India looks at drones to power its armed forces

  1. India is investing heavily in developing unmanned vehicles — ground, sea and air
  2. India is gearing up for a fast-approaching era of soldier-less battlefields despite the current void in policies governing how they will be used
  3. Government-run labs of the DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organisation) and National Aeronautics Ltd, along with state-owned defence manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd, are working on several drone projects, right from vehicles that weigh under a kg to Rustom II, which will have a payload capacity of 350 kg
  4. The DRDO is putting together a policy document for the year 2020 as well as a more advanced one for 2025, which has laid emphasis on building the country’s drone capabilities
  5. But being a nascent technology, it is also looking at the country’s premier research institutes for talent and new technology
  6. The DRDO is also working on a series of unmanned vehicles including unmanned combat aircraft, or UCAV, which will be powered by the homegrown Kaveri engine
  7. Similarly, HAL, which is a risk-sharing partner in the development of Rustom II along with the DRDO, is working with the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, for the development of a 10-kg mini-rotary drone


Important for prelims. Can also be pointer in security issues question.

Govt. junks border wall plan

  1. News: The Centre has given up its proposal to build a wall along the Pakistan border in Jammu, originally envisaged as a barrier to cross-border terror
  2. The government would instead depend on ‘technological solutions’ such as a ‘smart fence’, a seamless virtual fence with sensors to identify any infiltration
  3. The Home Ministry is now working on a Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) for 24X7 surveillance
  4. Background: The raised embankment, initiated by the UPA government in 2013 after the twin attacks in the Hiranagar/ Samba sector, was to come up along 179 km of the International Border in Jammu
  5. The wall proposal was opposed by Pakistan, which shot off letters to the United Nations Security Council in 2015 accusing India of converting what it called a “working boundary” into a “quasi international boundary”
  6. The Army too opposed the embankment, saying it would pose hurdles for their forward movement during military operations
  7. Unlike the Line of Control, the IB is densely populated and has fertile agrarian land. Not many people were willing to let go of their land. Hardly 25% of the land could be acquired


Important for prelims. Also know the difference between LoC, IB. CIBMS is also important for prelims.


International Border:

  1. It is a border which separates India and Pakistan territory according to Boundary Commission led by Britisher Cyril Radcliffe
  2. It separates Gujarat and Rajasthan from Sindh Province of Pakistan, East Pakistan of India from West Pakistan of Pakistan (Wagha Line), and Jammu and Kashmir from Khyber Pakthkhuwa, formely North West Frontier Region (NWFP)
  3. Its starts from Pillar No. 1175 in Rann of Kutch in Gujarat, India and ends at Akhnoor Region, Jammu and Kashmir
  4. This is known as International Border (IB), Radcliffe Line, Working Boundary (in Pakistan)

Line of Control (LOC):

  1. When Pakistani Army intruded Princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in October 1947, it led to First Kashmir War (1947-49)
  2. Due to UN intervention, ceasefire (de facto) was demarcated between Indian and Pakistani Military in Jammu and Kashmir, which resulted in ending the war
  3. This line divides the Princely States of Jammu and Kashmir into- Jammu, Kashmir Valley, Ladakh (Indian Controlled) & Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan Occupied Kashmir)
  4. This line, after the Shimla Agreement(1972) between Indian PM Ms. Indira Gandhi and her Pakistani counterpart Zulfiar Ali Bhutto, came to be known as Line of Control (LOC)
  5. LOC runs from Akhnoor Region of Jammu Valley to Point NJ9842
  6. This border is one of most dangerous border in the world

Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS):

