08 Oct 2017 | Target Mains | 7th Weekly Test with Official Answers

 Discuss
  • Attempt the questions individually by clicking on them.

    Q.1) According to UN Comtrade, a significant drop in China’s low-end manufacturing over the coming decades would leave a large gap for lower-cost countries to exploit.  How can India reap the benefits of China’s shift from low-end, labour-intensive manufacturing in the wake of unemployment crisis faced by it?

    https://thewire.in/184571/can-india-capitalise-chinas-shift-away-low-end-manufacturing/

    Rising wages in the Chinese manufacturing market is leading to erase the competitiveness of cheaper Chinese goods. This is in turn resulting in other developing economies replacing China in these sectors viz Apparels, Textiles, leather goods etc.

    Abundant supplies of low-cost labour, government incentives, tax exemptions and an efficient customs administration are the critical factors that need to be considered by India to replace China in the low end, low cost manufacturing sector.

    • Labour force: India has large supplies of cheaper labour (estimated 1.72 US dollars per hour in 2015) and world’s largest working age population which needs to be utilised to reap its full potential.
    • Probable sectors: Leather, apparels, Textiles are sectors in which India already has strong foundations and needs to be given more tax incentives.. Eg. Leather industries in Mumbai and Kanpur.
    • Services may not sustain India’s growth trajectory:It has been argued by the IMF that Indian manufacturing sector needs to increase its share in the GDP in order to sustain India’s growth trajectory. Hence, China’s gradual decline in the sector will create global demand for Indian goods.
    • Innovative initiatives like Make in India, Skill India, Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor etc need to be implemented with focus on low cost manufacturing.
    • The RBI differentiator: Unlike the Chinese interventions changing the way its currency fluctuates; Indian central bank does not allow such interventions. This curbs fluctuations and speculations in currency markets and will allow more certainty to its manufactured products.
    • Competitive advantage over other Asian economies: India has a huge English-speaking working population and it should use this competitive advantage over other countries like Malayisa, Thailand, Vietnam and South Korea who are also vying to fill the vacuum created by China.

    According to a Delloite survey of 2016 it has been argued that India will spurt to 5th rank, from the current 11th rank, in the list of top manufacturing hubs of the world (USA, China, Japan and Germany being the top 4).


    Q.2.) India’s healthcare suffers from quality, quantity, footprint, access and affordability issues. Discuss the major problems of India’s healthcare system? Also discuss what needs to be done to improve the condition of public healthcare in India?

    http://www.livemint.com/Opinion/6S9Hvo31dR3aA8h7snIWKL/What-ails-Indias-public-healthcare.html

    Articles 41, 42, 45 and 45 of the Indian constitution talk about providing efficient healthcare to various sections of society. However, India has not been able to fulfil this obligation in its spirit.

    Major bottlenecks in India’s healthcare system-

    • Lack of sufficient spending: India spends only 1.5% of its GDP on public healthcare. India also spends lowest per capita on health.
    • Inadequate professional manpower: There is acute shortage of professional manpower in healthcare sector with lack of supply of specialised doctors, which in turn is due to lack of sufficient Post Graduate seats in medical colleges
    • Insufficient infrastructure: Acute shortage of secondary and tertiary hospitals
    • Lack of accessibility and affordability: 62 per cent of medical costs are met through out of pocket expenses. The high out-of-pocket expenses in India stem from the fact that 76 percent of Indians do not have health insurance.
    • Disproportionate spread of skilled professionals: Majority of healthcare professionals are concentrated in urban areas, leaving rural areas underserved
    • Structural inadequacies: The hospitals are, as we said, understaffed and under-financed, forcing patients to visit private medical practitioners and hospitals.

    Way forward in this situation-

      • Increase in public spending: The Union Budget of 2017-18 has increased expenditure on healthcare by 27 per cent.
      • Insurance for all: enrolling all BPL families in the country in health-insurance programmes. This will help in lowering the out of pocket expenses of poor households.

     

    • Encouraging indigenous knowledge via Ministry of AYUSH: Diversification of knowledge and utilising potential of scientific heritage will help reach out to masses with different needs.

     

    • IT and IT enabled services through mobile and internet technology – Innovative apps like Swastha Bharat, ANMOL-ANM and e-RaktKosh.
    • The National Innovation Council should encourage creative solutions to India specific problems.

