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[op-ed snap] A pattern of impunity: on the SC/ST Act

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | mechanisms, laws, institutions & Bodies constituted for the protection & betterment of these vulnerable sections

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989

Mains level: Subhash Kashinath Mahajan v. the State of Maharashtra case and its implications on Dalit rights


Context

Protest by Dalits

  1. Dalit and Adivasi rights organizations observed May 1 as ‘National Resistance Day’
  2. The immediate trigger was the Supreme Court order of March 20 on the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 (hereafter SC/ST Act)

Subhash Kashinath Mahajan v. the State of Maharashtra case

  1. In the name of protecting innocent non-SC persons from being victimized by false complaints under the SC/ST Act, SC laid down three guidelines that nullify key provisions of this law:
  • it removed the bar on the grant of anticipatory bail
  • it ruled that where the accused is a non-public servant, the police may make an arrest only after approval by a senior superintendent of police
  • it held that before registering an FIR, the police may conduct a preliminary inquiry to ascertain the veracity of the complaint

Reversing the original mandate of the SC/ST Act

  1. Instead of immediately registering an FIR and investigating the accused, the police would now immediately doubt the Dalit and investigate her complaint about veracity
  2. The police are required to do so by law

Way forward

  1. Existence of The SC/ST Act and the SC/ST Amendment Act is a testament to Dalit agency in a heavily casteist society, and a powerful affirmation of the community’s faith in the Indian Constitution
  2. The problem with this law is not its supposed misuse but the inability of India’s criminal justice system to recognize its own casteist biases
  3. In a society seeped in caste, no institution can claim immunity from casteist prejudices or mindset
  4. We need to acknowledge the social matrix of jurisprudence in India, which is caste

Religious freedom conditions continued downward trend in India in 2017: USCIRF

Note4students

Mains Paper 1: Social issues | Communalism

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: State of minority groups in India and issues related to them


News

Deteriorating religious conditions

  1. Religious freedom conditions continued a “downward trend” in India last year as Hindu-nationalist groups sought to “saffronize” it through violence, intimidation, and harassment of non-Hindus and Hindu Dalits
  2. This was observed by a US federal government-appointed commission

India’s position lowered

  1. The US Commission for International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) in its latest report has placed India in the Tier 2 countries of particular concern along with Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Cuba, Egypt, Indonesia, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Laos, Malaysia, and Turkey
  2. Minority groups in India face challenges ranging from acts of violence or intimidation to the loss of political power, to increasing feelings of disenfranchisement and otherness
  3. In 2017, religious freedom conditions continued a downward trend in India
  4. India’s history as a multicultural and multireligious society remained threatened by an increasingly exclusionary conception of national identity based on religion

Minorities’ commission to seek constitutional status

Image source

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Polity | Statutory, regulatory & various quasi-judicial bodies

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: National Commission for Minorities (NCM), Constitutional status, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes

Mains level: Various bodies constituted for vulnerable sections and their effectiveness


News

Asking for constitutional status 

  1. The National Commission for Minorities (NCM) has decided to approach the government for granting it Constitutional status
  2. This is being done in order to protect the rights of minority communities more effectively

Why is such demand being made?

  1. If granted such a status, the NCM will be able to act against errant officials who do not attend hearings, follow its order or are found guilty of dereliction of duty
  2. After getting constitutional status, the NCM can penalise or suspend an officer for two days or send him/her to jail
  3. In its present form, the NCM has powers to summon officials, including chief secretaries and director generals of police, but has to rely on departments concerned to take action against them

Constitutional bodies

  1. Till now, only the National Commission for Scheduled Castes and the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes enjoy constitutional status

Back2Basics

National Commission for Minorities (NCM)

  1. The Union Government set up the National Commission for Minorities (NCM) under the National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992
  2. Six religious communities, viz; Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Zoroastrians (Parsis) and Jains have been notified in Gazette of India as minority communities by the Union Government all over India
  3. The NCM adheres to the United Nations Declaration of 18 December 1992 which states that “States shall protect the existence of the National or Ethnic, Cultural, Religious and Linguistic identity of minorities within their respective territories and encourage conditions for the promotion of that identity”
  4. Constitution of India doesn’t define the word ‘Minority’ but has used the word minorities considering two attributes religion or language of a person
  5. The Commission shall consist of
  • a Chairperson,
  • a Vice-Chairperson and
  • Five Members to be nominated by the Central Government from amongst persons of eminence, ability and integrity; provided that five members including the Chairperson shall be from amongst the minority communities

[op-ed snap] Checks against atrocities

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | mechanisms, laws, institutions & Bodies constituted for the protection & betterment of these vulnerable sections

