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Doubts Clearing Forum

 Dr V
  • Doubts constantly crop up while reading newspapers, books, taking a test? Don’t understand some concepts, unable to make sense of evolving story? Google it up, not very clear yet? That ‘aha moment’ just does not arrive?

    well, well, well. You have landed exactly at the right place. Ask any query here and get it resolved most satisfactorily, within next 48 hours, by our awesome community members and CD team. You won’t have to wait for your ‘aha moment’ to arrive.

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  •  Sahil Manocha @sahilmanocha360

    Sir I am very confused on how to begin my prepration what should I do?
    What not to do?
    If you could tell me where to start and how to take it further than it will be of great help…..

  •  Bhumika Mishra @bhumikamishra1

    Sir..plz guide me on how to prepare science and technology ,world geography for prelims 2018

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      Make sure to read the analysis of previous year papers by Dr V from here for these two subjects http://www.civilsdaily.com/collection/upsc-analysis/

      For World Geography, read this 1st http://www.civilsdaily.com/blog/target-prelims-2015-geography-ecology/
      There are only two sources for World Geography, GC Leong & Atlas. Most of the questions are map based but overall Indian Geography is favoured so major of focus should be there.
      If you haven’t read GC Leong, I’d suggest quick read that and revise multiple times combined with regular map study.

      SnT is mostly current affairs based so keep that strong. Any new term encountered should be googled if not already given in CD’s B2B section in the newscards.
      SnT largely revolves around (focus most of your energies here) Space and Environment.
      While googling, the idea is to get a general awareness and not technical depth. So don’t delve too deep into anything. eg know what black holes are but not what is the mass limit for when a supernova would yield a blackhole.
      You could just skim through NCERTs from 6th to 10th if you have time and if it was weak for you in school.

  •  M Khaalidah Tanweer @mtanweer

    hey, I needed a clarification regarding clause 4 of article 317. In clause 3 of the same article it is given that the members or the chairman of any public service commission should not engage in any paid employment outside the duties of his office failure to abide by which may result in removal from office so what does the line ” otherwise than as a member and in common with the other member of an incorporated company” mean ? what sort of entity does incorporated company mean and is it not contradictory to section b of clause 3 of the same article?? sorry for the long post

  •  Javed Aftab @javed-aftab

    Sir, When do we call a Geochemical cycle a gaseous or sedimentary cycle? Why is Carbon cycle a gaseous cycle when most of carbon is present in non gaseous forms?

  •  DevD @devdatttrivedi

    Sir,As per laxmikant,High court can issue writs not only for enforcement of fundamental rights but also for the enforcement of an ordinary legal right. Why does this power confer to high Court only, not to supreme court?? Thank you

    •  Praveen “VSR” Kumar @google8

      This may be to not burden the apex court and the constitutional drafters might have envisioned it to protect fundamental rights and not get it into tussles of legal rights.

  •  neha mittal @neha-mittal

    Regarding TPP, what does following statement means-

    The government should launch a comprehensive initiative to enable Indian exporters to not only comply with standards prevalent in the importing market, but also demonstrate the compliance through appropriate conformity-assessment procedures.

    If India’s public standards are harmonised with foreign standards, they will be equally applicable to domestic and export sales on account of the ‘national treatment’ principle of the WTO which prohibits less favourable treatment to imported products. The harmonised standards may result in most producers not only being excluded from export markets, but also being edged out of the domestic market, undermining the Make in India initiative in the process.

    •  Praveen “VSR” Kumar @google8

      The para means that:
      In wake of the TPP, Indian exports are thought to be declining when the agreement comes to play. So, Indian exporters should comply with the standards in the importing country and also ensure the importing country that they have followed established processes to check the standards. So, once India complies with these standards, these countries can’t deny Indian goods as per WTO clause of ” equal treatment with imported goods.

      Also, in its pursuit to being competitive, India should not converge its public standards in Indian market to the standards in TPP nations. This could be disastrous because imports from these nations would increase to India, which affects our domestic producers. We cannot outrightly ban these goods due to the same WTO clause. This seriously undermines the purpose of our Make in India initiative.

      Hope this clears your confusion and Sorry for the long answer. Any suggestions and further doubts are always welcome.