    Healthcare sector is in dire need of restructure and reform. In this case the report of        Dr.A. Pangariya Committee (2016) assumes immense significance and needs to be implemented in spirit.


    Q.3.) Sharjah ruler’s recent Kerala visit shows that States can play an important role in not only implementing foreign policy, but also in formulating it.  Critically analyse.

    http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/states-in-indian-diplomacy/article19803262.ece?homepage=true

    India is the one fastest emerging developing nation. This requires a nation to have a proactive foreign policy that involves active participation from both Center and the States. The Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister negotiated with foreign governments to make Hyderabad an IT capital, prompting even presidents and prime ministers to visit the city on state visits and the recent visit by Sharjah ruler to Kerala highlights this fact.

    The importance of States in foreign policy formulation

     

    • The Constitutional provision-

     

    • Article 37 under Directive Principles of State Policy provides that states shall endeavor to promote international peace and security and maintain honorable relations with nations.
    • Also Article 365 also provides for the Centre to give directions to States to implement foreign policy decisions.
    1. Competitive Federalism– The engagements of the states with various nations helps to foster competitive and cooperative federalism.
    2. Global practices– In USA, Japan, Singapore and China, states play an important and effective role in foreign policy formulation attracting much required foreign investment.
    3. Technology Transfer- Example the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat will participate in the recent Shinkensen Bullet Train project.
    4. The sates of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh are collaborating with UK, Japan and USA for the Smart City Mission.
    5. Strategic importance– The North eastern states have helped in establishing strategic agreements with neighbouring countries thus, securing external security.
    6. Broad based policy formulation– It is the result of healthy policy exchange between the Centre and the States.
    7. The states actions will help benefitting Indian Diaspora– Example: Maximum Indians in Gulf region are from Kerala.

    However, there are some concerns regarding the larger role for states in foreign policy formulation-

    1. National Interests may be subjudiced by the States– Examples : The Chief Minister of West Bengal stopped then Prime Minister from signing an agreement on sharing of Teesta waters with Bangladesh after the agreement was negotiated and in the Italian marine case Kerala itself had insisted that the Italian marines should be tried in India and punished here, causing a rift in India’s relations with the European Union.
    2. Lack of expertise at the State level–  The States must also develop expertise on foreign affairs to be able to take responsible decisions in their interaction with foreign lands.

    Way Forward

    1. There is a need for a new structure in MEA in which the states are fully represented. Also, Ministry of External Affairs should have offices in key states.
    2. Think tanks should be established in states to facilitate policy options and to provide inputs to the states and the Centre.
    3. States should be encouraged to form strong relations with countries in which they have a special interest on account of proximity or the presence of diaspora from that State.

    The Ministry of External Affairs now has a States division, which keeps in touch with the States which is a very positive step. But, the larger interests of India on the global scene should not be put at stake.


    Q.4 ) President’s recent visit to Djibouti and Ethiopia suggests India is finally waking up to the extraordinary geopolitical significance of a region that is called the Horn of Africa. Discuss the significance of this region for India. How can India counter China’s strategic advances in the region?

    http://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/raja-mandala-india-and-djiboutis-geopolitical-scrum-ram-nath-kovind-abroad-visit-4871697/

    The Horn of Africa at the confluence of the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean connecting Africa, the Middle East and Asia and the region’s multiple conflicts inter-state and intra-state  have made it a very attractive piece of geopolitical real estate. The four different states Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti constitute Horn of Africa.

    India is initiating re-engagement in this area for modern India has a long tradition of critical involvement in the Horn.

    Significance of the Horn of Africa

    1. Horn of Africa can be a gateway to India’s greater role in the African region with respect to its rich resource base.
    2. The new reliance on the sea lines of communication for India’s economic growth saw the rejuvenation of India’s maritime sensibility. Almost 95 percent of the trade by volume takes place through oceans and Red sea is the linchpin.
    3. The trade route of Suez Canal is very important for India and Horn of Africa is a choke point.
    4. It provides a node for India to manage its affairs in the countries of Asia minor and Middle East, exampleYemen crisis at a time its relations with Pakistan are strained.
    5. To counter the growing International influence in the region especially of China has recently opened first ever foreign military base for China.  France, which ruled Djibouti during the colonial era, has the largest concentration of its foreign legions in the country.
    6. To contain Piracy in the region especially off the coast of Somaila- Japan in 2011 acquired a facility to support its anti-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden.
    7. The countries of the Horn of Africa can help India in future at various global fora such as UNSC, NSG, etc.
    8. Asia Africa growth corridor- It will essentially be a sea corridor linking Africa with India and other countries of South-East Asia and Oceania by rediscovering ancient sea-routes and creating new sea corridors.

