, industrial corridors in the mainland, why is the North-East being excluded? In fact it took independent India six decades to realise North-East should be brought to the rail and avian ambit.

    How can we expect peace in North-East when the porous borders provide easy passage to the infiltrators who set up camp there and brainwash the impressionable minds?

    1. Profile photo of Arun Muradnar Arun Muradnar

      @Amit,really true..
      Actually,North-Eastern region has been continuously ignored from political view.
      Dont know,why there is no exclusive development plan from Central govt?
      There are lot of issues to handle there..most prominent racial discrimination.. Still they are considered as outsiders??..need to change such mindset..
      Lets see some hopes from NITI ayog.. Planning Minister Rao Inderjit singh said in written reply in RS..that,NITI Aayog has initiated an exercise to prepare a roadmap for development of the Eastern and North-Eastern states..
      Lets hope some development and implementation on the same..

  3. Profile photo of Arun Muradnar Arun Muradnar

    Inner Line Permit is an official travel document issued by the Government of India to allow inward travel of an Indian citizen into a protected/restricted area for a limited period.
    It is obligatory for Indian citizens from outside those states to obtain permit for entering into the protected state. The document is an effort by the Government to regulate movement to certain areas located near the international border of India.The ILP is issued under the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation, 1873, by the state governments. The mandate of the Lanong committee is to review the situation of influx in the state and to suggest a multi—pronged strategy and a practical approach to tackle the problem.
    The inner line permit (ILP) system, required by Indian citizens to enter Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram.

  4. Profile photo of Aditya Kalia Aditya Kalia

    Can you please explain the brief history of Inner Line Permit. Why and how it started?

Centre, NSCN-IM issue joint statement on Naga talks

  1. News: The Centre and the NSCN-IM issued a joint statement saying they were closer than ever before to the final settlement and hope to conclude it sooner than later
  2. Right direction: The peace dialogue has become more purposeful, less ritualistic and far more frequent & in the last two years there were more meetings than all the years before
  3. Background: Almost a year back, the framework agreement on Naga peace talks was finalised between Govt and NSCN-IM
  4. The signing of the framework agreement came after over 80 rounds of negotiations that spanned 18 years with first breakthrough in 1997 when the ceasefire agreement was sealed

What is Ceasefire monitoring group?

  1. CMG was created in 2001 to formalise a permanent peace accord with Naga groups
  2. The various factions of National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Khaplang (NSCN-K) have been a problem for North East India’s stability
  3. Aim of CMG: Creating an atmosphere for a political negotiation to end the decades-old insurgency problem in the border state
  4. News: For the first time a police officer (Former DG of BSF D.K. Pathak) has been appointed to the post of chairman of CMG

NSCN has not given up on sovereignty

  1. News: Thuingaleng Muivah, general secretary of the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (Isak-Muivah), told that the outfit had not given up its demand for sovereignty
  2. In contrast with what the Minister of State for Home told last year – that the NSCN (I-M) had given up its demand for sovereignty and wants a Constitutional solution
  3. Muivah also said that a separate flag and passport for Nagas was not just a ‘demand’ but a right as the ‘Nagas were never under Indian rule’
  4. Background: NSCN (I-M) had signed a framework agreement with the government last year, to find a final solution to the Naga issue

Naga framework agreement

  1. Peace accord was signed between the government and the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (Isak-Muivah) [NSCN-IM], the largest Naga insurgent group, in Aug 2015
  2. Aim: Finding a final solution to the problematic Naga issue
  3. Background: NSCN-IM has been demanding a unified Naga identity and a separate ‘Nagalim’ State for over six decades
  4. NSCN-IM has been in talks with the Centre’s representative since it had entered into a ceasefire agreement in 1997
  5. Sovereignty: NSCN-IM withdrew its demand of sovereignty and wanted a solution according to the Constitution of India

Time frame for final Naga accord

  1. News: Government is not sure of giving a timeframe for the Naga framework agreement
  2. The insurgent group may have also gone back on its demand for full sovereignty
  3. Background: Naga framework agreement was signed between the government and the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (Isak-Muivah) [NSCN-IM] in Aug 2015
  4. Context: Claim made by the NSCN-IM recently that the government had accepted its demand for a separate passport and flag

It was a ‘framework pact’ with NSCN (IM)

  1. Union Home Minister referred the accord as a “framework agreement” and said it would help in resolving the Naga problem.
  2. The agreement between Govt. of India and NSCN(IM) was signed in August 2015.
  3. Govt. has denied referring it as peace accord and the minor details are still being worked out.
  4. The two parties have agreed on the basic fundamental ground on which the accord would be signed.