      Keep questioning coz that’s the best way to learn. 🙂

  •  Chola Queen @indhumathi-shivakumar

    What does it mean by neutral rate which is a key determinant of Repo rate?
    I read this definition of neutral rate in The Hindu – “The neutral rate is the difference between risk free rate and inflation”. But I am unable to comprehend. Please explain in simple terms….

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      refer this http://www.livemint.com/Money/h1V1HCFCeDWeRYbTh7E2eI/What-is-the-neutral-real-interest-rate.html

      In simple terms,

      Public’ll put money into banks only if they offer real interest rates else they’ll invest in real estate and gold. We’d want to keep repo such that banks allow interests rates which are real (gives something above inflation).
      Thus, people put money in banks => more savings in the economy => more money in the economy for lending => people will get cheaper loans => investment => increase in productivity => boost to growth.

      At the same time it shouldn’t be too much so that too much money floods the economy causing inflation. This is where neutral rate comes in, i.e., the real interest rate which’ll boost savings (and hence investment) but not be inflationary either.

      Hope this helped 🙂

  •  Sammil Khan @sammilkhan

    Hi sir, in flag ship course time table. It is mentioned under history book list as history – our pasts, is it mean all the three parts of it like I,II, III ? Or only one?

  •  SuDhAnSu Swain @sudhansu-swain

    The difference and similarity between legislative and executive order?

  •  Pablo Escobar @pablo-escobar

    With respect to Indus Waters Treaty
    *It says India can use waters of western rivers for non-consumptive use.
    *Also it says that India can use water even for irrigation,STORAGE,producing electricity
    *STORAGE will be by building reservoir is it allowed??

    Now read, Annexure E is titled, “Storage of Waters by India on the Western Rivers” from the following link
    http://mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/6439/Indus

    Is not both contradictory????????????

  •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

    Was reading RoPA and came across this as a violation
    *Vehicle hired by electors for themselves by sharing costs is not considered corrupt practice if the vehicle/vessel in not propelled by mechanical power.

    Does it mean me and my friends can share a bullock cart but not a cab while going to vote? Or have I misunderstood?

    Thanks

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      I have got the same doubt a week back..:P but resisted of asking it in the forum.
      Thanks for it.:D

  •  MoNika .Mondal @monika-mondal

    What does this mean :

    Steps should be taken to fill the sanctioned strength rather than increase the number of judges over and above the current sanctioned strength to solve pendency.

    •  McLovin @mclovin-mclovin

      The Chief Justice of India is of the view that the sanctioned strength of the judges should be increased to clear all the pending cases(present sanctioned strength is 100, he wants to make it 200). But the chairman of the Law Commission said that there is no need to increase the sanctioned strength, just fill the sanctioned strength.(that is the number of judges at present is less than 100 due to issues between the judiciary and executive)

      The numbers I have quoted are just assumptions for easier understanding.

  •  MoNika .Mondal @monika-mondal

    The FCRA regulation on the NGOs bound the NGO to get registered themselves with the FCRA.Any money they receive from oversea shall be reported and only it FCRA allows , the money can be withheld ?

    Is this how it works or am i wrong anywhere ? The NGOs have any criteria to be selected or just all ? Also What does ” NGOs Do not file returns ” mean ?

    •  McLovin @mclovin-mclovin

      Any organisation of a non political nature can accept foreign funding. But first they have to register under the FCRA with the Home Ministry. Organisations registered under the FCRA must make known to the Home Ministry about the quantum of foreign funding they receive periodically.
      Many NGOs are not doing this. That is what not filing returns means.

  •  MoNika .Mondal @monika-mondal

    The Centre has set up the inter state water dispute tribunal Cauvery Water Dispute Tribunal (1990), Now amidst of all the turmoil in the states, Why Supreme court is making decisions.
    And if the CWDT verdict is binding and the Supreme Court cannot supersede it. Why has the question of SC arose?

    Also, why tribunals and judiciary system has been criticized for the solution of such disputes ?