    Chinas presence in the region has been increasing which is a cause of worry for India. India can counter Chinas strategic advances in the region by

    1. Increasing Diplomatic relations that is, opening embassys in the countries of Horn of Africa like Djibouti will help in India’s reengagement with the region.
    2. Greater engagement with the region through organizations like AARDO, International Solar Alliance, East African Community etc.
    3. Defense Engagement with the region can be enhanced by India through defense exports, surveillance, defense exercises and anti piracy operations.
    4. Engagement with the Indian diaspora in the region be enhanced.
    5. India should provide for greater help to the region in the areas of pharmaceutical that is genric medicines and telemedicine.

    Although India is a late starter in the region, she can still play a vital role in the development of the region thereby increasing her sphere of influence.


    Q.5) While investment in new projects is always a good idea, what is an even better idea for a country like India, especially at the helm of an economic slowdown is the upgradation of it’s existing infrastructure. Analyse.

    http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-opinion/tackling-the-economic-slowdown/article19787811.ece

    Economic growth has slowed for five consecutive quarters, that is from late 2015-16 onwards. The economy needs a shot in the arm in the form of a fiscal stimulus which will transform the economy, and that its policies will have long-term favorable consequence. More investments and new projects are no doubt good for the economy and will encourage private investment boosting growth. However, Greater public investment must now flow into the repair and reconstruction of infrastructure which is better rationale approach.

    Investments a good idea!

    Investment is an immediate source of demand as firms that invest buy goods and services to do so, but it also expands the economy’s capacity to produce. Not only does increased public investment increase demand and quicken growth but it may be expected to encourage private investors, as the market for their goods expands.

    The supply side focus at usual cases has made it easier for private firms to produce. But considering demand shortage in the economy, the immediate thing to do is to expand public investment in infrastructure which will set the tone for momentum recovery.

    The argument made for  new land and labour market reforms as a pre-requisite for accelerating growth today must be able to account for how the economy came close to achieving 10% growth in the late 1980s.

    But upgrading the existing infrastructure is a better idea:

    • Repair and reconstruction of India’s creaking infrastructure is the direction in which greater public investment must now flow. It is the most direct and potent measure that can be undertaken to address the slowdown the economy is experiencing.
    • Other things being the same, increased public investment leads to a higher deficit, which is the gap between the government’s expenditure and its receipts.
    • There is resistance to governments running a deficit for fear that it may be inflationary.  So any plan for increasing the rate of growth, not just at the present moment but in general, must reckon with agricultural shortages. 
    • Banks are already reeling under NPA problems and twin balance sheet problems. This, coupled with low investments levels in the economy, would further dampen it if any new project/scheme is announced.
    • The existing infrastructure programmes are mired by misadministration and it entails bring governance reforms rather than anything new.
    • With the economy already adjusting to effects of GST and demonetisation, any new step would impede that process.
    • We are also facing the problems of overcapacity in the sectors of steel, which makes it imperative that we take remedial steps to increase the demand.

    Thus, in essence, there exists immense opportunities for India to strengthen its existing infrastructure and economy which would address the problems of poverty, poor investment levels, unemployment, low growth etc. thus preparing the ground for the success of new projects and programmes thus creating a virtuous development cycle for the economy.


    Q.6)   Police reforms have been long awaited in India despite directions given by the Supreme Court on police reforms. Discuss the major police reforms needed in India.

    http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-opinion/awaiting-police-reforms/article19793527.ece

    The police even today are not very trusted by the people. They are perceived as a force which is partisan, politicized, and generally not very competent. The Indian Police Foundation was inaugurated in 2015 to mount pressure on State governments to implement the directions of the Supreme Court on police reforms (Prakash Singh v. Union of India).

