Technology Vision 2035 – Putting science to Use

The Prime Minister unveiled the ‘Technology Vision Document 2035’ while inaugurating the 103rd Indian Science Congress on  January 3,  2016. Let’s take a glance at it

<The document is dedicated to late Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, former President of India.>


What is Technology Vision 2035?

  • The document foresees the technologies required for fulfilling the needs of India 2035
  • This is a vision of where India and its citizens should be in 2035 and how technology should help achieve this
  • Twelve Sectoral Technology roadmaps are being prepared by the Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council, (TIFAC)

Which are the 12 sectors?

  • Education
  • Medical Sciences & Healthcare
  • Food and Agriculture
  • Water
  • Energy
  • Environment
  • Habitat
  • Transportation
  • Infrastructure
  • Manufacturing
  • Materials
  • Information and Communication Technology

The prime aim of the vision document

  • To ensure the security of every Indian, enhancing their prosperity and identity
  • This is stated in the document as “Our Aspiration” or “Vision Statement” in all languages of the 8th Schedule of the Constitution
  • The Vision document also identifies 12 prerogatives – (six for meeting individual needs and six for collective needs) that should be available to each and every Indian


How technologies could map to assure prerogatives?

  • Those are readily deployable
  • Those that needs to be moved from Lab to Field
  • Those that require targeted Research
  • Those that are still in Imagination

What type of technologies are expected in future?

  • Technologies could come about as a result of curiosity driven or paradigm – shattering ‘Blue-sky’ Research like Internet of Things, Wearable Technology, Synthetic Biology, Brain computer Interface, Bioprinting and regenerative medicine
  • Precision agriculture and robotic farming, vertical farming, interactive foods, autonomous vehicles, Bioluminescence, 3D printing of buildings, earthquake prediction, weather modification technologies, green mining etc <Here, UPSC has great scope to ask questions, as we know 3D printing technology was asked in 2013 Mains >

What is Bioluminescence?

Bioluminescent creatures are found throughout marine habitats, from the ocean surface to the deep sea floor.
Bioluminescent creatures are found throughout marine habitats, from the ocean surface to the deep sea floor.

  • Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism
  • The light emitted by a bioluminescent organism is produced by energy released from chemical reactions occurring inside (or ejected by) the organism

What are the challenges in the field of Technology?

  • Guaranteeing nutritional security and eliminating female and child anaemia
  • Ensuring universal eco-friendly waste management
  • Taking the railway to Leh and Tawang
  • Understanding national climate patterns and adapting to them
  • Ensuring location independent electoral and financial empowerment

Then! Are there any ways to overcome these challenges?

Technology Leadership – niche technologies in which we have core competencies, skilled manpower, infrastructure and a traditional knowledge base; eg. Nuclear Energy, Space Science.

Technology Independence – strategic technologies that we would have to develop on our own as they may not be obtainable from elsewhere eg. Defence sector

Technology Innovation – linking disparate technologies together or making a breakthrough in one technology and applying it to another. eg., solar cells patterned on chlorophyll based synthetic pathway are a potent future source of renewable energy

Technology Adoption – obtain technologies from elsewhere, modify them according to local needs and reduce dependence on other sources eg., foreign collaboration in the sectors of rainwater harvesting, agri-biotech, desalination, energy efficient buildings.

Technology Constraints – areas where technology is threatening and problematic i.e. having a negative social or environmental impact because of serious legal and ethical issues eg., Genetically Modified(GM) Crops.

Which 3 key activities were identified as a part of the ‘Call to Action’?

  • Knowledge creation It says India cannot afford not to be in the forefront of the knowledge revolution, either applied or pure
  • Ecosystem design for innovation and development
  • Technology deployment by launching certain national missions involving specific targets, defined timelines requiring only a few carefully defined identified players


Source - PIB Features | Pic - Vision 2035

Any doubts?

  1. Profile photo of Kavya Sri Kavya Sri

    dear CD the hindu links are not giving information properly.