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Subhash Kashinath Mahajan v. the State of Maharashtra case, SC/ST Act, Article 17, IPC, Articles 21 and 22

Mains level: Recent SC judgment related to SC/ST Act and its ramifications


Context

Balancing penal law enforcement and civil liberties

  1. The Supreme Court, in its recent judgment in Subhash Kashinath Mahajan v. the State of Maharashtra, has stirred up a debate which is bound to impact the law and policy on the prohibition of the practice of untouchability and prevention of atrocities against SCs and STs in India
  2. The task of balancing penal law enforcement and civil liberties is best left to Parliament

SC Judgement

  1. An arrest is not mandatory under the SC/ST Act, and the automatic arrest has been scrapped
  2. The court further directed that public servants can only be arrested with the written permission of their appointing authority. This was to protect public servants and private employees from arbitrary arrest
  3. Supreme Court also ruled that before arresting a public servant under the Act, a preliminary investigation by an officer not below the rank of deputy superintendent of police

False cases & other related data

  1. NCRB data show that 5,347 false cases involving SCs and 912 false cases involving STs were registered in 2016
  2. On the contrary, there is plenty of evidence to support the view that the SCs/STs are victims of rising crime each year
  3. NCRB data show that in the past 10 years, crimes against SCs have risen by 51%
  4. Studies by the National Law School of India University and Action Aid India have shown that religious, social and other disabilities involving the practice of untouchability continue to be widespread in India
  5. Thus, there is much empirical evidence to support the stand that the Act needs to be strengthened and not weakened

Inadequate enforcement

  1. Unlike other offences, untouchability is an offence under the Constitution
  2. Article 17 prescribes that ‘the enforcement of any disability arising out of untouchability shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law’
  3. Article 17 is exalted to the position of a fundamental right
  4. However, despite the laws, it is generally accepted that Article 17 has not succeeded in achieving its mandate
    largely due to inadequate enforcement
  5. This leads to low conviction rates and a huge pendency of cases

The legislative trend for enforcement

  1. The legislative trend has been to progressively make the penal law tougher
  2. In 2016, several amendments were introduced to strengthen the 1989 Act such as:
  • including more acts as atrocities; increasing the quantum of punishment for the offences defined as atrocities
  • imposing an enhanced duty on public servants such as police officers who are required to enforce the Act
  • constituting special and exclusive courts to try offences under the Act; introducing time limits for investigation and trial

Possible solutions

  1. The ruling on anticipatory bail is to be welcomed as protecting the accused from needless arrest and humiliation on the one hand
  2. But as a victory for human rights on the other, whether ordinary police powers of registering an FIR report and making arrests in cognisable cases should be whittled down to this extent in atrocity cases is a matter of deliberation
  3. False and frivolous complaints filed under untouchability legislation could also have been dealt with by other means which include directions for prompt investigation and prosecution of such offences by the police and others under the Indian Penal Code, 1860

Way forward

  1. Legislation on untouchability and atrocities against SCs/STs arguably constitutes a radical departure from the usual approach of the criminal justice system
  2. The untouchability and atrocities laws, in its zeal to make the penal law stricter and more effective in the prosecution of offenders, cannot violate basic civil liberties as enshrined in Articles 21 and 22

Supreme Court rules NCMEI has wide powers

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Polity | Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms & institutions

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions (NCMEI), Article 30 of the Constitution

Mains level: Rights available to minority sections and measures for their implementation


News

Jurisdiction of NCMEI

  1. The Supreme Court has held that the National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions (NCMEI) has original jurisdiction to determine which institution should be granted minority status
  2. The NCMEI Act empowers the Commission to decide all questions relating to the status of an institution as a minority educational institution and to declare its status as such

Ensuring Fundamental right under Article 30

  1. The Constitution grants a fundamental right to all minorities, whether based on religion or language, to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice
  2. The wide power given to an independent forum like the NCMEI to declare an institution as a minority educational institution furthered the fundamental right guaranteed under Article 30

2006 amendments to the NCMEI Act

  1. The 2006 amendments conferred powers of appeal against orders of the competent authority to the NCMEI
  2. A power of cancellation was also vested in the NCMEI to cancel a certificate granted either by an authority or the NCMEI

Back2Basics

National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions (NCMEI)

  1. The National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions (NCMEI) was established to protect and safeguard the educational institutions which are established by the minorities in India
  2. The key objective is to ensure that the true amplitude of the educational rights enshrined in Article 30(1) of the Constitution is made available to the members of the notified religious minority communities
  3. This entails, inter alia, addressing all issues that pertain to the denial, deprivation or violation of the constitutional rights of the minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice, including all issues related to the grant of NOC, minority status certificates and affiliation to universities, wherever applicable
  4. The commission is headed by a Chairman who belongs to a minority community and has been a Judge of a High Court
  5. Two members are nominated by Central Government. They too must belong to a minority community and must be “persons of eminence, ability, and integrity”

Supreme Court refuses to stay SC/ST Act changes, says no dilution

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Complement this newscard with SC/ ST Act being abused, prior sanction must for arrest, says Supreme Court.