    The pertaining challenges being faced by police force in the country:

    • Collection and analysis of preventive intelligence especially pertaining to terrorists and insurgents is weak.
    • Criminal Investigation: Standards have declined sharply in the last few years. Unfortunately, the so-called premier investigation agencies like state CIDs and the CBI are no exception.
    • Vacancies: Many states continue to have huge vacancies. Even the apex court’s direction to fill these posts has not yielded the desired results.
    • Outdated arms and equipment: Most state police forces continue to use obsolete equipment and arms, and lack the latest technology that would help in investigation and intelligence-gathering.
    • Lack of Organization
    • Lack of proper training

    It is in the above context that the court in 2006 had issued seven binding directions to implement those reforms enumerated below:

    • Institutional:
    • Constitute a National Security Commission to appoint chiefs of Central Armed Forces.
    • Constitute a State Security Commission to lay down policy, evaluate performance and ensure operational autonomy.
    • A Police Establishment Board to oversee transfers, pensions etc
    • A Police Complaint Authority to look into allegations of serious misconduct.
    • Administrative:
    • Separation of wings of investigation and law and order is a must needed reform to increase transparency and efficiency
    • Secure the tenure of officers at DGP level
    • Implement Lokpal to oversee functioning of CBI
    • Increased Manpower and Capital infusion is as necessary as the above.
    • The modernization of forces with keeping them abreast with changing crime dynamics like cybercrimes, use of technology followed by adequate training to execute is very necessary as suggested by ARC.
    • International collaboration for better intelligence gathering and best practices from INTERPOL and others will enhance their capacity.

    There has been a call for SMART police. Besides the above said reforms, Police forces need to adapt and show temperament in setting themselves as examples to win back the trust of people.


    Q.7 )  In what ways has urbanization in cities affected the rural migrants in India? What steps need to be taken to preserve cultural & social values of rural migrants in cities?

    http://www.livemint.com/Opinion/hsaQJmzFMas9VpkkDMkqSK/Do-rural-migrants-favour-class-or-caste-in-the-city.html

    Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas which is the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas. It has influenced the rural-urban dynamics of migration patterns.

    Urbanization in cities has been happening at a rapid pace and has affected the rural migrants in the following ways:

    • Most of the migrants have temporarily relocated their families to the city. Instead, they circulate between village and city several times a year. Such circular migrants are an important population in India, with estimates suggesting they number between 60 million and 90 million.
    • Absence of systematic information, portrayals of these communities premised on stereotypes or anecdotes.
    • Most migrant communities are assumed to replicate village society in the city, and stay tightly wedded to their caste communities.
    • They are moulded into adopting class-based identities and attitudes practically upon arrival.
    • The competition has manifested in the practice of wage-cutting, where one migrant undercuts another to gain employment from prospective employers at labour chowks.
    • The caste and region has shaped migrant preferences for political candidates running in destination city elections, and in their rural regions of origin. 

    Steps need to be taken to preserve cultural & social values of rural migrants in cities:

    • Through TRIFED, MG BUNKAR Yojana, the indigenous artisanship and craftsmanship of local rural migrants can be promoted.
    •  Affordable rural housing through Housing For All scheme needs to be incorporated.
    • Schemes like Stand Up India should cater to the rural entrepreneur demands and aspirations of rural women and youth.
    • Civil society and young volunteers from cities can be engaged to bring about the social values of these rural migrants and generate awareness of various government schemes.
    • Skill training and upgradation through Skill India Mission should reach them.
    • Cluster based approach to rural urban development can be adopted.

    Though growing population is urban areas is a big challenge and initiatives to arrest this growth is utmost important, preserving social and cultural values of rural migrants is equally important. An integrated approach towards this issue besides the steps mentioned will go a long way in addressing this natural process of migration.


    Q.8 ) “An incremental, technology-neutral approach to the adoption of electric vehicles is the way forward for Automobile Sector in India” Comment.

    http://www.civilsdaily.com/topic/hybrid-electric-vehicle-2/

    Introduction:

    • The automobile industry is one of the key drivers that boost the economic growth of the country. Increasing number of vehicles which uses fossil fuels as energy poses threat to environment as they release harmful gases which cause many health hazards. Vehicular emissions have been identified as one of the important reason for climate change in recent time. To deal with the situation, Government has adopted various measures such as shifting from BS 4 to BS 6 by 2020, NeMP, FAME-India etc.
    • In this regard Technology neutral approach for the adoption of electric run vehicles seems to be the another milestone remedy to effectively deal with the environmental problems apart from addressing various other issues.