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  3. Profile photo of gurshinder sidhu gurshinder sidhu

    Waiting for science and tech news round up eagerly..thankyou guys :):)

  4. Profile photo of gurshinder sidhu gurshinder sidhu

    I dont hav d link wid me…i saved dis few montha back from pib website

    1. Profile photo of Focus Ias Focus Ias

      * I meant PIB 🙂

    2. Profile photo of Focus Ias Focus Ias

      Yes – this was at the pub website… its correct.

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    ▪ Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and children worldwide, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Before the development of a vaccine, most children in the United States had at least one bout with rotavirus by age 5.
    ▪ Although rotavirus infections are unpleasant, you can treat most of them at home with extra fluids to prevent dehydration. Occasionally, severe dehydration requires intravenous fluids in the hospital. Dehydration is a serious complication of rotavirus and a major cause of childhood deaths in developing countries.
    ▪ Vaccination can help prevent rotavirus infection in your infant. For older children and adults — who aren’t as likely to develop serious symptoms of rotavirus — frequent hand-washing is the best line of defense.

    ▪ rotavirus infection usually starts with a fever and vomiting, followed by three to eight days of watery diarrhea. The infection can cause abdominal pain as well. In adults who are otherwise healthy, a rotavirus infection may cause only mild signs and symptoms — or none at all.

    ▪ When to see a doctor
    Call your child’s doctor if your child:
    Has severe or bloody diarrhea
    Has frequent episodes of vomiting for more than three hours
    Has a temperature of 103 F (39.4 C) or higher
    Seems lethargic, irritable or in pain
    Has signs or symptoms of dehydration — dry mouth, crying without tears, little or no urination, unusual sleepiness or unresponsiveness

    ▪ Rotaavirus is present in an infected person’s stool several days before symptoms appear and for up to 10 days after symptoms subside. The virus spreads easily through hand-to-mouth contact throughout this time — even if the infected person doesn’t have symptoms.

    ▪ If you have rotavirus and you don’t wash your hands after using the toilet — or your child has rotavirus and you don’t wash your hands after changing your child’s diaper or helping your child use the toilet — the virus can spread to anything you touch, including food, toys and utensils. If another person touches your unwashed hands or a contaminated object and then touches his or her mouth, an infection may follow.

    ▪ Because there are many types of rotavirus, it’s possible to be infected more than once, even if you’ve been vaccinated. However, repeat infections are typically less severe.

    ▪ infections are most common in children ages 4 months to 24 months — particularly those who spend time in child care settings. Older adults and adults caring for young children have an increased risk of infection as well.

    ▪ Your risk of rotavirus is highest in winter and spring.
    ▪ how to reduce the spread of rotavirus,
    wash your hands thoroughly and often — especially after you use the toilet, change your child’s diaper or help your child use the toilet. But even strict hand-washing doesn’t offer any guarantees.
    ▪ There are two vaccines offered against rotavirus:
    RotaTeq. This vaccine is given by mouth in three doses, often at ages 2 months, 4 months and 6 months. The vaccine is not approved for use in older children or adults.

    ▪ Although a few cases of intussusception — a rare but life-threatening form of intestinal blockage — were reported after vaccination with RotaTeq, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that the number of cases in vaccinated children was similar to the number of cases in unvaccinated children and concluded that the vaccine didn’t increase a child’s risk of intussusception. A similar anti-rotavirus vaccine (RotaShield) was pulled from the market in 1999 because of an association with intussusception.

    ▪ If after vaccination, your child has stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea, blood in his or her stool, or a change in bowel movements, contact your doctor immediately.

    ▪ Rotarix. This vaccine is a liquid given in two doses to infants at ages 2 months and 4 months. Clinical trials of the vaccine detected no increased risk of intussusception.