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      Let’s go step by step
      – Tribunal setup in 90, award came in 2007 and implementation announcement by the Central gov in 2013.
      – Yes without the Centre implementing the award it is not binding till then and also it can pick and choose recommendations (the regulatory board as recommended wasnt setup)
      – Now in the intervening period TN cant just wait for so many years so it went to SC for some intermediate relief so that its crops can thrive. This happened till 2013
      – KA didn’t release water commensurate to the award this year. So TN went to SC again to get that released.

      SC therefore didnt supersede anything per se

      judiciary and tribunals criticized bcz
      – the tussle never ends till the govts and the people are at ease with it, so judiciary cant help with that.
      – take a lot of time as is apparent from this case itself.
      – It has to be an ongoing process bcz you cant ever predict the extent of drought etc

      Hope this helped

    •  MoNika .Mondal @monika-mondal

      hey, thank you so much for responding 🙂

      So, you mean to say.. that CWDT never get to pass its say on the dispute being so late of the schedule ?
      And where is the solution to this if not judiciary ?

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      It did have it say. Govt just implemented after 6 years and that too in parts (fearing political backlash..elections were impending then).
      How are things ever going to work out if political considerations still drive good regulations into a quagmire. And had it even implemented everything as the tribunal said, there’s no way that droughts, types of crops and their requirements, farmers debts can be factored into.

      the only solution is an informed and a responsible citizenry.
      recognizing other state’s farmer rights to water and a sense of sharing is all that is needed. Since that is not prevalent, institutionalizing this in a code/legislation is the main challenge
      Moreover a paradigm shift in how we approach agriculture is needed. India with its just 4% of world’s water resources and 17% of population cant afford to grow water guzzlers like sugarcane and that too in drought prone KA.

  •  Munna kumar @munnaraj94

    Any body can explain mansoon prediction method..

  •  A J @amitthakkar2205

    is it necessary to study about individual temples of different styles or just the basic features and styles of temples to be known are enough ?

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      Do you even dare to study about individual temples of all styles from nagara to dravidian?well best of luck then..:P
      I think the question from art and architecture parts wants basic understanding of each style relevant during the relative period,say mauryan,gupta etc,differences as one move from north to south,modifications with time and perhaps jumping to individual temples,lets say the big ones from each style,lepakshi,sun temple,kailashnath etc can be studied as an example.Not exhaustive detailing!
      (My answer is based on the understanding of previous year question papers,and Its a myth to predict with 100% accuracy about UPSC framework)

  •  DoYou KnowMe @doyouknowme

    What is all the fuss about HTS by ISRO for providing broadband connectivity? Can someone critically analyze its use?

  •  MoNika .Mondal @monika-mondal

    Why do Banks want non zero balance accounts ? Is it obligatory to them ?

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      Yes,as per RBI guidelines its mandatory to open zero balance account,with a year KYC relaxed.
      Every bank account has its maintenence cost,and with a zero balance inactive account,the cost of scheme is soleley incurred by banks,which in not viable for our banking system already burdened with NPAs.
      Second is the purpose of the scheme which is to include the excluded is defeated as inactive account won’t be helping beneficiaries to reap the benefits for long.
      Jan dhan do offer money transfer in the form of DBT,as I have read.
      Other issues are the RuPay debit card needs to be inserted within 45 days to prevent inacivity of card,KyC is relaxed for a year which could be challenge for some backward region inhabitants etc.

    •  McLovin @mclovin-mclovin

      Quoting from a news report,

      “There was a perception that so many zero-balance accounts means no one is using them, so there was pressure on us to change that,” one official has been quoted as saying in the report.

    •  MoNika .Mondal @monika-mondal

      hi, thank you for responding. But i still do not understand, The bank accounts belong to Jan dhan category primly.. ANd also, accountants have quoted that they themselves have been adding up the money to the accounts. And also Jan Dhan do not promise any money transfer to the accounts, so where is the difference and problem ?

    •  McLovin @mclovin-mclovin

      The goal of Jandhan Yojana is to bring more people into the formal banking sector. The Govt wants people to use the Jandhan account for their day to day purposes. How can you assess if an account is active? The basic check would be to see if the people are saving anything in their account. So, accounts with 0 balance indicate that the scheme has failed and the account is just lying idle. Success of the scheme has been linked to the working ability of the bank managers/officers. So, to show more active Jan Dhan accounts they have deposited INR 1 in each account.