    Electric Vehicles in India:

    • In order to promote the use of hybrid vehicles Union Government has launched Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (FAME)-India Scheme. This is simply supporting the hybrid or electric vehicles market development and its manufacturing eco-system in the country in order to achieve self sustenance in stipulated period.
    • Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are powered by an internal combustion engine or other propulsion source that can run on conventional or alternative fuel in combination with an electric motor that uses energy stored in a battery. HEVs combine the benefits of high fuel economy and low tail pipe emissions with the power and range of conventional vehicles.

    Advantages of Electric Vehicle:

    • Environment Friendly: One of the biggest advantages of Electrical vehicle over gasoline powered vehicle is that it runs cleaner and has better gas mileage which makes it environment friendly.
    • Employment Generation: India went through a radical transformation from a minor manufacturer of automobiles to the fastest growing auto-hub within a short span. This has contributed towards huge employment generation by providing direct and indirect employment to 32 million people with an annual turnover of nearly 6,00,000 crore rupees.
    • Less dependence on Fossil Fuels: A Hybrid car is much cleaner and requires less fuel to run which means less emissions and less dependence on fossil fuels. This in turn also helps to reduce the price of gasoline in domestic market.
    • Built From Light Materials: Electric Vehicles are made up of lighter materials which mean less energy is required to run. The engine is also smaller and lighter which also saves much energy.
    • Financial Benefits: Electric Vehicles are supported by many credits and incentives that help to make them affordable. Lower annual tax bills and exemption from congestion charges comes in the form of less amount of money spent on the fuel.
    • Higher Resale Value: With continuous increase in price of gasoline, more and more people are turning towards hybrid cars. The result is that these green vehicles have started commanding higher than average resale values.

    However, certain disadvantages are also associated with Electric vehicle which becomes important to deal in order to promote its use in India:

    • Adequate Charging Points: The government will have to ensure that adequate charging points are available at every reach.
    • Meeting the demand: The government would have to ensure that it meets the demand that is created by this mechanism. Hence, more electricity generating sources will have be developed with the availability of electricity all the time.
    • Cost: The high cost associated would this will have to be garnered. Issuing municipal bonds for this can be of great help.
    • Presence of High Voltage in Batteries: In case of an accident, the high voltage present inside the batteries can prove lethal. There is a high chance of you getting electrocuted in such cases which can also make the task difficult for rescuers to get other passengers and driver out of the car.

    Conclusion:

    • In order to promote Electrical Vehicle use and its production in India, the Government needs to push more aggressively for the Pure Electric Vehicle which uses energy stored in batteries obtained from the grid and support the full range of electric technologies for other vehicle segments with a clear roadmap for the evolution towards Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs).
    • Hopefully, to reduce fossil fuel consumption, lower pollution and encourage electric mobility, a more holistic approach needs to be adopted by the government.

    Q. 9 ) Kigali agreement on phasing down climate-damaging HFCs is one of the historic steps in global fight against climate change. Discuss the significance of this agreement. Do you think India will be a beneficiary of this agreement? Examine.

    http://www.civilsdaily.com/topic/kigali-agreement-prospects-and-issues/

    Hints:

    • Kigali is a capital city of a tiny African country Rwanda where world leaders have gathered on Oct 15, 2016 in order to sign an amendment to Montreal Protocol which came to be known as the Kigali Agreement.
    • As per the agreement, 197 UN member countries expected to reduce the manufacture and use of Hydro-fluoro-carbons (HFCs) (Potential Green House Gas) by roughly 80-85% from their respective baselines till 2045.
    • HFCs are world’s fastest growing green house gas largely used in refrigerants in home and car air conditioners. HFCs tap thousands of times more heat in the Earth’s atmosphere than carbon dioxide (CO2).
    • This proved to be an historic agreement where phase down is expected to arrest the global average temperature rise up to 0.5 degrees C by 2100.

    Significance of Kigali Agreement:

    • Montreal Protocol initially conceived only to plug gases that were destroying the ozone layer, but now the latest Kigali agreement includes gases responsible for global warming including HFCs.
    • Paris agreement that will come into force by 2020 doesn’t legally bind countries to their promises to cut emissions but the currently amended Montreal Protocol will bind countries to their HFC reduction schedules from 2019.
    • There are also penalties for non-compliance as well as clear directives that developed countries provide enhanced funding support estimated at billions of dollars globally.
    • Grants for research and development of affordable alternatives to hydro-fluoro-carbons will be the most immediate priority.
    • This agreement along with the recently ratified Paris agreement pushes countries to cap global warming to “well below 2 degrees Celsius” by 2100.
    • Kigali Agreement has shown a considerable flexibility in approach while setting phase-down targets for different economies accommodating their developmental aspirations, different socio-economic compulsions, and scientific & technological capabilities.