    1. Profile photo of Vignesh Babu Vignesh Babu

      This is comprehensive. Thank u

[pib] Science and Technology in the Service of Society

  1. Context: A joint action plan for achieving the target of 100 billion US dollars for the Biotech sector by 2020
  2. The National Biotechnology Development Strategy-2015-2020: direct result of formal and informal consultations over the past two years
  3. The consultations offered an opportunity to discuss and evaluate technological, societal and policy aspirations
  4. Aim towards achieving: Making India ready to meet the challenge of achieving US$100bn by 2025
  5. Four Major Missions – Healthcare, Food and Nutrition, Clean Energy and Education
  6. Creating a Technology Development and Translation network across the country with global partnership
  7. Strategic and focused investment in building the Human Capital by creating a Life Sciences and Biotechnology Education Council
  8. DBT has launched major mission projects: Biopharma, Farmer Centric Agriculture, Sickle-cell Management, Marine Biology and Blue Economy, HRD and capacity building, Mission Innovation and Energy, Space Mission, TB Consortium (in partnership with ICMR) and Nutrition
  9. The Parliament passed The Regional Centre for Biotechnology Bill, 2016
  10. The Bill establishes Regional Centre for Biotechnology, an institution of education, training and research, under the auspices of UNESCO) in NCR and declares it as an institution of national importance
  11. Swasth Bharat: India is today a leading Vaccine Manufacturing Hub
  12. The Vaccine Grand Challenge Programme is under implementation to encourage novel and innovative vaccine related discoveries, accelerated development of candidate vaccines
  13. Some major achievements are:
  14. Rotavirus vaccine: (i). The first indigenously developed and manufactured Rotavirus vaccine ‘Rotavac.’from an Indian strain 116E

(ii). The indigenously developed vaccine will boost efforts to combat infant mortality due to diarrhea

(iii). ROTAVAC developed in collaboration with Bharat Biotech under the PPP mode

  1. Malaria Vaccine
  2. Dengue Vaccine
  3. Stem Cell Research: Stem cell research was identified as one of the thrust areas for developing collaborative programmes between India and Japan
  4. The focus of the collaboration is on developing treatments for sickle cell anemia, β- thalassemia and brain disorders and creating haplobank relevant to our population in collaboration with CiRA, Kyoto University, Japan
  5. Indo-Japan collaborative programme with four participating institutions from India, namely: inStem, Bangalore; NCBS, Bangalore; NIMHANS Bangalore; CSCR, CMC Vellore; & CiRA, Kyoto University, Japan as international partner
  6. Herbal drugs: Development of Herbal Drug for Dengue Infection
  7. Butea for bone health: A project at CDRI, Lucknow being developed on regulatory studies of standardized extract of Butea monosperma for bone health (osteoporosis)
  8. New technology to address anemia: An indigenous process technology and pilot scale manufacturing unit for iron fortified rice
  9. The rice is fortified through a process called extrusion in which dough made of rice flour, vitamin and mineral mix, and water
  10. Impacting Farmers Lives through Science: A New farmer-centric programme with a major impact on rural livelihood
  11. Decoding the Wheat Genome
  12. Rice variety Samba Mahsuri
  13. Clean India Mission: Commercialization of technology for clean energy from agricultural waste
  14. First indigenous technology developed for commercial production of Ethanol from lignocellulosic waste
  15. Biotech Options for River Cleaning – Biotechnology based research including demonstration project(s) on river cleaning has been taken up by DBT
  16. Some innovative major projects on improvement of conventional wastewater treatment systems
  17. Sanitation – A “Reinvent the Toilet Challenge -India” for developing proof of concept research in waste management
  18. Biotech for cleaning of Barapullah drain: Under the call the proposal “Local Treatment of Urban Sewage Streams for Healthy Reuse (LOTUS)”
  19. Aim to demonstrate a novel holistic (waste-) water management approach, that will produce clean water that can be reused for various proposes
  20. While simultaneously recovering nutrients and energy from the urban waste water, thus converting drain into profitable mines
  21. The DDA has agreed to provide experimental testing sites along the Barapullah drain where testing labs and the demonstration pilot plant will be established
  22. Under DBT, a Public Sector undertaking, Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC) set-up
  23. Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council: The biotech startup scenario in India was transformed by one of BIRAC’s flagship scheme called BIG (Biotechnology Ignition Grant)
  24. BIRAC through its bioincubation scheme (Bionest) has supported 15 bioincubation centres
  25. India is a Partner country for the Mission Innovation (MI), an effort of 23 participating countries towards accelerating global clean energy innovation
  26. Smart Grids: To enable future smart grids that are powered by affordable, reliable, decentralised renewable electricity systems
  27. Off-Grid Access to Electricity: To develop systems that enable off grid households and communities to access affordable and reliable renewable electricity
  28. Carbon Capture: To enable near-zero CO2 emissions from power plants and carbon intensive industries
  29. Sustainable Biofuels: To develop ways to produce, at scale, widely affordable, advanced biofuels for transportation and industrial applications
  30. Converting Sunlight to create storable solar fuels: To discover affordable ways to convert sunlight into storable solar fuels
  31. Clean Energy Materials: To accelerate the exploration, discovery, and use of new high-performance, low-cost clean energy materials
  32. Affordable Heating and Cooling of Buildings: To make low-carbon heating and cooling affordable for everyone