  •  DevD @devdatttrivedi

    Sir,As per ncert 11std. Chapter no.4 -vote power is discretionary power. Is it true? There is no clearly mentioned in Laxmikant.

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      Bro,it must be veto??

  •  ABHISHEK RANJAN @ashulonely57

    Why do companies undergo APAs,if it mandates them to pay taxes in advance(as without it they can maximize their profits via transfer pricing)??Only for ethical obligations or else?? And what is the Rollback provision in this regard?? Pls answer

    •  McLovin @samfisher

      APAs are about fixing a methodology for calculating a transfer pricing mechanism which is acceptable to both the tax authorities and the companies and not about paying taxes in advance. Companies enter into it as it brings certainty to their business and prevents tax litigations. Previously APAs were for the next 5 years but now it can be entered into for the past 4 years also. This provision of entering into an APA for the past 4 years also is called as the rollback provision.

      Others please correct me if I am wrong.

    •  ABHISHEK RANJAN @ashulonely57

      Transactions for the last 4 years has already been done by the Co.,so what is the rationale for going under APAs for previous years??..not clear pls reply

    •  McLovin @samfisher

      There have been instances in the past where the Indian tax authorities suddenly asked a company to pay more tax to them as they felt that the pricing mechanism was not right for a transaction that has happened a few years ago. This again resulted in tax litigations and uncertainty. Rollback provision will take care of that problem.

    •  ABHISHEK RANJAN @ashulonely57

      Thanks a lot my friend..

  •  Drashti Shukla @drashtishukla4

    I don’t understood how Amazon is trying to bypass regulations by showing the compensation of discounts given to seller as funding or marketing expense.

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      See as per the recent e-commerce guidelines, ecommies themselves cant offer any discount as they are in a sense like shopping mall. The sellers (aka shops) should be giving discounts.

      Now Amazon asks sellers to offer discounts and compensates them and puts it under marketing expense.

      This in effect is Amazon giving discounts, which is violation of the regulation. Its act of putting that under marketing expense is thus a bypass

      hope this helped

  •  Udit Pandey @uditpandey

    Couldn’t understand the perspective behind the article of 12th sep. Hindu’s newspaper “Chronicles in Unlearning”

    http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/chronicles-in-unlearning/article9096947.ece

  •  McLovin @samfisher

    What does informal employment in organised sector mean?

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      @samfisher

      It can be better understood by examples like
      Drivers of the officials,Gardener in the lawn of PSU ,Chef in the mess..and numerous other examples,which are not paid under the head of direct wages and are neotiable.

    •  McLovin @samfisher

      Thank you. Is it possible to have formal employment in unorganised sector?

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      Casual employment is one,but its also not formal!
      Since the sector is itself unorganised,I don’t THINK formal employment is possible.

    •  McLovin @samfisher

      Thanks @Bruce Wayne for your help.

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      Does Splinter cell got any new series,after blacklist? ;P

    •  McLovin @samfisher

      Blacklist was the last game in the series I played back in 2014. Sadly haven’t been able to play anything since then. No idea what happened to the series.

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      Same here..:(,Tom Clancey’s is great indeed!

    •  McLovin @samfisher

      Yes. RIP Tom Clancy.

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      😀 😀

  •  Tomy Ps @tomy-ps

    In an article appeared on ‘livemint.com’, it was mentioned that women empowerment and their participation in the workforce will prevent downward pressure on the general wage rate.How is it possible? can anyone explain this?”http://www.livemint.com/Opinion/3fuWnnpNPN82ufgDDwxBsO/The-world-has-a-sex-problem-It-hurts-growth.html”

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      based on this article, it goes like this

      since women in 3rd world are considered 2nd grade citizens, they are used as mere child making machines > large populations > greater competition for unskilled jobs > lower wages

      had they been empowered > greater say in family planning > lesser populace > downward pressure on wages prevented

      Please let me know if this works, could be wrong also

  •  Shailaja pandey @shailajapandey2011

    hello sir…..i really need ur help for 2016 mains preparation as m very much confused with my strategies, what to read nd wat not, how to complete evrything in just 4 mnths?…..