  1. In the aftermath of Pathankot attack, the government had okayed a plan to stop infiltration on 2900 kilometres western border with Pakistan under the name Comprehensive Integrated Border
    Management System (CIBMS)
  2. Any person trying to enter India from Gujarat to J&K can be tracked by multiple technologies including round-the-clock surveillance through sophisticated technology- Thermal image and
    night vision devices, battlefield surveillance radar, underground monitoring sensors etc.
  3. All unfenced 130 riverine sections on 2900 kilometer border will be covered using laser Batteries
  4. Important component of the CIBMS is the use of which would help the security forces to find out details of the terrain and fortifications across the border
  5. It would also help in planning operations and for infrastructure development
  6. The cost of this project is slated to be Rs. 1 crore per kilometer
  7. There are two pilot projects already running in Jammu and Punjab
  8. The entire border will be covered with hi-tech systems in two years and 50-60 private companies are expected to take up these projects
  9. A control room will be set up after every 5 6 kilometres
  10. Wherever any activity will be noticed, BSF men will be alerted
  11. Current status: The forces are already using CCTV cameras, night thermal imagers and sensors in sensitive areas. But the technology used is not superior
  12. More than 1.5 Lakh flood lights have been installed on 50000 polls by government on border to track the movement along borders using binoculars
  13. Satellites: India’s Border Security Force (BSF) is a regular user of satellite imagery
  14. However, an issue with satellite imagery is that it may not provide real time information about a location, keeping in view the time taken by a satellite to orbit around the earth
  15. Therefore, there are plans to employ Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) also

NBDC annual report: Maoist-hit areas saw 21% rise in IED blasts in 2016

  1. Source: Data collated by the National Bomb Data Centre (NBDC) of the National Security Guard
  2. Although the government has cited surrenders by Maoist cadres to claim huge successes in areas affected by Left Wing Extremism (LWE), such areas saw a 21 per cent increase in bomb blast incidents in 2016 as compared to 2015
  3. Casualties in such incidents went up by almost 60 per cent
  4. In fact, 65 per cent of all IED blast casualties occurred in LWE-affected areas
  5. The situation in such areas has remained as bad as ever as far as targeting of security forces and civilians through IED blasts are concerned


LWE is an implicit topic in GS-3.

IEDs kill more commoners than VIPs: NSG

  1. Source: A detailed data analysis carried out by the National Security Guard, a counter-terror and counter-hijack force
  2. It is the unarmed civilians who often fall victim to IED (improvised explosive device) blasts set off by terrorists across India. The VIPs are the least targeted
  3. The States affected by Left-wing extremism contributed the most number of IED blasts at 159, followed by the north-eastern States at 59 and Jammu and Kashmir at 31
  4. In 2016, the most preferred targets of Maoists, insurgents and terrorists were public and security forces
  5. Overall, there was an increase in incidents when specifically security forces were the target
  6. Jammu and Kashmir saw an increase in number of blasts after the Hizbul Mujahideen militant Burhan Wani was killed in an encounter with the security forces


A direct question may not be possible but need to be aware for security topics.

[pib] 17th International Seminar on “Counter-IED strategy”

  1. The two-day 17th International Seminar on “Counter- Improvised Explosive Device (IED) strategy”, organized by the National Security Guard (NSG)
  2. The theme of the seminar was “synergizing the National and International special forces to meet challenges of terrorism and IED”
  3. ACT Expo: 2017 was also organized at NSG Campus Manesar to enable the industries to showcase their latest equipment in the field of counter terrorism
  4. Besides, demonstrations on IED, simulation of IED blasts and futuristic IEDs were also organized


Prelims worthy information. Know about the host, theme etc.


Indo-Bangla border fencing: Supreme Court anguished over Centre’s ‘vague affidavit’

  1. Supreme Court expressed its “regret” and serious “dissatisfaction” over the “vague” affidavit filed by the Centre that actual construction work of the 263-km fencing along Indo-Bangladesh border will take three years and go beyond the year 2020


Keep track of the developments at various borders for internal security issues.

