Technology Vision 2035 – Putting science to Use

The Prime Minister unveiled the ‘Technology Vision Document 2035’ while inaugurating the 103rd Indian Science Congress on  January 3,  2016. Let’s take a glance at it

<The document is dedicated to late Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, former President of India.>


What is Technology Vision 2035?

  • The document foresees the technologies required for fulfilling the needs of India 2035
  • This is a vision of where India and its citizens should be in 2035 and how technology should help achieve this
  • Twelve Sectoral Technology roadmaps are being prepared by the Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council, (TIFAC)

Which are the 12 sectors?

  • Education
  • Medical Sciences & Healthcare
  • Food and Agriculture
  • Water
  • Energy
  • Environment
  • Habitat
  • Transportation
  • Infrastructure
  • Manufacturing
  • Materials
  • Information and Communication Technology

The prime aim of the vision document

  • To ensure the security of every Indian, enhancing their prosperity and identity
  • This is stated in the document as “Our Aspiration” or “Vision Statement” in all languages of the 8th Schedule of the Constitution
  • The Vision document also identifies 12 prerogatives – (six for meeting individual needs and six for collective needs) that should be available to each and every Indian


How technologies could map to assure prerogatives?

  • Those are readily deployable
  • Those that needs to be moved from Lab to Field
  • Those that require targeted Research
  • Those that are still in Imagination

What type of technologies are expected in future?

  • Technologies could come about as a result of curiosity driven or paradigm – shattering ‘Blue-sky’ Research like Internet of Things, Wearable Technology, Synthetic Biology, Brain computer Interface, Bioprinting and regenerative medicine
  • Precision agriculture and robotic farming, vertical farming, interactive foods, autonomous vehicles, Bioluminescence, 3D printing of buildings, earthquake prediction, weather modification technologies, green mining etc <Here, UPSC has great scope to ask questions, as we know 3D printing technology was asked in 2013 Mains >

What is Bioluminescence?

Bioluminescent creatures are found throughout marine habitats, from the ocean surface to the deep sea floor.
Bioluminescent creatures are found throughout marine habitats, from the ocean surface to the deep sea floor.

  • Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism
  • The light emitted by a bioluminescent organism is produced by energy released from chemical reactions occurring inside (or ejected by) the organism

What are the challenges in the field of Technology?

  • Guaranteeing nutritional security and eliminating female and child anaemia
  • Ensuring universal eco-friendly waste management
  • Taking the railway to Leh and Tawang
  • Understanding national climate patterns and adapting to them
  • Ensuring location independent electoral and financial empowerment

Then! Are there any ways to overcome these challenges?

Technology Leadership – niche technologies in which we have core competencies, skilled manpower, infrastructure and a traditional knowledge base; eg. Nuclear Energy, Space Science.

Technology Independence – strategic technologies that we would have to develop on our own as they may not be obtainable from elsewhere eg. Defence sector

Technology Innovation – linking disparate technologies together or making a breakthrough in one technology and applying it to another. eg., solar cells patterned on chlorophyll based synthetic pathway are a potent future source of renewable energy

Technology Adoption – obtain technologies from elsewhere, modify them according to local needs and reduce dependence on other sources eg., foreign collaboration in the sectors of rainwater harvesting, agri-biotech, desalination, energy efficient buildings.

Technology Constraints – areas where technology is threatening and problematic i.e. having a negative social or environmental impact because of serious legal and ethical issues eg., Genetically Modified(GM) Crops.

Which 3 key activities were identified as a part of the ‘Call to Action’?

  • Knowledge creation It says India cannot afford not to be in the forefront of the knowledge revolution, either applied or pure
  • Ecosystem design for innovation and development
  • Technology deployment by launching certain national missions involving specific targets, defined timelines requiring only a few carefully defined identified players


Source - PIB Features | Pic - Vision 2035

Any doubts?

  1. vasista

    dear CD the hindu links are not giving information properly.

  2. Devendra Sahu


  3. gurshinder sidhu

    Waiting for science and tech news round up eagerly..thankyou guys :):)

  4. gurshinder sidhu

    I dont hav d link wid me…i saved dis few montha back from pib website

    1. Focus Ias

      * I meant PIB 🙂

    2. Focus Ias

      Yes – this was at the pub website… its correct.