  •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

    In a test series,its given FDI along with recovery of loan is non debt creating capital receipt?
    How FDI is non debt creating capital receipts?

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      FDI consists of Equity or Fully convertible debentures. So if business makes profit then they’ll get dividend else just a wry smile. Anyways shareholders are not considered debtors so no debt created. hence non debt creating capital receipt

  •  Nisha Chauhan @ncnishachauhan

    Yes , Speaker and Dy Speaker are removed by effective majority (more than 50% of effective strength of the house) after giving 14 days notice.
    ………… “All the then members ” == Effective Strength == Total Strength of house – Vacancy only(not absenteeism)
    ………… Vacancy may be due to : death, disqualification, resignation, imprisonment.

    •  ONKAR TIWARI @onkartiwari90

      As for as I know , to remove the speaker of assembly or LS ….”All the member should present and vote”. in recent judgement of Arunachal state govt SC has questioned this law. because in 1985 Rajiv gandhi brought anti defection law to disqualify the MLA/MPS if they change the party. but he dint do any changes for the speaker. Now speaker has authority to disqualify the MLA. Please correct me If I am wrong.

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      Thanks,
      Also is this true only for state legislature,right?

      For parliament,speaker and dy speaker are removed by absolute majority?
      As in Laxmikanth,am i right?

    •  Nisha Chauhan @ncnishachauhan

      Nahi . Effectvie majority is required to remove all presiding officers ( in parliament as well as state legislatures).
      ——–Article 90 for Rajya Sabha and Art. 94 for Lok Sabha : Both mention “all the then members” for the removal of presiding officers and deputies. (source P.M. Bakshi)
      ……..Same goes for State legislatures.
      ……..Laxmikant mein yeh point galat likha hai. Usmein Absolute majority likhi hui hai.

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      Ab laxmikanth pe bhi bharosa nahi kar sakte kya..:/

  •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

    Removal of speaker,dy speaker,?

    All the then member of house?is it effective majority?

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      Its for state legislature

  •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

    Can habeas corpus be issue against preventive detention?

    •  Nisha Chauhan @ncnishachauhan

      I think Habeas Corpus cannot be issued against preventive detention.
      Article 22 states that :
      An arrested person shall be detained in custody only after being informed of the grounds for such arrest.
      He cannot be denied the right to consult and being defended by a legal practitioner.
      These provisions dont apply in some cases (exceptions) : If the arrested person is an “enemy alien” or if he has been arrested under any law providing for preventive detention (like TADA, COFEPOSA, MCOCA etc).

      Legal practitioner will use Habeas Corpus , but preventive detention according to this article is an exception . This is my understanding.

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      I referred to a law student,and he told there is no bar on habeas corpus in constitution,and it can be issued against ANY illegal detention.
      Also preventive detention is open to judicial review and it can be issued.

      Although I am not very sure about the fact!

    •  Nisha Chauhan @ncnishachauhan

      Ok.. it is debatable and confusing.. Would be better not to attempt.

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      Better move!

  •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

    With increase in money supply,the demand and price for bond rises and rate of interet will decline?
    Why the rate of interest declines?

    •  Cp @chandraprakash-varadaraju

      increase in money supply tends to have inflationary pressure. In order to avoid inflation, RBI reduces interest rates.

    •  Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      Reducing interest rate?wont it further increase money supply as cost of borrowing is reduced?

    •  Cp V @cp-v

      Sorry. The price(present value of Bond reduces(not the interest rate). interest rate increases. price of bond reduces coz the discounting rate is more now(coz of the interest rate increase or coz of the speculation that interest rate will increase)

  •  GAURAV KUMAR @gaurav-kumar2

    Can State Emergency be imposed through promulgation of Ordinance by the President?
    Under Art 249 RS Passes authorizes the parliament for legislating on state list subjects by passing bill with special majority, are the state consents necessary before such bill is passed by RS?

    •  Ankur Yarazarvi @ankuryarazarvi

      1. Heh? Why ordinance? Just a resolution which has to be approved within 2 months. It is not a legislation , so no ordinance. Right?

      2. “National Interest” + RS itself represents states so, No.

  •  aakash iitjee @aakash-iitjee

    removing subsidy on export will leads to decrease in CAD in long term ?