[op-ed snap] Bastar: Hoping for peace and justice


  1. The Adivasi-populated districts of Bastar in the heart of India have been stained with blood over the last decade
  2. Reeling under the violence of an undeclared civil war, Adivasis have been killed in record numbers on the pretext of being police informers or Naxalite stooges, and have been subjected to physical and sexual assaults, rapes and arson on an unprecedented scale
  3. Unless the rest of the country shakes itself out of its utter indifference to Adivasi lives, this trend of terror and violence will continue unabated for the next 10 years too

Condition of Adivasis:

  1. The complete absence of state welfare programmes in Bastar
  2. The utter disregard for constitutional rights has meant that Adivasi populations remain mired in high illiteracy levels
  3. Appallingly poor conditions of nutrition and healthcare, and high levels of abject poverty
  4. Adivasi children are forced to choose between living in their traditional village, and getting an education in a faraway residential school

Case Study: Bastar:

  1. Bastar stands out as one of the most militarized regions in India, at times even surpassing Kashmir in the number of police and paramilitary troops per capita
  2. The countryside in Bastar is dotted with camps placed every few kilometres, looming ominously behind coiled loops of barbed wires
  3. Armed troops of men, in numbers ranging upwards of a few hundred, emerge at routine intervals from these camps and visit the neighbouring villages in what are called “area domination exercises”
  4. For many villagers—with no schools, anganwadis, public health centres or ration shops close to their village, no visits by the collector, the sub-divisional magistrate, MLAs or MPs—this is the only face of the Indian state they ever see
  5. It is during such search and patrol missions that domination sometimes seamlessly turns to pillage and plunder, even rape and murder
  6. It is our acceptance of these levels of militarization, of this mode of governance by domination, of the shield of impunity that protects the people in uniform, which is most disquieting

Current global trends:

  1. The current outlook is far from encouraging. In a trend that is sweeping the globe, nations are electing authoritarian, populist figures, espousing the supremacy of dominant ethnicities
  2. The shrill pitch of nationalism and single-minded devotion to economic growth are drowning out the softer voices for diversity and inclusion
  3. These times do not bode well for the Adivasis, who comprise a mere 8% of the total population and are hidden away in villages and forests for the most part—and have no electoral significance or financial prowess to speak of

National Human Rights Commission:

  1. The recent order by the NHRC has held the government of Chhattisgarh vicariously liable for the widespread sexual and physical violence committed by security forces in the villages
  2. A CBI probe into the 2011 arson in a village and the attack on a relief convoy, leading to the indictment of special police officers and members of the now disbanded Salwa Judum, is also a remarkable breakthrough


Mark Bastar on the Map of India. The points can be reiterated in a Mains Answer.

Despite promises, govt. dawdles on allowances to Central forces

  1. Demand: For over a decade now, the Central police forces deployed in areas affected by Left Wing Extremism have been demanding a special allowance, considering the high-risk duties they perform in these areas
  2. Unmet: The demand is yet to be fulfilled despite announcements made by Union Home Minister
  3. Recommendations: The Seventh Pay Commission, in its report submitted in 2015, recommended a risk and hardship matrix for all CAPFs, across nine categories, based on low, medium and high risk involved in the job
  4. The government had constituted a committee to look into the issue, which is yet to come to any conclusion


Various security forces and their mandate is a part of mains syllabus. Keep abreast of such issues.

BSF issues guidelines for maintaining high quality food

  1. News: The BSF has come out with fresh guidelines for maintaining high quality of food for its personnel along the border
  2. Context: The Union Home Ministry had directed it to file a complete report on allegations of substandard food made by a soldier posted along the LoC
  3. Measures: Chalking out shortcomings of the present process, suggesting procedural and systematic improvements, vigilance for double checks, enhancing formal and informal interactions with jawans and introduction of systemic innovations to ensure cashless transactions in all messes, are few of the steps


Be abreast with the happenings. Various security forces is a part of mains syllabus.

‘160% rise in killings of Naxals in 2016’