    How it benefits India?

    • With Developed nations agreeing to cut 70 per cent of their HFC use by 2029, India will start reducing its HFC consumption when the developed countries would have reduced their consumption by 70 per cent. Thus giving sufficient time for India to phase out HFCs.
    • The Agreement upholds the principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities, which means the agreement recognizes the development imperatives of high-growth economies like India, and provides a realistic and viable roadmap for its implementation.
    • With the recent agreement, India gets to participate in a positive global climate action, while gaining time to allow its heating, ventilation and air-conditioning sectors to grow and refrigerant manufacturers to find a comfortable route to transition and cost of alternatives to fall. Analysts also concluded that Kigali agreement is fair to the realities of India’s future economic development.

    However, there remain certain challenges towards realization of this goal such as:

    • Financial implications: Industries have to either invest in R & D to find out the substitutes for HFCs or they have to buy patented substances and technologies from other MNCs. Consequently, the cost of production will increase which may ultimately shrink the buyer base for their products.
    • Technological implications: Some of the developed nations have already started using substitutes of HFCs in their products and have a sound technological knowledge about their use. Without technology transfer or research, it would be difficult for domestic industries to compete with them in global as well as domestic market.

    Conclusion:

    • There is no doubt that the Kigali agreement on phasing down climate-damaging HFCs is one of the historic steps in global fight against climate change. It will play substantial role in holding global temperature rise below 2°C by 2100 as agreed in Paris agreement.
    • Similarly the deal would provide a mechanism for countries like India to access and develop technologies that leave a low carbon footprint. The deal keeps the Paris agreement on track and along with a new deal to cap aviation emissions, it is overwhelmingly positive.

    Q.10) It is commented that success of UDAN scheme will depend on proper implementation and traffic demand/load factors. Critically comment.

    http://www.civilsdaily.com/topic/udan-scheme-opportunities-and-challenges/

    Hints:

    • The Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik (UDAN) Scheme is an endeavour to make regional air connectivity easy. It aims to stimulate regional connectivity with flights covering distances up to 800 km through a market based mechanism.
    • The scheme is a component of the National Civil Aviation Policy (NCAP) which was released on June 15, 2016, aims at making flying affordable by capping fares at Rs. 2500 per seat per hour. Airfare for a 1-hour journey of approximately 500 km on a fixed wing aircraft or for 30 minute journey on a helicopter would be capped at Rs. 2,500.
    • A major reason for the poor regional air connectivity in India is that airlines do not find it lucrative to operate from small cities. The government has tried to address this concern by an adroit combination of subsidies and fare caps.

    Criticisms:

    • UDAN is a market-based policy intervention that builds on similar programmes in the US, Canada and Australia. It is also consistent with universal service approaches established for other network-based services such as railways and telecom. The aviation business has high operating costs, which include aircraft, capital charges, airport charges, cabin crew, fuel and maintenance.
    • Unless there is sufficient air traffic, airlines will not be able to generate necessary revenues to cover their operating costs and recover their cost of capital. It is self-evident that airlines will not fly unprofitable routes.
    • In order to compensate the losses born by the aviation company, the government will provide subsidy in the form of Viability Gap Funding. There is no strict mechanism to put on effective check on this VGF and the chances of mismanagement seem to high. This will further cost on the government exchequer increasing fiscal burden in the time of economic stress.
    • Providing regional air connectivity is an important policy goal for the government. Such services deliver a host of benefits by fulfilling latent consumer demand for convenient travel, making businesses and trade more efficient, unlocking India’s tourism potential, enabling fast medical service and promoting national integration.
    • Moreover, building connections to tier-2 and tier-3 cities also generates powerful network effects with many regional passengers transferring on to the national aviation network between tier-1cities. However, this requires huge infrastructural development and at the same time proper security system for effective traffic management and also is a time consuming process.
    • One of the biggest challenges in developing regional routes is the lack of depth in the market, translating into low load factors.
    • Also, there is no mechanism to monitor the beneficiary for using UDAN scheme. This will also affect other flights which are already under operation in a specific route in terms of number of passenger, traffic congestion and competition etc.
    • The schemes finances and supports airlines only for three years under the perception that within three years the routes will become sustainable. It also does not consider the hike in oil prices within three years and Airline’s high levy of Air Turbine Fuel is also an area of concern.