    •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

      removing subsidy > high rate of product in foreign > Less products selling > less exposts > less income for exports (less income for country) > CAD increases

  •  aakash iitjee @aakash-iitjee

    Spectrum sales revenues,Coal block auction revenues and Disinvestment revenues goes into which account in Budget? i.e whether Revenue account( Non Tax revenue receipts ) or Capital Account (Capital receipts)

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      These are Non Debt creating Capital Receipts so in CAPITAL account.

      Hitendra bhai its about Capital or revenue account of budget not the Capital or current account for Balance of Payment

    •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

      Revenue account. Capital account consists of FDI, FII, NRI DEPOSITS & EXTERNAL BORROWINGS , LENDINGS

  •  Nisha Chauhan @ncnishachauhan

    Hi,
    Is this statement true or false regarding Jammu & Kashmir :
    The power of Parliament to make laws shall be limited to those matters in the Union List and Concurrrent List , in consultation with Governor of the state.

    •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

      Statement is true. But there is more to say. President will consult with J&K govt on the subject. And only usi pe law bnega jo subject Instrument of accession me sign krne k baad dominion of India bnne ke baad us time list me tha. I hope u get it.

    •  Nisha Chauhan @ncnishachauhan

      Ok.. Since it is incomplete , it means it is false as there is no mention of state govt.. Governor does not represent the government (only de jure head)…. Right ?

    •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

      Yes, Governor is not more powerful than govt of J&K. There is a logic behind it. Governor is an agent of Central govt, and if he will have more power than j&k govt than it will not be good for j&k sovereignty. And situation like Arunachal Pradesh and Uttrakhand could be arise there. That’s why all powers are in hand of J&K legislature.

    •  Nisha Chauhan @ncnishachauhan

      to law bnane ke liye state legislature ko consult karenge na,, na ki Governor ko…

  •  aspirant upsc @aspirant-upsc

    Is equality before law applicable to president ?

    •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

      No….Presidents and governors and sometimes M.P and M.L.As are exceptions of this.

  •  Cp @chandraprakash-varadaraju

    who issued gold coins first? appolodotus or kushanas?

    •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

      Appolodotus was an Indo – Greek ruler. So the answer is Appolodotus.

    •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

      Indo – greek was first to introduce gold coins is given on internet. But what we believe is given in 12th NCERT.

      “The first coins to bear the names and images of rulers were issued by the Indo-Greeks, who established control over the north-western part of the subcontinent c. second century BCE.”

      “The first gold coins were issued in the first century CE by the Kushanas. These were virtually identical in weight with those issued by Roman emperors and the Parthian rulers of Iran.”

    •  Cp @chandraprakash-varadaraju

      As per RS sharma(old ncert) – indo greeks came before the kushanas. I guess New NCERT gets preference over old one

  •  GAURAV KUMAR @gaurav-kumar2

    Yes, u are right. The President’s decision is subjected to Judicial review post-confirmation of its validity by Judiciary only the legislative actions enacted will be legitimate. Thanks

  •  GAURAV KUMAR @gaurav-kumar2

    Recently the Central Gov passed a law for Uttarakhand State when its was under the President’s rule and the Parliament was not in session. In such case, for how long is such law valid. Does it need to be passed by the Parliament again when its reassembles and President rule is still there OR such bill like will remain in force until the State doesn’t amend/repeal such law? Pl Clarify

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      So the president’s rule itself didn’t stand as HC asked for floor test and the govt was reinstated. So whatever ordinance was passed should not apply. Had the president’s rule been applied, approved and then come to an end, the law/ordinance would have stayed valid till state reappeals it or makes any subsequent law to amend it.

  •  GAURAV KUMAR @gaurav-kumar2

    Can RRBs Open Time Deposits viz FD,RD? I am not able to find the answer.

  •  Cp @chandraprakash-varadaraju

    Is the old NH numbering system still valid or the new system has been accepted?

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      So the president’s rule itself didn’t stand as HC asked for floor test and the govt was reinstated. So whatever law passed should not apply. Had the president’s rule been applied, approved and then come to an end, the law would have stayed valid till state reappeals it or makes any subsequent law to amend it.

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      sorry replied on the wrong question.