  1. What: The Home Ministry flagged the operational efficiency of security forces in the Maoist-affected areas as one of its biggest achievements
  2. When: During a presentation before PM Modi
  3. PM Modi has been conducting review meetings of 10 groups of secretaries as the NDA govt completed two-and-a-half years in office
  4. Progress: The Ministry informed PM Modi that since the NDA govt came to power in May 2014, there had been a 45% increase in the efficiency of Central forces in operations against the Maoists
  5. The number of Naxal cadres killed in 2016 had been the highest ever in six years
  6. 84 Maoist cadres were killed in 2015 and in 2016, the number swelled to 218, which was an increase of 160%
  7. There was also an increase in the number of police encounters, from 237 in 2015 to 316 in 2016
  8. Measures taken: Home Minister Rajnath Singh said earlier this week that demonetisation had increased the problems of Maoists and that they had weakened
  9. After the NDA govt came to power, the Home Ministry sent an additional 14 battalions of Central police forces to the Maoist-affected districts
  10. In all, 104 battalions (each battalion has approximately 1,000 men) of Central forces are currently deployed in the affected areas, besides a large number of State police personnel
  11. The Expenditure Finance Committee (EFC) has already given the go-ahead for an ambitious road project in the 44 worst-affected districts
  12. Under this project, the govt proposes to construct 5,412 km of roads and 126 bridges and it would cost ₹11,725 crore
  13. The govt is redrawing the ‘Red Corridor’ — the area affected by Left Wing Extremism (LWE) — and may soon take off 20 districts from the list of Maoist-affected areas
  14. The 106 districts which span 10 States — Bihar, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Telangana, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh — constitute the Red Corridor
  15. Of these, 44 districts are said to be the worst affected. India has a total of 683 districts


It is not necessary to remember the exact number of Naxals killed. However measures taken and terms such as Red Corridor should be known. If you want to learn more about internal security issues, click here. The road connectivity project has been previously covered here.

Faint but unmistakable echoes of IS

  1. What: By the end of this year, 50 young men had been arrested by various investigating agencies for their alleged links to the Syria-Iraq-based terrorist outfit, the Islamic State (IS)
  2. The Intelligence Bureau (IB) informed that there had been more than a 100% jump in the number of people under watch in India for their links and leaning towards the IS
  3. Investigators insist the number of Indians leaning towards the terrorist group is miniscule in proportion to the Muslim population
  4. And also much less when compared with countries such as France, the U.K, Russia and even China
  5. The Home Ministry has already prepared a blueprint and a national social media policy to counter cyberthreats in relation to the terror outfit
  6. The interrogation of the arrested men by NIA has revealed that they were asked to target not only Hindu political leaders, govt officials, RSS workers but Shia Muslims as well

CCEA approves road project for Maoist areas

  1. What: The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved a ₹11,700-crore project to improve rural road connectivity in the worst-affected left-wing extremism (LWE) districts
  2. The scheme, named Road Connectivity Project for LWE Affected Areas, will be implemented under the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) in 44 districts
  3. The Centre will fund 60% of the road project and the rest will come from States
  4. However, in the north-east, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, the Centre will provide 90% funding


To learn more about PMGSY, click here.

[op-ed snap] Chronicle of a conflict foretold

  1. Context: Violence over blockade in Manipur
  2. Immediate cause for the heightened ethnic tension- indefinite blockade along Manipur’s two major lifelines, the Imphal-Dimapur road and the Imphal-Silchar road, imposed by the United Naga Council (UNC)
  3. Manipur government on its part had extended invitations to the UNS for talks on several occasions
  4. The Central government too has woken up to the reality and has finally decided to send 4,000 paramilitary troops to open the highways in case the blockade remains
  5. Single overwhelming reason for the current crisis is the primeval notion of an exclusive ethnic homeland in Manipur
  6. The belief is that such homelands are a given and have existed since time immemorial
  7. Communities who claim to be natural heirs and custodians of these homelands think of others as aliens
  8. Those excluded as all traditional ethnic communities, have their own notions of homeland
  9. UNC was demanding an assurance from Manipur government that what they deem as their ancient homeland or Nagalim
  10. National Socialist Council of Nagalim (Isak-Muivah) — will not be divided into districts without their consent
  11. They did not want the Kuki-dominated Sadar Hills given this status, as they consider Kukis as migrants who settled in their land and who can only be their tenants
  12. Manipur government decided to create not just these two districts but five more by splitting seven existing districts, thereby stiffening the UNC’s blockade
  13. Future course of action: conflict resolution in such a scenario cannot be a bilateral matter between the Central government and any single party
  14. Second, everyone will have to agree to a shared homeland
  15. The lack of courage and imagination on the part of the civil society as well as governments to address this question is what keeps places like Manipur perpetually on the edge


The op-ed is a very comprehensive study of the situation in Manipur. The b2b trace down the origin and history of the way Manipur and Assam are being governed.


