GS1 (Role of Women)
In recent years it is seen that the girls perform much better than boys in school results, like class X and XII board exams. However, they are not seen in as many numbers pursuing higher studies. What are the reasons for their dropout?
It is not a recent trend that the girls have been outsmarting the boys in the school results. While the girls have continued doing well, their enrolment for higher education has remained dismal.
Timothy Gonsalves Committee, set up by the IITs, was to study and recommend reservation of Girls in IITs. Similar is the case with various other institutes in different fields. Following could be the reasons for their drop out:
1) Girls, post their schooling, are often asked to stay back home and learn as well cooperate with other females in their family, learning and helping in the daily household activities. This becomes a launchpad for the future bride and better proposals in the marriage market. Therefore higher education hampers.
2) The drop-out ratio is usually higher in rural areas. This is because of lack of infrastructure in terms of quality institutes. Parents often desist from sending girls to urban centres for education.
3) Those institutes that exist in rural areas are poor on sanitation and hygiene. There are no separate toilets for girls. Besides, the colleges are far from their homes. Often there is one college for many neighbouring villages. Lack of proper and safe commutation and an unsafe environment dissuade the parents as well as the girls themselves to study further.
4) Financial constraint is another reason. Owing to the patriarchal mindset, girls are still seen as a liability and therefore spending more money on their education, shall put further strain on their finances.
While the talent, potential and willingness are never in doubt, it is these infrastructural constraints and mental roadblocks that have led to higher drop-outs in girls’ education. The central and state governments need to ensure that institutes of excellence are encouraged to open exclusive centers for these girls in the rural set up with cooperation from the local bodies. The online portals of SWAYAM can be leveraged and the course material from various universities’ syllabus and sources can be made available for viewing anytime.
Let us not forget an age old saying that an educated man will take his family forward but an educated woman can empower the entire generation.
GS2 (India and its neighborhood)
India’s foreign policy was built around the principles of peace and cooperation. But India fought three wars between 1962 and 1971. Was this a failure of foreign policy or a result of international situation. Give reasons for your answer.
India’s foreign policy was modeled on the principles of peaceful mutual coexistence. Since its independence, it had worked hard to promote peace in the world through its leadership role in NAM and its participation in various UN peacekeeping missions. However, India fought three wars in a span of less than 10 years. The reasons for these three wars are underlined below:
1) 1962 Sino-Indian war: Chinese had been claiming Aksai Chin region in the North- Eastern Kashmir citing history. Also, there was another border dispute with respect to the Tawang valley along the eastern Indo-China border. India’s olive branch to Dalai Lama after the Tibet uprising deteriorated the situation further and China launched offensive on both the fronts.
2) 1965 INDO-PAK War: Pakistan had been increasing infiltration in Kashmir through insurgents. As part of its operation Gibraltar, Pakistan had infiltrated insurgents in J&K and the Indian army retaliated through a full scale military offensive. India’s stand was justified as it was guarding its own territory and was responding to the aggression of the enemy country.
3) 1971 Indo-PAK War: Though India was not directly related to the war initially, it was only after Pakistani Army’s brutal manhunt in eastern Pakistan and exodus of masses to the Indian side, that India involved itself into the war.
In all the three cases mentioned above, we see that India didn’t make the initial movement in all the three wars. So the foreign policy was clearly not a failure but these wars were the results of the international situations. 1962 war was a result of the Chinese aggression and its efforts to curb the Tibet uprising, whereas the 1965 war was aggravated by Pakistan’s mischief. The 1971 war was a result of genocide in the immediate neighbourhood that had threatened mass exodus of the Bengalis of Eastern Pakistan into India. It would not have been wise to be a silent spectator when there were events effecting the motherland.
GS3 (Food processing and related industries in India)
GS4 (Emotional intelligence)
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