News

SC’s decision

  1. The SC has refused to keep in abeyance its earlier order preventing automatic arrests on complaints filed under the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989

Clarification by the SC

  1. SC said, “It is concerned about innocent people being put behind bars. Can the liberty of a person be taken away without due procedure? There has to be some form of verification”
  2. SC has also said that the court was not trying to stand in the way of the rights of members of the scheduled caste/tribes and was concentrating on protecting false implication of an innocent person

Government’s view

  1. The centre, in its petition said the order “adversely affects a substantial portion of the population of India being SC/ST members”
  2. Government said that the SC order was also “contrary to the legislative policy of the Parliament” as reflected in the SC/ST Act

[op-ed snap] Why the Centre must go for revision of judgment on SC/ST law

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | mechanisms, laws, institutions & Bodies constituted for the protection & betterment of these vulnerable sections

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: SC/ST Act, Anti Dowry law, National Crime Records Bureau

Mains level: Provisions for ensuring the protection of vulnerable sections of society


Context

Altering the basic structure of SC/ST Act

  1. The Supreme Court has delivered a historic judgment altering the basic structure of the Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989
  2. The judgment states that public servants and private employees can only be arrested after a preliminary inquiry
  3. In the case of a public servant the appointing authority must give permission in writing and in the case of the public in general, the SSP’s permission is needed

Other changes

  1. A magistrate can extend arrest only after written permission is secured
  2. Anticipatory bail must be given unless a prima facie case of crimes is made out

Judgement fraught with caste prejudice

  1. No law should be misused, neither should it be diluted or made blunt
  2. The appointing authority is hardly expected to give in writing permission to arrest his junior
  3. If the appointing authority happens to be of the same caste or if the employee concerned enjoys a good rapport with him, he may not give permission at all
  4. Political pressure may also be brought on the appointing authority or the SSP not to give permission to arrest the accused

Is only SC/ST Act being misused?

  1. Various other laws like Anti Dowry law also face the same issue
  2. 293 out of 361 dowry cases in 2015 were wrongly applied
  3. Similarly, the law against sexual harassment is believed to have led to several cases where it has been wrongly and unfairly applied

Why making changes in SC/ST Act is a cause for concern?

  1. According to National Crime Records Bureau data, atrocities on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, in the period 2007-2017, have increased by 66 percent
  2. During this decade, six Dalit women were raped every day, besides the fact that atrocities against SC/ST occurred every 15 minutes
  3. After this judgment, the Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989 will get further diluted

Judicial overreach

  1. The Constituent Assembly entrusted the Parliament to alone make laws and the judiciary to interpret them
  2. Currently, the judiciary is making more laws than Parliament

Way forward

  1. The changes brought in the law by SC has raised concerns amongst vulnerable groups
  2. The government should act in a direction that ensures protection for vulnerable sections and a deterrent for those who commit crimes against the weak sections of society

SC/ ST Act being abused, prior sanction must for arrest, says Supreme Court

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | mechanisms, laws, institutions & Bodies constituted for the protection & betterment of these vulnerable sections

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989, National Crime Records Bureau,

Mains level: Misuse of various laws made for the protection of vulnerable sections of society


News

Abuse of law for vested interests

  1. The Supreme Court noted that there were “instances of abuse” of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989, by “vested interests” for political or personal reasons
  2. SC laid down stringent safeguards, including provisions for anticipatory bail and a “preliminary enquiry” before registering a case under the Act

Guidelines of the apex court

  1. To avoid the false implication of an innocent, a preliminary inquiry may be conducted by the DSP concerned to find out whether the allegations make out a case under the Atrocities Act and that the allegations are not frivolous or motivated
  2. If the accused is a public servant, he can only be arrested with the permission of the appointing authority
  3. And if the accused is not a public servant, prior permission of the Senior Superintendent of Police of the district will be required

Why this decision?