Chetia has given support to peace talks: Rajkhowa

  1. ULFA general secretary Anup Chetia has given his support to the ongoing peace talks between the banned outfit and the Centre.
  2. The ULFA central committee had demanded that Chetia be included in the peace talks.
  3. Even, Assam CM Tarun Gogoi wants that Anup Chetia should be associated with the peace talks.

Lets explore more about Garo Hills

  1. The Garo Hills is a part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya
  2. It is inhabited mainly by tribal dwellers, the majority of whom are Garo people.
  3. It is one of the wettest places in the world, comprising of the 5 districts.
  4. Abductions have become the order of the day in the Garo Hills region of Meghalaya, by different unidentified groups.

Centre sets up panel to review Garo Hills security

The Centre informed the Meghalaya HC that a committee has been set up to review the security situation in the insurgency-ravaged Garo Hills districts.

  1. Earlier, the HC issued an order directing the Centre to consider the use of the AFSPA and deployment of armed and paramilitary forces.
  2. HC wanted to control the deteriorating law and order situation in the Garo Hills.
  3. The committee will review the security situation in the Garo Hills and on the India-Bangladesh border (in Meghalaya).

NSCN factions making inroads in Arunachal

  1. The framework peace agreement signed by the NDA govt. with the NSCN(IM) is haunting the govt. again!
  2. Two other factions — the Khole-Kitovi and Reformation — were not part of the initiative.
  3. Recently, MHA has extended the imposition of the AFSPA in 3 districts of Arunachal Pradesh by another 6 months as these two breakaway factions were making inroads in the State.
  4. NSCN(K) is gaining foothold in parts of Longding district and the NSCN(R) is aiming areas which were hitherto dominated by NSCN(IM) and NSCN(K).


Seems like one of the pertinent issue here is the multiplicity of factions!

Security agencies suspect NSCN (I-M) is regrouping

  1. A series of developments raises serious concern about the security situation in the region, especially in Manipur.
  2. Reports of extortion, arms and drugs smuggling have registered a rising trend.
  3. The outfit has seems to have setup new camps in the hills of Manipur to accommodate fresh cadres recruited since the peace accord.

Bridging the North-East for Act East

Can Northeast become economic hub of India? What factors promote or prevent from that happening?

Southeast Asia and East Asia have become the most dynamic components of India’s external economic relations.

  1. Geography wise – The region shares more than 4,500 km of international border, imparts a critical role to India’s Northeast in the pursuit of any plan to foster economic integration with both South and Southeast Asian neighbours.
  2. These land borders also become important for ensuring border security and maintaining peace and tranquility.
  3. The Northeast is connected to the rest of India through the narrow Siliguri corridor quite appropriately called the “Chicken’s Neck.”
  4. The first need to improve connectivity between the Northeast and the rest of India; the second would be to enhance connectivity within the Northeast itself and the third would be to establish new cross-border transport and communication links with neighbours.
  5. There has to be a master plan for linking all the Northeastern states together with a network of road, rail and air links.
  6. Northeast connectivity has not been given much attention so far, but without progress in this category, the Act East policy would not bring economic benefits to the region.
  7. Cross-border connectivity needs to be focus. There is an ambitious Trilateral Highway Project to link India, Myanmar and Thailand, with possible extensions to Laos and Vietnam.
  8. Economic integration with larger East Asia such as through the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar (BCIM) corridor would then be possible on more equal terms.

If all these comes into real picture, then economically vibrant sub-regional economic zone would emerge, with the Northeast as its hub.