  1. Treaty of Yandaboo, 1826 concluded the Burmese occupation of Assam and Manipur
  2. The British annexed Assam and made it a province of Bengal, but left Manipur as a protectorate state
  3. British then realised the need to demarcate revenue from non-revenue lands in Assam and came up with the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation in 1873
  4. According to this an Inner Line was drawn roughly at the base of the hills surrounding the revenue-earning fertile Assam valleys
  5. The non-revenue hills beyond were left unadministered, except for occasional punitive expeditions to punish tribes who raided the plains in the lean seasons
  6. This segregation of the hills from the plains continued till the time of Indian independence
  7. In the Government of India Act, 1919, the hills beyond the Inner Line were termed as Backward Tracts and continued to be left unadministered
  8. In the Government of India Act, 1935, these Backward Tracts were redesignated and clubbed into two categories: excluded areas and partially excluded areas
  9. The excluded areas were to remain unrepresented in the provincial assembly and governed directly by the Governor of the province
  10. The partially excluded areas were to have some representations in the provincial government through representatives appointed by the Governor
  11. Although the British did not draw an Inner Line in Manipur, they brought in the tried and tested non-revenue space management norms from Assam
  12. They left the fertile and intensely cultivated revenue lands of the Imphal valley to be administered under modern revenue norms
  13. Sparsely populated non-revenue hills were generally left unadministered, but under the charge of the British Political Agent in the then kingdom
  14. Today, the Imphal valley is under the modern revenue administration as defined by the Manipur Land Revenue and Land Reforms Act, introduced while it was still a Union Territory in 1962
  15. But not the hills, where customary laws continue to shape administrative norms
  16. In the valley, the state is deemed to own all lands, and individual owners lease their small possessions and pay taxes in return. However, this principle of eminent domain is disputed in the hills.

End blockade soon, Centre tells Manipur

  1. The Centre reviewed the situation in Manipur in the wake of the economic blockade imposed by the United Naga Council (UNC) over the decision to create seven new districts
  2. Minister of State for Home Affairs Kiren Rijiju asked the State government to end the crisis
  3. He said both the Central and Manipur governments would work together to end it
  4. He also said 150 companies of Central forces had already been deployed in the State and another seven companies were being sent
  5. Meanwhile, 500 trucks and tankers left from Imphal for Assam under CRPF escort with fuel and essential items. State forces were replaced by the CRPF for the first time
  6. The blockade on National Highway 2 by UNC has been on since November 1


It is a good practise to be aware of events in all parts of the country, even if you believe that no question can be made out of the news!

[op-ed snap] Ending the Manipur blockade

  1. Background: Blockade of the national highways leading to Manipur valley, called by the United Naga Council (UNC)
  2. Effect: on life in the State, with shortages and escalating costs of essential supplies such as fuel and food, with demonetisation exacerbating problems
  3. Why: A gazette notification for the creation of seven new districts by bifurcating seven (of a total of nine) districts
  4. UNC has protested, alleging that areas with a Naga population have been divided
  5. Lack of consultation is a violation of commitments made by both the Centre and the State in various memoranda of understanding
  6. Reason for bifurcation: Long-pending demands — in particular, for a new Kuki-majority district to be carved out of the larger Senapati hill district
  7. Easing administrative access to far-flung areas from the district headquarters
  8. What should be done: There should be a dialogue that involves all major stakeholders— the State government, groups that support redistricting, the UNC and the Centre


A major decision of bifurcating the districts. An important event in the history of the North-east State.

Maoists to observe their military wing’s formation week from Friday

  1. What: The outlawed Communist Party of India (Maoist) will observe the 16th anniversary of the formation of its military wing the People’s Liberation Guerrilla Army (PLGA) from December 2 to December 8 in the Dandakaranya region (which includes Bastar region of Chhattisgarh and Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra).
  2. Banners and posters were posted in various parts of Bastar by the outlaws on Wednesday and Thursday which asked the people to celebrate the 16th anniversary of the PLGA with “full enthusiasm and fanfare” in every village and town.
  3. The banners and posters put up by the CPI (Maoist) urge the villagers to defeat the Operation Green Hunt and to boycott the proposed Bastaria battalion in the region.