  1. The bench referred to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data for 2015, which said that closure reports had been filed in 15-16 percent of the complaints under the Act
  2. Over 75 percent of such cases taken up by the courts had resulted in acquittals/ withdrawal or compounding of the cases
  3. There was a need to safeguard innocent citizens against false implication and unnecessary arrest for which there is no sanction under the law

SC view on secularism/casteism

  1. The working of the Act should not result in perpetuating casteism which can have an adverse impact on the integration of the society and the constitutional values
  2. Secularism is a basic feature of the Constitution
  3. Irrespective of caste or religion, the Constitution guarantees equality in its preamble as well as other provisions including Articles 14-16
  4. Interpretation of the Atrocities Act should promote constitutional values of fraternity and integration of the society

Plea to exclude SC/ST creamy layer from quota

Image source

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | mechanisms, laws, institutions & Bodies constituted for the protection & betterment of vulnerable sections

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Reservation provisions, creamy layer, Indra Sawhney case, M. Nagaraj case 2006

Mains level: Changes required in reservation system to provide intended benefits


News

Demand for creamy layer for SC/ST

  1. The Supreme Court will hear a petition to exclude the affluent members, or the creamy layer, of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes from the benefits of reservation
  2. This is the first time a petition has been filed urging the Supreme Court to introduce the creamy layer concept for the SCs/STs

Arguments given in petition

  1. The affluent among the SCs/STs are syphoning off the reservation benefits given to them by the State government as well as the Central government
  2. The benefits of the reservation policy are not percolating down to the people who are in actual need of them
  3. Around 95% members of these communities are at a disadvantage
  4. The petition argues that no class or caste remained homogeneously backward across time

Background: Indra Sawhney case

  1. The Indra Sawhney case or the Mandal case upheld the caste-based reservation for the OBCs as valid
  2. The court also said the creamy layer of the OBCs (those earning a specified income) should not get the benefits of reservation
  3. The ruling confined the exclusion of the creamy layer to the OBCs and not the SCs/STs

M. Nagaraj case 2006

  1. SC’s Constitution bench had given a judgement that the “means test” should be taken into consideration to exclude the creamy layer from the group earmarked for reservation
  2. Means test is a scrutiny of the value of assets of an individual claiming reservation

Back2Basics

Constitutional provisions for reservation

  1. Under Article 15 (3) of the Constitution, any special provision may be made for women and children belonging to all social groups transcending caste, religion etc., for their advancement and welfare in all fields
  2. Under Article 15 (4), special provisions may be made for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward class and for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes
  3. Article 16 (4) permits the state to make any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favor of any backward class, which, in the opinion of the state, is not adequately represented in the services under it
  4. The expression “backward class” in this sub-clause is interpreted by the Supreme Court to mean “socially and educationally backward”
  5. Article 46 directs the state to promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the “weaker sections of the people”, particularly of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and also directs the state “to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation”
  6. Article 335 states that the claims of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration consistently with the maintenance of efficiency of administration in the making of appointments to the services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union and of a State

Minority tag for Hindus: NCM forms committee

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 Mains Paper 2: Governance | mechanisms, laws, institutions & Bodies constituted for the protection & betterment of these vulnerable sections

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: National Commission for Minorities, Articles 25 to 30 of Constitution

Mains level: Minority status in India and various provisions related to it


News

Committee to look into whether Hindus should get minority status

  1. The National Commission for Minorities (NCM) has formed a three-member committee to look into whether Hindus should get minority status in eight states where they are not the dominant religious group
  2. A petition has been filed with NCM seeking minority status for Hindus in eight states: J&K, Lakshadweep, Mizoram, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya and Punjab

Why this move?

  1. The activist had originally filed a petition in the Supreme Court
  2. The court declined to adjudicate, saying it is not something that the court can decide on
  3. Activist then approached the Commission with his plea

What does petition say?

  1. According to 2011 Census, Hindus are a minitory in eight states
  2. Their minority rights are being siphoned off illegally and arbitrarily to the majority population
  3. This is because neither central nor state governments have notified Hindus as a ‘minority’ under Section 2(c) of National Commission for Minority Act
  4. Thus, Hindus are being deprived of their basic rights, guaranteed under Articles 25 to 30 of Constitution

Quota in promotions: Five-judge bench to decide whether 2006 order needs to be revisited

Image source

Note4Students

Mains Paper 2: Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

The following things are important from UPSC perspective:

Prelims level: Article 145

Mains level: This news card talks about whether SC will examine its 2006 judgment on the reservation of SC and ST in promotions or not. Also highlights why a re-examination of the judgment is required


News

Context

  1. A Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court will examine whether its 2006 judgment on the reservation for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in promotions needs to be revisited.
  2. The matter was referred to the Constitution Bench by a three-judge bench.

What’s the matter?