The fractious demand for ILP in Manipur

  1. Manipur is demanding the implementation of Inner Line Permit(ILP) in the state.
  2. If ILP bill is passed and enacted into law, it will require outsiders to obtain a special pass or permit to enter the state.
  3. System is already in force in the state of Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.
  4. Since Manipur is not officially a tribal State there are constitutional challenges to implement the ILP System.
  5. Among 3 major communities of Manipur – Meities, Kukis, Nagas, the ILP System is demanded by Meties.
  6. The govt. could implement the 6th Schedule in the hill areas which would ensure autonomy for the Kukis and Nagas in their respective regions within Manipur.

Peace pact only a formula to a final accord, says Nagaland CM

  1. The agreement evoked serious responses from CM’s of Assam, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh about their territorial integrity.
  2. Nagaland CM promised to meet the neighbouring CMs to remove their apprehensions.
  3. A 16-member Naga delegation would visit Myanmar to meet S.S. Khaplang, the chief of the NSCN(K) to discuss the agreement.
  4. Naga customary system and landholding system needs to be respected based on the unique history of Nagas across Naga-inhabited areas of the Northeast.

Assam, Manipur, Arunachal CMs still in the dark on Naga accord

  1. Union govt. did not keep the CMs of the neighbouring states in loop and neither informed them about framework agreement.
  2. Centre was ready to give autonomous councils to the Naga-dominated population in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur.
  3. The CMs opposed the idea of creating autonomous councils in their states and refused to accept any kind of law imposed from outside.

Autonomous councils key to Naga deal success

  1. The creation of autonomous councils for Naga people outside Nagaland is under consideration by the Union govt.
  2. These are locally appointed governments that already function in the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura, West Bengal and Jammu and Kashmir.
  3. Their creation is likely to be met with stiff resistance from the neighbouring states, where the migrant Naga population lives.


Evaluate the usefulness of this policy maneuver [Creation of autonomous councils] in India’s political and governance history.

Breakthrough in Nagaland

  1. The landmark deal leaves some smaller groups such as Khole-Kitovi and the reformation factions, out of decisive phases of the peace process.
  2. NSCN(K) is already hostile about engagement and is building alliance with other small insurgent groups.
  3. Govt. needs to take into account that several players of insurgency are not yet taken on board.
  4. The agreements should be built upon by involving all the stakeholders viz. other groups, Naga civil society and representatives of neighbouring states.
  5. The challenge for the govt. is to provide Naga sense of identity without acceding the claims on territories of other states.

Autonomous councils for Nagas key to deal success

  1. Autonomous councils for Nagas outside Nagaland is under consideration although redrawing of state boundaries is not on cards.
  2. A similar peace accord failed in 2011 when States with a sizeable Naga population of Assam, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh opposed such councils.
  3. Autonomous councils are locally appointed Govts. that operate in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, West Bengal and J&K.

Centre inks peace accord with Naga insurgent group

  1. Govt. has signed a peace accord with the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muviah) – one of the largest insurgent outfits in the North East.
  2. They have been demanding a unified Naga identity and a separate state of Nagalism for past six decades.
  3. However, there is no clarity on the Sovereignty clause and the details of accord have not yet been made public.

Controversial Bill on migrants goes

  1. A special session of the Manipur Assembly on Wednesday withdrew the Manipur Regulation of Visitors, Tenants and Migrant Workers Bill, 2015.
  2. The Bill did not provide for same protections as Inner Line Permit system and the Meitis community – the most powerful community – demanded regulation of outsiders to maintain their grip on power.

Protests continue to rock Manipur

  1. Fearing they will become minority in their own state if ILP is not implemented, locals launched a campaign to get it implemented.
  2. Inner Line Permit is currently in operation in Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland and is a system making it mandatory for Indian citizens to seek permission for entering the State.

Rajnath for cut in Central forces in North East. Why?

  1. Citing that the insurgencies in the region were at all time low and state police forces were strengthened, HM urged CMs to realistically decrease deployment of central forces in their states.
  2. This will make the environment easy and encourage positive thinking of outsiders about this region.

[op-ed snap] The tortuous road to Naga peace

The publicity that surrounds the success of India’s ‘cross-border’ strike against rebels in Myanmar cannot hide the fact that the real failure of Indian intelligence was not in predicting the possible spot of the ambush but in anticipating the emergence of a rebel coalition in the jungles of Myanmar.