  5. gurshinder sidhu

    ▪ Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and children worldwide, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Before the development of a vaccine, most children in the United States had at least one bout with rotavirus by age 5.
    ▪ Although rotavirus infections are unpleasant, you can treat most of them at home with extra fluids to prevent dehydration. Occasionally, severe dehydration requires intravenous fluids in the hospital. Dehydration is a serious complication of rotavirus and a major cause of childhood deaths in developing countries.
    ▪ Vaccination can help prevent rotavirus infection in your infant. For older children and adults — who aren’t as likely to develop serious symptoms of rotavirus — frequent hand-washing is the best line of defense.

    ▪ rotavirus infection usually starts with a fever and vomiting, followed by three to eight days of watery diarrhea. The infection can cause abdominal pain as well. In adults who are otherwise healthy, a rotavirus infection may cause only mild signs and symptoms — or none at all.

    ▪ When to see a doctor
    Call your child’s doctor if your child:
    Has severe or bloody diarrhea
    Has frequent episodes of vomiting for more than three hours
    Has a temperature of 103 F (39.4 C) or higher
    Seems lethargic, irritable or in pain
    Has signs or symptoms of dehydration — dry mouth, crying without tears, little or no urination, unusual sleepiness or unresponsiveness

    ▪ Rotaavirus is present in an infected person’s stool several days before symptoms appear and for up to 10 days after symptoms subside. The virus spreads easily through hand-to-mouth contact throughout this time — even if the infected person doesn’t have symptoms.

    ▪ If you have rotavirus and you don’t wash your hands after using the toilet — or your child has rotavirus and you don’t wash your hands after changing your child’s diaper or helping your child use the toilet — the virus can spread to anything you touch, including food, toys and utensils. If another person touches your unwashed hands or a contaminated object and then touches his or her mouth, an infection may follow.

    ▪ Because there are many types of rotavirus, it’s possible to be infected more than once, even if you’ve been vaccinated. However, repeat infections are typically less severe.

    ▪ infections are most common in children ages 4 months to 24 months — particularly those who spend time in child care settings. Older adults and adults caring for young children have an increased risk of infection as well.

    ▪ Your risk of rotavirus is highest in winter and spring.
    ▪ how to reduce the spread of rotavirus,
    wash your hands thoroughly and often — especially after you use the toilet, change your child’s diaper or help your child use the toilet. But even strict hand-washing doesn’t offer any guarantees.
    ▪ There are two vaccines offered against rotavirus:
    RotaTeq. This vaccine is given by mouth in three doses, often at ages 2 months, 4 months and 6 months. The vaccine is not approved for use in older children or adults.

    ▪ Although a few cases of intussusception — a rare but life-threatening form of intestinal blockage — were reported after vaccination with RotaTeq, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that the number of cases in vaccinated children was similar to the number of cases in unvaccinated children and concluded that the vaccine didn’t increase a child’s risk of intussusception. A similar anti-rotavirus vaccine (RotaShield) was pulled from the market in 1999 because of an association with intussusception.

    ▪ If after vaccination, your child has stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea, blood in his or her stool, or a change in bowel movements, contact your doctor immediately.

    ▪ Rotarix. This vaccine is a liquid given in two doses to infants at ages 2 months and 4 months. Clinical trials of the vaccine detected no increased risk of intussusception.

    1. Vignesh Babu

      This is comprehensive. Thank u

[op-ed snap] India’s pharmaceutical research problem


Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the IPRs and Patent Systems

Mains level: India is a leading pharmaceutical manufacturer. But still Indian Pharmaceutical Sector needs to grow more.



  1. The article talks about issues which are halting the progress of Pharmaceutical Sector in India

Biggest Challenge

  1.  One of the biggest constraints to advancing scientific research is the lack of sufficient funding and inadequate allocations by the government
  2. At 0.83% of GDP, India is among the countries with the lowest investment in scientific research

An industry study of 2016 

  1. It examined the extent to which public investment, IPRs and drug pricing policies in 56 countries actively contribute to or detract from innovation in global life-sciences
  2. India ranked among the lowest (in the bottom five) due to weak IP protection, lack of data protection for biologics, low investment in R&D and price regulations
  3. All of these contribute to reduced revenue and therefore reduced future investment in biopharmaceuticals

Survey of biomedical investment attractiveness of countries

  1. India ranked No.19 in this 28-nation survey 
  2. Five metrics were used to determine these rankings
    (1) scientific capabilities and infrastructure
    (2) clinical research conditions and framework
    (3) regulatory system
    (4)  market access and financing
    (5) effective intellectual property protections
  3. India scored low on almost all metrics except for partial step-ups on scientific capabilities and infrastructure, and clinical research conditions and framework