  1. The Ministry of Home Affairs recently approved a proposal to form a ‘special battalion’ called ‘Bastaria battalion’ in Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) comprising of only tribal men and women to fortify the fight against Maoists in Chhattisgarh.
  2. This move is expected to combat the Maoist problem more effectively and also enhance employment in the state.
  3. Operation Green Hunt was the name used by the Indian media to describe the “all-out offensive” by GOI’s paramilitary forces and the States’ forces against the Naxalites.
  4. The operation is believed to have begun in November 2009 along five states in the ‘Red Corridor’.


Take note of the B2b portion. Important for Prelims and Mains.


Only 0.05% of money in circulation utilised in Terror Funding, says govt report

  1. Source: Govt report compiled with inputs from Intelligence Bureau (IB) on impact of demonetization
  2. Finding: It says only 0.05% of currency in circulation pegged at Rs 700-800 crores is utilised every year for terror funding
  3. But with scrapping of Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 notes, the funding of extremist groups have taken a major hit
  4. The report further says north east insurgent groups raise funds for subversive activities to the tune of Rs 350-400 crores every year
  5. They are followed by left wing extremist (LWE) groups who were pegged at 300-350 crores annually
  6. Separatists groups from Kashmir only channelize Rs 20-30 crores every year while other jehadi and Islamic fundamentalist groups were generating Rs 5-10 crores every year

[op-ed snap] Beginning of the end of Naxalite movement in the country

  1. Context: CPI (M) lost around 30 of its cadres in a covert operation
  2. Jointly organised by the Greyhounds of Andhra Pradesh and the Special Operations Group of Odisha
  3. Initial stages: The movement had strong ideological moorings but over the years it became more brutal and sanguinary
  4. Spread of Maoism: In West Bengal economic and developmental measures appear to have weakened the Maoist stranglehold
  5. But in other parts of India there are few signs that the movement is in retreat
  6. In Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, there is growing concern at the manner in which the movement seems to have resurfaced
  7. Ideology of the Naxals: Major strides between Maoists and forces have undoubtedly been made over the years to improve the condition of the ‘poorest of the poor’ and the ‘wretched of the Earth’
  8. The gap still remains wide, enabling movements such as those of the Maoists to exploit the situation
  9. Till the turn of the century, the movement retained at least some of its original ideological underpinnings and intellectual effervescence
  10. Change in working of the Maoists: Today, it has become a highly rigid and militaristic movement, more intent on terrorising segments of population than on supporting people’s causes
  11. It maintains its own small arms factories where it fashions much of its weaponry
  12. It has a well-established arms trail to obtain state-of-the-art weapons from sources outside the country
  13. It is extremely adept in the use of IEDs, and in resorting to unconventional methods to deploy them
  14. At its inception, it had proper credentials to be listed as a true Marxist-Leninist movement. Today the story has changed

NIA probe reveals procedural lapses

  1. Context: The terror attack on a highly guarded Army camp in Uri in Kashmir
  2. The perimeter of the highly sensitive Brigade Headquarters of the Army is not properly fenced in several places
  3. The probe also pointed towards the failure of two manned guard posts, located barely 150 feet from each other, to detect the intrusion inside the base by the terrorists
  4. It could have been due to lack of coordination between the two guard posts
  5. There is possibility of the four terrorists involved in the attack having sneaked in from PoK through Haji Peer Pass & stayed put at Sukhdar village
  6. This village is at a vantage point allowing an unhindered view of the layout of the Army base and the movement of personnel inside it
  7. The growth of wild grass and bushes around the perimeter of the brigade is seen as one of the factors that could have facilitated undetected movement of the terrorists close to the fencing, which was cut by the ultras to sneak inside the base
  8. No SOP done: Standard security procedures provide for mowing any tall grass and cutting of bushes around vital security installations, but it was not followed around the target site

