Any doubts?

  1. Profile photo of Naveen Shekhar Naveen Shekhar

    Dear Sir,
    Kindly expand the stories by adding more snaps.
    It’ve been a long time!

  2. Profile photo of Kuldeep Singh Bisht Kuldeep Singh Bisht

    Tamil literature work related to three SANGAMS(Poets,writters assemblies) —

    1-Sangam first- No work avilable.

    2-Sangam Second- Only one work TOLKAPPIYAM
    a. TOLKAPPIYAM is early Tamil grammer(Fifth century A.D.).

    3-Sangam Third-
    a. ETTUTTOKOI(The Eight Anthologies) written in Second And third century.
    b. PATTUPATTU(The Ten Songs).Two are written by famous poet Nakkira.
    c. PATINENKIL KANAKKU(Eighteen Minor Didactic Poem) Triuvalluar’s “Kural”(sixth century A.D.) is known as for Tamil Vedas.

    1. Profile photo of Vishwesh Vivek Vishwesh Vivek

      good additions

    2. Profile photo of Sajina Ban Sajina Ban

      Good points.

The 2 schools of Sangam literature

Early classical Tamil literature is known as Sangam literature meaning ‘fraternity’, indicating mainly 2 schools of poets, aham (subjective love poems), and puram (objective, public poetry and heroic).

  1. Aham deals purely with the subjective emotions of the lover.
  2. Puram deals with all kinds of emotions, mainly the valour and glory of kings, and about good and evil.
  3. These were written by 473 poets, among whom 30 were women, the famous poetess Avvaiyar being one of them.
  4. The famous Thirukkural by Thiruvalluvar, in the 6th century A.D., serves as a manual of precepts to guide one to noble living.
  5. It expounds a secular, moral and practical attitude towards life.

What are Vishnu Sharma & Narayan Pandit are famous for?


  1. The didactic fable Panchatantra (five chapters), dealing with politics and practical wisdom was written by Vishnu Sharma.
  2. The Hitopadesha – the bird, animal-human and non-human stories of advice for the benefit of the listeners was written by Narayan Pandit.

These books of fables also indicate that the whole of Sanskrit literature was just not religious or elitist. These popular fables are obviously a retelling of folklore.

What is Jayadeva remembered for?


Jayadeva (12 century A.D.) is the last great name in Sanskrit poetry, who wrote the lyric poetry Gita Govinda (the song of Govinda) to describe every phase of love between Krishna and Radha – longing, jealousy, hope, disappointment, anger, reconciliation and fruition – in picturesque lyrical language.

The songs describe the beauty of nature, which plays a prominent part in the description of human love.

Puranas: That which renews the old

The Puranas were written to illustrate and expound the truth of the Vedas. The fundamental abstruse philosophical and religious truths are expounded through popular legends or mythological stories.

The main Puranas are 18 encyclopaedic collections of legend and myth. They are called Mahapuranas. The Mahapuranas have 5 subjects – 

  1. Sarga, the original creation of the universe,
  2. Pratisarga, the periodical process of destruction and re-creation,
  3. Manvantara, the different eras or cosmic cycles,
  4. Surya Vamsha and Chandra Vamsa, the histories of the solar and lunar dynasties of Gods and sages,
  5. Vamshanucharita, the genealogies of kings.

Around this core skeleton of the five subjects any Purana adds other diverse materials like matters of religious concern, customs, ceremonies, sacrifices, festivals etc.


What do the four Vedas deal with?


  1. The Rig Veda is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns counted among the four Hindu religious texts known as the Vedas.
  2. The Yajur Veda is related to yajna, which is not just sacrifice, but also means creative reality.
  3. The mantras (verse with archetypal meanings) of the Rig Veda are adapted to certain melodies and this collection is named Sama Veda.
  4. The Atharva Veda deals with the peace and prosperity of human society and is concerned with the daily life of man.

What importance do Vedas give to Yajnas?

  1. Devatas of the vedic poetry symbolise the manifestations of the divine force of the One Supreme.
  2. Vedas give prime importance to yajna (sacrifice).
  3. Purusa sukta of the Rigveda (10.90) describes the whole creation as a yajna extended by the divine forces of nature.
  4. Etymologically yajna means the worship of the divine, coordination and giving (sacrifice).
  5. These three elements together, vision, coordination and giving provide a basic paradigm for any creative act.

:( We are working on most probable questions. Do check back this section.

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