Good Chance for India to become R&D Powerhouse

  1. Rising cardiovascular problems and other chronic diseases, make India a strong candidate to become a future powerhouse of R&D and manufacturing in pharmaceuticals
  2. In addition, clean water, rising incomes and better health infrastructure for the nation are contributing to an ageing population
  3. This population will cause a greater demand for different types of pharmaceutical drugs

Low R&D investment as a percentage of sales

  1. The R&D investment as a percentage of sales has been rising for several years and now stands at 6% for some Indian companies
  2. But it is still well short of the 20% typical of Western pharma companies
  3. Moreover, innovation in chronic diseases and rare diseases has not yet taken off

Issues with Indian Education System

  1. The education system is to blame as well, imparting theoretical knowledge with no emphasis on product development and application of theory
  2. This leads to the deterioration of the knack(capability) for problem-solving and innovation
  3. Those who manage to keep their enthusiasm alive for research have to deal with the lack of facilities or face delayed funding issues
  4. Educational and academic institutions should be encouraged to participate in research programmes with funding from both the government as well as the private sector

What we need?

  1. We need four pillars for strengthening the innovation environment in the biopharmaceutical industry
    (1) human resources
    (2) finances
    (3) infrastructure
    (4) legal and regulatory framework
  2. Each of these pillars needs a concerted focus and a long-term commitment from industry as well as the government
  3. The environment to support the development of these verticals could emerge through our various government-led initiatives such as Skill India, Make in India, Atal Innovation Mission, etc.

The Way Forward

  1. In order to support consistent innovation, investment has to increase substantially before any tangible outcomes can be envisioned
  2. A strong patent system and robust IPRs environment is required to encourage research and to enable foreign pharma companies to bring new products to the market
  3. Without the requisite investment and enabling policy environment, patients in India will continue to suffer due to lack of access to cutting-edge medicines and new diagnostics

[pib] CSIR’s Initiatives for enabling the Indian Leather Industry

  1. What’s new? Waterless chrome tanning technology is a first of its kind technology to reduce chromium pollution load
  2. Chromium is the most sought after tanning agent
  3. CSIR – CLRI’s “Waterless tanning technology” is a game changer and it reduces the use of water in tanning.
  4. CSIR-CLRI is a recognised Centre for testing of restricted substances, finished leather certification
  5. Central Leather Research Institute: Technologies for bio-processing of leather, zero waste water discharge, value added materials from leather and indigenous chemicals for processing, are some of the highlighting features of this institute

House panel for early enactment of Space Law

  1. Context: Report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee dealing with the Department of Space
  2. Early: Govt should take all necessary action for the enactment of the National Space Act at the earliest
  3. Why? As it would benefit the overall growth of activities and services in the sector
  4. Dept. of Space has also been urged to speed up its decision on an internal committee report relating to supporting start-ups in the Space sector
  5. Background: The law comes at a time the DoS is increasing its engagement with public and private sector industries
  6. It will cover licensing, authorisation, regulation and supervision of activities by other players in the sector

Dept. of Biotechnology launches fund to tackle anti-microbial resistance

  1. News: The Dept. of Biotechnology to start an India-focussed seed fund to help groups in India to compete for UK’s Longitude Prize
  2. Agency: Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council
  3. Reason: To encourage biotechnology start-ups as well as tackle the threat faced by India from resistance to antimicrobial drugs
  4. Future: The National Biotechnology Development Strategy, laid down in Dec 2015, seeks to build a $100-billion industry by 2025
  5. The strategy expects to launch 4 missions in healthcare, food and nutrition, clean energy and education

Why National Science Day is celebrated?

  1. Why? This day marks the epoch-making discovery of Raman Effect by Indian physicist Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (CV Raman) on February 28, 1928
  2. This discovery was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930
  3. Relevance: In 1986, National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC) had demanded Union Government to assign February 28 as the ‘National Science Day’ for India
  4. First National Science Day: February 28, 2000
  5. What is Raman Effect?
  • Some part of light beam after passing through a transparent medium gets scattered
  • This phenomenon of scattering of light is termed as Raman Scattering and the cause of scattering is called the Raman Effect
  • The wavelength of these scattered rays is different from that of the incident rays of light

March to mark National Science Day

  1. Context: In India February 28 is celebrated as the National Science Day i.e. Rashtriya Vigyan Diwas every year
  2. Significance: Aims to impart scientific temper in the minds of people of all age groups
  3. Theme: “Scientific Issues for Development of the Nation” that aims at raising public appreciation
  4. This day is celebrated as science festival in the entire nation by organising science exhibitions, seminars, workshops, symposiums and many other activities

Let’s know about EMBO?