India will be among top 3 countries in S&T by 2030: Modi

  1. Source: Speech by PM Modi at the Indian Science Congress in Tirupati
  2. Views: The Govt remains committed to provide the best support to our scientists and scientific institutions
  3. Niti Aayog is also evolving a holistic science and technology vision for the country
  4. Technology Vison 2035, released in last year’s Science Congress, is now being developed into a detailed roadmap for 12 key technological sectors
  5. Waters that surround Indian peninsula and the vast coastline, provides 2.4 million sq km of exclusive economic zone
  6. Ocean economy would be a significant dimension in our sustainable future
  7. Ministry of Earth Sciences is working on launching a ‘Deep Ocean Mission’ to explore, understand and harvest these resources in a responsible way
  8. Institutions and research: Our best science and technology institutions should further strengthen their basic research in line with leading global standards
  9. Translating this basic knowledge into innovations, start-ups and industry will help us achieve inclusive and sustainable growth
  10. By 2030 India will be among top 3 countries in science and technology
  11. Science must meet the rising aspirations of our people
  12. Another empowering factor for scientific delivery is the Ease of Doing Science
  13. If we want science to deliver, we must not constrain it
  14. Growth areas: One major area that needs to be addressed is the Cyber Physical Systems, as it has the potential to pose unprecedented challenges
  15. It is a huge opportunity for training and research in Robotics, Digital Manufacturing, AI, Big Data Analysis, Quantum Communication, Deep Learning and Internet of Things
  16. Tomorrow’s experts will come from investments we make today in our people and infrastructure
  17. There is a need to develop and exploit these technologies in services and manufacturing sectors

Modi chants mantra to ‘connect’

  1. Source: Inaugural address by PM Modi at the 104th Indian Science Congress
  2. What: He underlined the need to inculcate the concept of ‘scientific social responsibility,’ akin to corporate social responsibility, to connect the leading institutions with all stakeholders, including schools and colleges
  3. Views: The idea is to create an environment for sharing of ideas and resources by providing opportunity to the brightest and best of brains in every corner of India to excel in science
  4. This will ensure that our youth get high-end training and exposure to the best of science and technology to make them job-ready in a competitive world
  5. The PM pledged his govt’s support to building a strong S&T infrastructure that is accessible to academia, start-ups, industry and R&D labs
  6. He also sought to address the problems of ease of access, maintenance, redundancy and duplication of expensive equipments
  7. To address this issue, he mooted the idea of establishing professionally-managed centres in Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode to house high-value scientific equipment
  8. Laboratories, research institutions and universities in each major city and region should be interlinked to function on a hub and spoke model
  9. The hubs will share major infrastructure, drive our national science missions and be the engines that link discovery to application
  10. He also asked institutes to consider involving NRI Ph.D. students and outstanding scientists from abroad for long-term research association
  11. Referring to the constraints involved in securing and completing research projects, he indicated the need to ensure ‘ease of doing science’ as an empowering factor for scientific delivery


Although details of govt policies are important, so is a macro level understanding. Such speeches can be useful in understanding the overall problems in a sector.


The Indian Science Congress Association is a professional body under Department of Science & Technology, Ministry of Science & Technology, Govt of India. The association started in the year 1914 in Kolkata and it meets annually in the first week of January. It has a membership of more than 30,000 scientists. Its objectives include – To advance and promote the cause of science in India, To hold an annual congress at a suitable place in India etc.