    Conclusion:

    • UDAN will jump start regional air connectivity and strengthen the overall aviation network at a modest market-discovered price. Passengers will benefit from enhanced air services, airlines will see more traffic on their metro routes and India will gain through faster economic growth and national integration. Thus UDAN will surely be a meaningful contributor to India’s overall transformation.
    • However, the success of the scheme is well dependent on various factors and if properly managed, will boost the aviation sector in India within the reach of poor.

    Ethics Questions

    Q.11) “Civil Servants should be fully aware to office politics, however they should be minimally concerned with it”. Critically examine the statement.

    Civil Servants are expected to work in offices within various organization. For them it is important they should know about office polities so that they know what is going on in the organization. Being aware about the politics gives him a view of the way things are progressing. At the same time, however, it is essential they should not be affected by this politics or make themselves a part of any of the group otherwise it will lead to split within the organization finally leading to decrease in the efficiency of the workers.

    It is important the civil servants should make sure that the internal politics of the workers does not affect the work performance of the organization. For this he should strike a balance with the workers. If the civil servants themselves become a part of office politics, it will lead to biasness and the leader showing favour towards a particular group and this will give rise to factionalism and split. So, it is responsibility of the civil servants to make sure that the efficiency of workers does not get affected due to office politics of organization.


    Q.12) There is a popular station House Officer of an urban police station. Under his jurisdiction, several cases of Motor Bike/Scooter theft, mobile phone theft and pickpocket have been reported. Most of these cases have not been properly attended and investigated by thepolice. The citizens are annoyed because of this. The SHO has decided to bring a citizen charter to focus on these issues in a time bound manner.

    Suppose you are SHO of the concerned Police Station. Draw out a citizen charter and suggest how you will bring continuous improvement in the charter. Also discuss merits/ demerits of your citizen charter.

    Before preparing the citizen charter, detailed discussion could be made with the subordinates and prominent citizens. Having decided upon the priorities, necessary capacity building of the organization including necessary infrastructure, training could have been ensured.

    • Citizen charter could be a follows.
    1. Name of the office – XYZ Police Station, Delhi
    2. Types of services being provided –

    (i) Registering of complaints an spot of theft, pickpocketing,etc.

    (ii) Action on the complaint to be taken as soon as possible.

    (iii) The police department will ensure to cooperate with the citizens to resolve their cases.

    1. Detailed information about services- Can be obtained from the reception. Also available on the website.
    2. Name /telephone no of Grievance Redressal office – Mr. ‘B’ with telephone no and ‘e’ mail.

    (time to be specified) Grievances to be redressed within 3 days.

     

    Merit of the Charter – Charter is a modest start through which time bound delivery of service are being promised. Every services are being delivered time bound. Formats and all necessary informations are available both on reception and on organization website. Since subordinates have been consulted while preparing the charter, they will provide assistance in preparing the charter and they will provide all assistance to make it succeed.

    Difficulties – since it is time bound delivery of services, hence initially some difficulties are bound to come. There could be large number of grievance petitions and hence the concerned office and other members will have to take necessary extra steps for redressal. Touts and other corrupt people could also work against the charter so that it may fail and their golden days are returned.

    Revision and upgrading the charter – After 6 month a third party evaluation by a team comprising of retired officials, citizen groups/people could be done and having satisfied with the result it could be upgraded like online registration of application etc., could be attempted.

     

     


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  •  Arjun Thakur @arjun-thakur

    do anyone have any idead on how is shankar Ias geography optional classes. As i need oline classes for geography optional suggest some good teachers

    •  kushagra chauhan @kushagra-chauhan

      if you join tell me also

  •  akshay gupta @akshay-gupta1

    *post

  •  akshay gupta @akshay-gupta1

    please pot the model answers for weekly test 6.

    •  Arushi Pathak @arushi

      Answers have been posted.

    •  akshay gupta @akshay-gupta1

      ya,noted, thanks anyways

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This topic contains 6 replies, has 5 voices, and was last updated by  kushagra chauhan 4 days ago.



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