  1. EMBO is an organization of more than 1700 leading researchers that promotes excellence in the life sciences.
  2. The major goals of the organization are to support talented researchers at all stages of their careers, stimulate the exchange of scientific information.
  3. The organization is based in Germany.

India Signs an Agreement for European Molecular Biology Organisation

  1. India through the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology has signed a Cooperation Agreement
  2. To acquire the status of the Associate Member State European Molecular Biology Organisation (EMBO).
  3. After Singapore, India will now become second such country outside the European region to sign this agreement.
  4. This would strengthen scientific interaction and collaborative research between India and Europe in this field.
  5. With this, researchers working in India are now eligible to participate in all EMBO programmes and activities.

Let’s know more about Department of Biotechnology ?

  1. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT), under the Ministry of Science and Technology.
  2. The Department was set up in 1986, have been crucial for the growth of Life Sciences and Biotechnology in the Country.
  3. In December 2015, the DBT launched the National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-2020 programme.
  4. The stated aim is to intensify research in the fields of vaccines, humane genome, infectious and chronic diseases, environmental management and technologies for clean energy.

Global Biotechnology Summit on “Destination India”

The Summit would help attract investors and other key partners to invest in the biotech sector in India.

  1. A 2-day Global Biotechnology Summit on “Destination India” will be held on 5th & 6th February 2016 at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi.
  2. The event would showcase India’s Biotechnology strength and capacity.
  3. It would provide an opportunity to bring together all stakeholders.
  4. To discuss opportunities, collaborations and to prepare a joint action plan for achieving the target of 100 billion US dollars for the Biotech sector by 2020.
  5. The Summit will be held as a run up to the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) celebrating its 30th Foundation Day on 26th February, 2016.
  6. It would broadly focus on the priority themes – Make in India, Nurturing Bio entrepreneurship, Skill India, and Swasth Bharat.

Let’s know about Indian Science Congress Association?

  1. Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA) is a premier scientific organisation of India with headquarters at Kolkata.
  2. ISCA was conceived with an objective of advancing, promoting and furthering the cause of science in India, thus stimulating scientific research in the country.
  3. The first meeting of the congress was held from 15–17 January 1914 at the premises of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta.

Cloud Computing Would be a Solution for BIG Data Problem : Experts

With over 2.5 quintillion bytes created every day, data storage and analysis has become a great challenge.

  1. Addressing “Big Data and Cloud Computing in Agri-Bioinformatics” in the plenary talk session of 103rd Indian Science Congress at the University of Mysore.
  2. Cloud computing is very important in BIG data analytics due to its application sharing and cost effective properties.
  3. To head towards sustainable livelihood and development, such analyses with respect to agriculture including plants and animals are crucial.
  4. Hundreds of Agricultural institutions across the country should be connected and for this CLOUD is a good option.

Introduction of Regional Centre for Biotechnology Bill, 2015

It is currently operational at the NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad.

  1. Union Cabinet has given its approval for introduction of Regional Center for Biotechnology Bill, 2015.
  2. To provide a legal status to the Regional Centre for Biotechnology, so as to function independently as an autonomous body.
  3. Also an ‘institution of national importance’ for education, training and research in the areas of biotechnology.
  4. Centre would offer training in the related areas of biotechnology including bio-drug discovery science, nano-science and medicine, designer crops, intellectual property.

ROTOVAC – Desi Rotaviral vaccine


  1. Rotovac will boost efforts to combat infant mortality due to diarrhoea.
  2. It is an oral vaccine, administered to infants at the ages of 6,10 and 14 weeks.
  3. Rotovirus affects populations in all socio-economic groups, which makes it equally prevalent in industrialized and developing countries.
  4. It is an infection of stomach and bowel and spreads by contact/airborne route.
  5. The first infection tends to be mostly severe as later body develops immunity to the virus.


What is Rotavirus infection and what do you know more about it?


Tulsi – Genome sequencing completed

  1. CSIR along with Central Institute for Medicinal & Aromatic Plants carried complete genome sequencing of tulsi, also known as ‘Holy Basil’.
  2. The complete genome sequence of a traditional plant carried out for first time.
  3. Tulsi is full of organic compounds and can cure large number of ailments.



Experts bat for space law. What is the need?

  1. With growing space programmes and objects in space orbits, such a law is needed to ensure that space assets and applications are used for the right causes.
  2. Space laws could include a regulator for compensation for harm caused by space objects, registration & licensing of private firms, insurance, investor disputes, environmental damage, IPR issues etc.



:( We are working on most probable questions. Do check back this section.

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