Quick recap of the history:

  1. In 1997, civil society organisations brokered a ceasefire agreement between Govt. of India and NSCN (Isaac-Muivah), which was later joined by Khaplang faction in 2001.
  2. Govt. later discontinued the negotiations with NSCN (Khaplang) owing to his Myanmarese origin, strategically separating it.
  3. Khaplang signed a ceasefire agreement with Myanmar in 2012, allowing him to roam freely in the territory.
  4. Many critics of the Indian decision-making process have suggested that very limited success has been achieved by the ceasefire and so the GoI is trying to wear these rebels down.
  5. There are so many splinter groups that brokering peace with one/ some leads to fallout with others and they rise up waging a war again.


[op-ed snap] Governments don’t sing about covert operations

India’s security challenge is complex. But its strategic communication, official and unofficial, needs a lot more maturity. We have an uncanny ability to cast shadows over our own achievements.

And as the great Atal Bihari Vajpayee — no stranger to covert operations and cross-border engagement — said: Kahani shuru toh sab ko karni aati hai, khatam kaise karenge kisi ko nahi pata (everyone knows how to start something, but no one knows how to end it).

[cd explains] Manipur Ambush: Tracing the Roots


[op-ed snap] Manipur ambush: Why the attack?

  1. NSCN(K) along with KCP and KYKL claimed responsibility for 4th June attack on 6 Dogra regiment killing 18 army personnel.
  2. The Myanmar-based NSCN(K) pulled out of the ceasefire agreement with Indian govt. in March,2015.
  3. The deeper story points to its rift with the NSCN (IM), the rival outfit on which the Indian government has focused its attention in recent years.
  4. Despite being based in Myanmar, the NSCN (K)’s sphere of influence and strike capability extended deep inside India.
  5. Funding for NSCN(K) is sourced from extraction rackets and drugs trade across the borders of Myanmar, Thailand and India.
  6. These movements continue to survive for over 50 years, due to great deal of support and public sympathy, despite growing disillusionment with ‘liberation movements’ in Manipur.

[op-ed snap] Manipur: Waiting to happen

  1. Reactive measures have never achieved lasting results in tackling insurgency in the Northeast.
  2. Indian Insurgent Groups (IIGs) continue to operate out of Myanmar to carry-out violence in N-E states, which makes the case for Myanmar’s cooperation to ensure border security.
  3. This issue has been discussed at various high-level interactions, but IIGs continue to use Myanmar territory, despite Myanmar’s repeated assurances not to allow activities inimical to India.
  4. The solution to problem of militancy in Manipur, Nagaland and Assam lies in joint operation with the Indian security forces stationed on the Indo-Myanmar border.
  5. Myanmar fell short of India’s expectation to ensure peace along the border, due to its deliberations on country-wide ceasefire with ethnic groups, including NSCN(K).

20 soldiers killed in Manipur militant ambush

  1. Insurgents ambushed a military convoy killing at least 20 Army personnel.
  2. Naga insurgent outfit NSCN (Khaplang) has claimed responsibility for the attack.
  3. The NSCN (K) had withdrawn from the ceasefire arrangement with New Delhi in March.
  4. The SS Khaplang-led Naga NSCN (K) is based in Myanmar and is closely tied to the Meitei insurgent groups.
  5. Although there are several militant outfits in Manipur, most of them operate under the NSCN’s shadow, particularly in Naga-dominated areas like Chandel.

Where armed insurgents roam about freely

  1. The ceasefire agreement with NSCN puts restriction on movement outside camps, prohibition on acquiring any new arms and refraining from extortions and intimidation.
  2. The agreement makes these cadres eligible for remuneration from govt.
  3. The free movement of insurgent cadres had created an atmosphere of fear amongst civilians, who are later forced to offer support to them.
  4. The ceasefire ensures that there will be no state operation against these armed groups.
  5. The solution lies in raising a common Northeast law enforcement force for monitoring internal cross border ‘ceasefire signatory’ insurgencies.
  6. The monitoring and supervision of the ceasefire camps should be carried out on a monthly basis, which includes updated data of cadres, weapons and illegal activities.

:( We are working on most probable questions. Do check back this section.

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