Publish FIRs online within 24 hours: SC- II

  1. SC, however, exempted from publication FIRs in certain cases- insurgency, child abuse, sexual offences and terrorism
  2. Why? Issues of privacy and national interest
  3. In case of complaint against such non-publication of FIRs, the Superintendent of Police in rural areas and Police Commissioner in metros, will form a committee of three officers, which will decide on the complaint in three weeks
  4. In areas where Internet access is limited, the Bench extended the deadline for publishing the FIR on websites to 48 hours, which can still further be stretched to a maximum of 72 hours
  5. Accused persons cannot take advantage of delay in uploading of FIRs and seek anticipatory bail on that ground

Publish FIRs online within 24 hours: SC- I

  1. What? Supreme Court ordered States and Union Territories to upload, on police or government websites, First Information Reports (FIRs) within 24 hours of their registration in police stations
  2. Significance: Upholding the right of an accused to information to usher in transparency in police work
  3. Also, putting a check on the authority of the police to deprive a person of his liberty
  4. SC: An accused has every right to know what he was accused of
  5. Context: The court order came on a writ petition by the Youth Bar Association of India earlier this year seeking such a direction to the Union government, States and Uts
  6. Background: The Delhi HC in its judgment on December 6, 2010, had upheld the right of the accused to get copies of FIRs even before the local Magistrate ordered the police to do so under Section 207 of the Code of Criminal Procedure

Maharashtra under pressure, to tweak draft of internal security Act

  1. News: The Maharashtra Govt has decided to tweak the newly-drafted Maharashtra Protection of Internal Security Act following public outcry over its contentious clauses
  2. Three changes:
  • reduction in punishment from the current three years to half,
  • increase in restrictions on public assembly to 2,500 from the proposed 100,
  • including a clause defining that the draft of the Act will not be applicable on private functions such as marriages and parties

Let’s know about NCRB?

  1. National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analysing crime data.
  2. NCRB is headquartered in New Delhi and is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), since 1986.
  3. Aims to create, maintain and disseminate a secure national database on crime and criminals for law enforcement agencies and promote its use for improving public service delivery.

327% rise in agrarian riots in 2015, NCRB report shows- II

  1. Contradicting data: The decrease in communal riots recorded by NCRB does not mesh with data released by the Ministry of Home Affairs in July 2016
  2. Ministry data showed a slight increase from 644 incidents in 2014 to 751 in 2015
  3. NCRB data are based on FIRs, and there could be duplication in the number of cases registered
  4. MHA data source is mostly concerned with the number of incidents alone

327% rise in agrarian riots in 2015, NCRB report shows- I

  1. Source: Crime in India, 2015 report released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)
  2. Number: Incidents of rioting remained almost the same in 2015 as compared to 2014
  3. Nature: But as communal riots decreased, big increases were seen in other categories- agrarian, sectarian and student riots and caste conflicts
  4. Kerala: Topped the state list in rate of crimes- 16.3 per lakh population
  5. UP: Most student and sectarian riots occured

Fact check on Siachen deployment

  1. The Army plans its movement on the glacier on the basis of the daily weather bulletins issued by the Chandigarh-based Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE)
  2. It is an institute under the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO)
  3. But, the SASE is not equipped to monitor loose ice and it is causing new uncertainties
  4. India has been holding the dominating heights on Siachen glacier since it occupied them in 1984 under Operation Meghdoot
  5. More soldiers have died due to weather related factors than enemy fire

Climate change forces Army to rethink Siachen deployment procedures

  1. News: The Army is looking at the location of several vulnerable posts & wherever necessary it is shifting them
  2. Background: In February last year, an ice wall collapsed on Sonam post at 21,000 feet on the northern Siachen glacier, burying 10 soldiers of the 19 Madras regiment
  3. This was only the latest in a growing number of avalanches on the world’s highest battlefield that has forced the Army to review its deployment pattern there
  4. Reason: Climate change has accelerated the rate of snowmelt, which in turn is causing a rise in the rate of avalanches on the glacier, which are occurring frequently at new places
  5. There have been avalanches in areas where there were none in the last 30 years
  6. Due to rising temperature there is increased snowfall, which however, does not harden, leading to a rise in frequency of avalanches and opening up of crevices

