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Off-label use of IPV vaccine to tide over shortage

  1. Context: India and a few other countries are stretching the supply of the vaccine to cover all children
  2. Reason: Shortage of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) globally
  3. Fractional dose: Children in Puducherry and seven States will get two fractional doses administered intradermally
  4. Problem: The vaccine has been licensed by the manufacturers only for intramuscular use and not for intradermal administration
  5. However, The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has permitted the use of the vaccine intradermally
  6. Why? As only one-fifth of the vaccine will be required to vaccinate a child as compared to intramuscular
  7. Background: The IPV vaccine was introduced into the routine immunisation programme in India from November 30, 2015

Polio vaccine switching

  1. Switch: tOPV (trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine) for immunisation will be completely replaced by bOPV (bivalent OPV)
  2. tOPV is effective against type 1, 2, 3 of polio virus while bOPV is effective against type 1 and 3 virus
  3. tOPV is being completely removed from the cold chain and disposed of as per national guidelines
  4. April 25 is the National Switch Day to make the shift of vaccine
  5. Part of the Global Polio Endgame Strategic Plan

Let’s know about Poliovirus (Poliomyelitis) ?

  1. Poliomyelitis is an acute communicable disease, which mainly affects young children below age of 5.
  2. The virus is transmitted from person-to-person and mainly spreads through faecal-oral route (e.g. contaminated water or food).
  3. After entering body, it multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis.
  4. There is no cure for polio virus, it can be prevented by immunization.

Union Government launches IPV injection as part of global polio endgame strategy

The launching of IPV would enable children to get double protection from polio i.e. orally and in the form of injection.

  1. It was launched as part of India’s next step in Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) to fight against polio virus in country.
  2. UIP initially will cover six states including Uttar Pradesh , Madhya Pradesh , Bihar, Assam, Punjab and Gujarat in first phase.
  3. By April 2016, Union Government would switch to IPV alongside the oral polio vaccine (OPV) to eradicate polio virus.
  4. As part of India’s efforts to boost its polio immunization programme babies getting their third dose of OPV now would be administered an injection with IPV.

India was certified polio-free country on 27 March 2014, but the immunization programme continues since two of its neighbours Afghanistan and Pakistan still remain polio-endemic countries.

PIB

India to introduce injectable polio vaccine from November

  1. India is all set to introduce injectable polio vaccine (IPV) in its universal immunisation programme (UIP) in a phased manner from November.
  2. This will be over and above the oral vaccine.
  3. From April, 2016 the trivalent polio vaccine that is currently administered will be replaced by the bivalent variety to reduce incidence of vaccine-derived polio virus.
  4. India eliminated wild polio virus infection in January last year.
  5. In the first phase of IPV introduction, 17 high-risk states and four Union Territories will be covered.

Indian firm to produce injectible polio vaccine

  1. WHO expected to transfer manufacturing technology of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) to Indian Immunologicals.
  2. The OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine), which is cheap and easily administered, uses live but weakened forms of the poliovirus.
  3. However, live vaccine viruses can occasionally revert to virulence.
  4. With IPV, however, there are no such risks because the virus is deactivated.


:( We are working on most probable questions. Do check back this section.







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