  1. The Constitution Bench has to decide on the limited issue whether the order in M Nagaraj vs the Union of India needs to be looked at afresh.
  2. The Constitution Bench will not go into the merit of the matter.

The 2006 Judgment

  1. In 2006, a five-judge Constitution Bench had ruled that the state was not bound to provide reservation for SCs/STs in promotions.
  2. But in case any state wished to make such a provision, it was required to collect quantifiable data showing backwardness of the class as well as its inadequate representation in public employment.
  3. Additionally, the state was required to ensure that reservation does not breach the 50 percent ceiling, adversely affect the creamy layer or extend it indefinitely.

The 2015 Petition on which the SC has acted

  1. Acting on a 2015 petition filed by the Tripura government which challenged an order of the Tripura High Court, a two-judge bench referred the matter to a Constitution Bench under Article 145(3).
  2. A petition before the High Court had challenged certain provisions of The Tripura Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Reservation of vacancies in services and posts) Act, 1991, saying that under these provisions, the state had granted reservation in violation of rules laid down in M Nagaraj vs Union of India case.

Views of CJI

  1. The CJI is examining the issue whether a two-judge judge bench directly refers a matter to Constitution Bench
  2. According to him a Constitution Bench will first decode if the matter needs to be reconsidered at all

Maharashtra introduces Bill against caste panchayat

  1. News: Maharashtra govt presented the much-awaited bill against caste panchayats in the State
  2. Reason: In recent times, Maharashtra has witnessed an increasing number of incidents of social boycott and violence at the orders of caste panchayats
  3. Provisions: It prohibits social boycott of a person or group of persons including their family members
  4. Significance: Maharashtra will be the first State in the country to enact a law against social boycott of individuals or families by caste panchayats
  5. Maharashtra also took lead in formulating anti superstition law

Genetics throws light on genesis of caste system

  1. Religious diktat enforced more than a millennium ago can have repercussions in genetic make-up of modern-day Indians.
  2. It has found that the country’s billion inhabitants have a far more complex origin than previously imagined.
  3. However, in the complexities of genes lie the secret of one of the country’s most persistent practices: the caste system.
  4. During Gupta period, the social strictures against marriage between caste were enforced.
  5. The block lengths of ancestral genes pointed to the era when mixing of castes ended.
  6. This is the result of a study of numerous communities undertaken by researchers from the National Institute of BioMedical Genomics in WB.

Dalit activism is now a reality across campuses in India

Indian campuses are witnessing unusual caste flare-ups, highlighted by the suicide of Dalit scholar Rohith Vemula in Hyderabad.

  1. The Hindu examines how caste fault lines are muddying higher education.
  2. The government’s ill-crafted budget cuts and erratic decision-making are adding to the grievances of a generation.
  3. Dalit student politics is making its presence felt in many Indian universities.
  4. With the alleged suicide of a Dalit student at the University of Hyderabad, this movement is suddenly in the news.
  5. Reservations and discrimination are major issues for organisations.

Rohith Vemula could not do research as he was embroiled in probes

The final blow was delivered by Human Resource Development Ministry’s letters and reminders to the university.

  1. The research scholar who committed suicide on the University of Hyderabad (UoH) campus, was known as a bright doctoral student who had secured a CSIR-Junior Research Fellowship (JRF).
  2. The day, January 17, that he hanged himself using ASA’s banner, he was on the 14th day of a sleep-in strike against the authorities.
  3. Following his expulsion from the hostel after a series of incidents and probes which took place on campus dating back to June 2015.
  4. Mr. Vemula could neither pursue his research nor political activism because he had been tied down by 3 ongoing investigations.
  5. With Labour Minister Bandaru Dattatreya referring to the “assault” case on ABVP leader and “anti-national, casteist and extremist” activities on the campus, the matter had already taken a political turn.

Research scholar hangs self after expulsion from Central University

Rohith Vemula hanged himself 12 days after he was expelled from his hostel along with four other researchers.

  1. A Dalit research scholar of the University of Hyderabad (UoH), allegedly hanged himself to death 15 days after he was expelled from his hostel along with four other researchers.
  2. The 5 Dalit students of Ambedkar Students Association (ASA) had been on a sleep-in strike in the open on the campus ever since their expulsion.
  3. In the 5-page suicide note recovered from the room Rohith had mentioned how he always “looked at the stars and dreamt of being a writer” and an established academic.
  4. As per the university orders, 5 students, including Vemula, were denied entry into the hostel and permission to gather together.
  5. Following a scuffle between two students organisations — ABVP and ASA.

Questions (attempt in the comments section)

1

Critically analyse the effect of social media on functions and performance of government, governance and institutions in India.







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