Army and technology

  1. More than a year after a new technological solution used by terrorists began causing headache to the Army in Kashmir, no breakthrough has been made to crack it
  2. Context: Terrorists infiltrating from Pakistan have been using smartphones paired with very high frequency (VHF) radio sets to communicate with one another
  3. This had resulted in a drop in communication intercepts and adversely affected military efforts to deal with them
  4. Misuse: The concept of pairing mobile phones with radio handsets originated in the wake of Hurricane Sandy in New York in 2012
  5. This mode of sending mobile communications without using mobile towers is of great help for rescue operations during calamities
  6. However, it is now among the key technology deployed by terrorists to avoid the security forces while crossing the Line of Control

States asked to focus on intelligence sharing for internal security

  1. News: Prime Minister asked the States to focus on intelligence-sharing to help the country stay ‘alert’ to, and ‘updated’ on, internal security challenges
  2. Prime Minister addressed the Inter-State Council meeting, convened after 10 years
  3. Internal security could not be strengthened unless the States and the Centre focussed on sharing intelligence
  4. With the close cooperation, the Centre-State relations would also be strengthened

Govt. installs 1,356 mobile towers in Naxal-hit areas

  1. News: The govt has set up 1,356 mobile towers in Maoist-hit areas
  2. Project: It is part of an ambitious project to install 2,199 mobile towers in nine Maoist-hit States by this March end
  3. Reason: To improve poor telephone connectivity
  4. Impact: To benefiting thousands of tribals and security personnel in remote regions

A Road To Bastar

New mobile towers, better roads are making a difference in a troubled region.

  1. Scanty roads and poor communication have marred the development of the Bastar region.
  2. In order to thwart security forces’ movement into the core areas, the Maoists started damaging roads.
  3. After brief stint by BRO and RRP1, RRP-II( road requirement plan ) is on the anvil now.
  4. The roads department is now working in tandem with the security forces so that more roads can be built.
  5. Work of establishing new mobile towers is in its last phase of implementation.
  6. The only viable solution to end Bastar’s isolation is to connect it with the mainstream.
  7. The Maoists’ agenda to keep the tribals away from the advantages of development can be defeated only if the direct action of security forces is supplemented effectively with developmental works.

ITBP to get four more battalions to guard Sino-Indian border in Northeast

  1. ITBP is soon going to get 4 more battalions with the strength of around 1,000 personnel each.
  2. The battalions will guard the Sino-Indian border in the country’s north-eastern region.
  3. It will help in checking repeated Chinese transgressions at the Line of Actual Control (LAC).
  4. As of now the ITBP has 56 service battalions and 4 support battalions to guard the 3,488 km Sino-Indian border having 169 BoPs.

ITBP too takes women on board

  1. The Indo-Tibetan Border Police has decided to deploy women personnel in combat duties at its high-altitude posts along the Indo-China border.
  2. The force is training a special contingent of 500 mahila constables for the task.
  3. This is the first time that ITBP is deploying women personnel in full combat role right at the border.

ITBP to join Clean Ganga campaign


  1. Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force (ITBP) personnel will join the drive to clean up river Ganga
  2. Places of Action – Kanpur, Varanasi and Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh.
  3. Did you know?
  4. ITBP is one of the eight Central Armed Police Forces of India, raised on 24 October 1962, under the CRPF Act, in the wake of the Sino-Indian War of 1962.

Now, Army medals for paramilitary forces

  1. Paramilitary personnel are presently awarded police medal and president’s police medal for gallantry for exhibition of courage in battlefield.
  2. The Home ministry is planning to confer gallantry awards such as Param Vir Chakra, Shaurya Chakra & Kirti Chakra on those showing exemplary courage in internal security duties.
  3. This has been a longstanding demand of paramilitary forces. They fight with the same valour and intensity as the Army and sacrifice as many lives.

:( We are working on most probable questions. Do check back this section.

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