50 biotech labs to be set up in Arunachal

  1. Source: Union Minister for Science and Technology Harsh Vardhan
  2. What: A total of 50 biotechnology laboratories will be set up in Senior Secondary Schools in Arunachal Pradesh as part of a Rs. 75-crore push to encourage biotechnology research and start-ups
  3. The labs will be established as part of a Department of Biotechnology scheme, called Biotech Labs in Senior Secondary Schools (BliSS) to encourage students to consider careers in biotechnology
  4. The programme is part of a larger initiative to establish labs in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura, Nagaland, Sikkim and Manipur
  5. According to the scheme, Rs. 15 lakh will be provided per school to set up basic facilities at biotech labs and infrastructure including computers, freezers and microscopes
  6. According to him, the govt is going to ensure that there will be a biotechnology innovation hub in Arunachal Pradesh
  7. It will also promote research into traditional dyes and banana fibre extraction
  8. A State-level biotech hub will be set up in the State for conducting advanced research and for training students in related careers
  9. There would also be an intellectual property cell at the State Science and Technology council, for protecting indigenous traditional knowledge


The scheme mentioned is important for prelims.

[pib] CSIR’s Initiatives for enabling the Indian Leather Industry

  1. What’s new? Waterless chrome tanning technology is a first of its kind technology to reduce chromium pollution load
  2. Chromium is the most sought after tanning agent
  3. CSIR – CLRI’s “Waterless tanning technology” is a game changer and it reduces the use of water in tanning.
  4. CSIR-CLRI is a recognised Centre for testing of restricted substances, finished leather certification
  5. Central Leather Research Institute: Technologies for bio-processing of leather, zero waste water discharge, value added materials from leather and indigenous chemicals for processing, are some of the highlighting features of this institute

House panel for early enactment of Space Law

  1. Context: Report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee dealing with the Department of Space
  2. Early: Govt should take all necessary action for the enactment of the National Space Act at the earliest
  3. Why? As it would benefit the overall growth of activities and services in the sector
  4. Dept. of Space has also been urged to speed up its decision on an internal committee report relating to supporting start-ups in the Space sector
  5. Background: The law comes at a time the DoS is increasing its engagement with public and private sector industries
  6. It will cover licensing, authorisation, regulation and supervision of activities by other players in the sector

Dept. of Biotechnology launches fund to tackle anti-microbial resistance

  1. News: The Dept. of Biotechnology to start an India-focussed seed fund to help groups in India to compete for UK’s Longitude Prize
  2. Agency: Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council
  3. Reason: To encourage biotechnology start-ups as well as tackle the threat faced by India from resistance to antimicrobial drugs
  4. Future: The National Biotechnology Development Strategy, laid down in Dec 2015, seeks to build a $100-billion industry by 2025
  5. The strategy expects to launch 4 missions in healthcare, food and nutrition, clean energy and education

Why National Science Day is celebrated?

  1. Why? This day marks the epoch-making discovery of Raman Effect by Indian physicist Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (CV Raman) on February 28, 1928
  2. This discovery was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930
  3. Relevance: In 1986, National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC) had demanded Union Government to assign February 28 as the ‘National Science Day’ for India
  4. First National Science Day: February 28, 2000
  5. What is Raman Effect?
  • Some part of light beam after passing through a transparent medium gets scattered
  • This phenomenon of scattering of light is termed as Raman Scattering and the cause of scattering is called the Raman Effect
  • The wavelength of these scattered rays is different from that of the incident rays of light

March to mark National Science Day

  1. Context: In India February 28 is celebrated as the National Science Day i.e. Rashtriya Vigyan Diwas every year
  2. Significance: Aims to impart scientific temper in the minds of people of all age groups
  3. Theme: “Scientific Issues for Development of the Nation” that aims at raising public appreciation
  4. This day is celebrated as science festival in the entire nation by organising science exhibitions, seminars, workshops, symposiums and many other activities

Let’s know about EMBO?

  1. EMBO is an organization of more than 1700 leading researchers that promotes excellence in the life sciences.
  2. The major goals of the organization are to support talented researchers at all stages of their careers, stimulate the exchange of scientific information.
  3. The organization is based in Germany.

India Signs an Agreement for European Molecular Biology Organisation

  1. India through the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology has signed a Cooperation Agreement
  2. To acquire the status of the Associate Member State European Molecular Biology Organisation (EMBO).
  3. After Singapore, India will now become second such country outside the European region to sign this agreement.
  4. This would strengthen scientific interaction and collaborative research between India and Europe in this field.
  5. With this, researchers working in India are now eligible to participate in all EMBO programmes and activities.

Let’s know more about Department of Biotechnology ?

  1. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT), under the Ministry of Science and Technology.
  2. The Department was set up in 1986, have been crucial for the growth of Life Sciences and Biotechnology in the Country.
  3. In December 2015, the DBT launched the National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-2020 programme.
  4. The stated aim is to intensify research in the fields of vaccines, humane genome, infectious and chronic diseases, environmental management and technologies for clean energy.

Global Biotechnology Summit on “Destination India”

The Summit would help attract investors and other key partners to invest in the biotech sector in India.

  1. A 2-day Global Biotechnology Summit on “Destination India” will be held on 5th & 6th February 2016 at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi.
  2. The event would showcase India’s Biotechnology strength and capacity.
  3. It would provide an opportunity to bring together all stakeholders.
  4. To discuss opportunities, collaborations and to prepare a joint action plan for achieving the target of 100 billion US dollars for the Biotech sector by 2020.
  5. The Summit will be held as a run up to the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) celebrating its 30th Foundation Day on 26th February, 2016.
  6. It would broadly focus on the priority themes – Make in India, Nurturing Bio entrepreneurship, Skill India, and Swasth Bharat.

Let’s know about Indian Science Congress Association?

  1. Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA) is a premier scientific organisation of India with headquarters at Kolkata.
  2. ISCA was conceived with an objective of advancing, promoting and furthering the cause of science in India, thus stimulating scientific research in the country.
  3. The first meeting of the congress was held from 15–17 January 1914 at the premises of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta.

Cloud Computing Would be a Solution for BIG Data Problem : Experts

With over 2.5 quintillion bytes created every day, data storage and analysis has become a great challenge.

  1. Addressing “Big Data and Cloud Computing in Agri-Bioinformatics” in the plenary talk session of 103rd Indian Science Congress at the University of Mysore.
  2. Cloud computing is very important in BIG data analytics due to its application sharing and cost effective properties.
  3. To head towards sustainable livelihood and development, such analyses with respect to agriculture including plants and animals are crucial.
  4. Hundreds of Agricultural institutions across the country should be connected and for this CLOUD is a good option.

Introduction of Regional Centre for Biotechnology Bill, 2015

It is currently operational at the NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad.

  1. Union Cabinet has given its approval for introduction of Regional Center for Biotechnology Bill, 2015.
  2. To provide a legal status to the Regional Centre for Biotechnology, so as to function independently as an autonomous body.
  3. Also an ‘institution of national importance’ for education, training and research in the areas of biotechnology.
  4. Centre would offer training in the related areas of biotechnology including bio-drug discovery science, nano-science and medicine, designer crops, intellectual property.

ROTOVAC – Desi Rotaviral vaccine


  1. Rotovac will boost efforts to combat infant mortality due to diarrhoea.
  2. It is an oral vaccine, administered to infants at the ages of 6,10 and 14 weeks.
  3. Rotovirus affects populations in all socio-economic groups, which makes it equally prevalent in industrialized and developing countries.
  4. It is an infection of stomach and bowel and spreads by contact/airborne route.
  5. The first infection tends to be mostly severe as later body develops immunity to the virus.


What is Rotavirus infection and what do you know more about it?


Tulsi – Genome sequencing completed

  1. CSIR along with Central Institute for Medicinal & Aromatic Plants carried complete genome sequencing of tulsi, also known as ‘Holy Basil’.
  2. The complete genome sequence of a traditional plant carried out for first time.
  3. Tulsi is full of organic compounds and can cure large number of ailments.



Experts bat for space law. What is the need?

  1. With growing space programmes and objects in space orbits, such a law is needed to ensure that space assets and applications are used for the right causes.
  2. Space laws could include a regulator for compensation for harm caused by space objects, registration & licensing of private firms, insurance, investor disputes, environmental damage, IPR issues etc.



:( We are working on most probable questions. Do check back this section.

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