  •  mansimar singh sethi @mansimar-singh-sethi

    How Islands in pacific ring of fire formed? whether ocean-ocean convergence or ocean-continent convergence.Also difference between Island arc,hotspot,volcanic island.

    •  Saurabh Prakash @saurabh-prakash1

      Ocean-Ocean convergence are the ones which create the islands like Java,Sumatra,etc.They are also associated with trenches.Ocean-COntinental convergence creates mountains on margins of continents.

  •  Arslan Ali @arslanarslanali96

    What is meant by – Office of profit , how can it be recognized ?? Its emergence ? supreme court ruling regarding Office of profit ?? And legislature power to prevent its members from disqualification on holding Office of profit ?

  •  Harinder Sidhu @harinder-sidhu

    National Green Tribunal is formed under NGT Act or Article 21? some sources say NGT formation has just taken inference from A21 and its not formed under it. HELP.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      So supreme court interpreted right to healthy environment as part of right to life under article 21. To give effect to that plus international agreement after rio, NGT was constituted under NGT act.

    •  Harinder Sidhu @harinder-sidhu

      Thank You Dr V.If we encounter a statement “NGT is formed under A21”,shall we mark it correct?

  •  Ashwani Yadav @ashwaniyadav

    Polity- lakshmikant
    16.2 – parliamentary approval
    1st line- proclamation of emergency must be approved by both the houses of parliament.

    Same topic last para- every resolution approving the proclamation of emergency must be passed by either house of parliament.

    What is the difference between the two.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Either house means both the houses

  •  Sanjoy Biswas @sanjoy-biswas

    Growth in real per capita income in both developing and developed countries shows that there is convergence in the measures of human capital but no sign of convergence of per capita real income.

    What is the difference between real per capita income and per capita real income?

  •  Cp V @cp-v

    why are aphelion and solstice dates different?

    •  Saurabh Prakash @saurabh-prakash1

      Both aphelion and solstice are very different things.Aphelion just denotes the farthest point of the Sun from Earth.Solstices are the days where either the sun is vertically overhead over either of tropics and it is the longest day in the respective hemisphere.The tilt at the time determines the solstice.It is not necessary that the exact tilt occurs at the time of the aphelion distance.

    •  GAURAV KUMAR @gaurav-kumar2

      International Day of Yoga on June 21>>Summer Solstice

  •  Sonali Raj @sonaliraj

    How do i download civils daily app in my windows 10 laptop ?

  •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

    Sir,

    Lakshmikanth states that RBI was formed by GOI act 1935 while Wiki says that RBI formed by RBI act 1934 and
    in GOI Act – key appointments to RBI to be made by Sec of State through Viceroy

    Which one’s correct?

    And agar exam mein dono hon to which one would be correct?

    Thanks

    •  Cp @chandraprakash-varadaraju

      The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. this is as per RBI website

  •  Arslan Ali @arslanarslanali96

    President appoints members and chairman of upsc ECI CAG and attorney general and governor of states on advice of Council of ministers .. did such advice binding on president ?? Did president have own discretion on these matters ??

  •  Praveen “VSR” Kumar @google8

    Does Inflation cause Depreciation of currency? Please explain with an example.

  •  charan chand @gurucharan1702

    which of the following treaties have NOT been ratified by India?
    1. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
    2. Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
    3. Rotterdam Convention

    •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

      India has signed all treaties related to Environment except NPT & CTPT. So the answer is none pf the above.

  •  Krishna Kunal @kunalkrishna85

    unnotifying …

  •  GAURAV KUMAR @gaurav-kumar2

    How Negative Interest Rate Policy (NIRP) can be used to stop/reduce the flow of Hot money into the economy?

    •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

      A negative interest rate policy (NIRP) is an unconventional monetary policy tool whereby nominal target interest rates are set with a negative value, below the theoretical lower bound of zero percent.

      During deflationary periods, people and businesses hoard money instead of spending and investing. The result is a collapse in aggregate demand which leads to prices falling even farther, a slowdown or halt in real production and output, and an increase in unemployment. A loose or expansionary monetary policy is usually employed to deal with such economic stagnation. However, if deflationary forces are strong enough, simply cutting the central bank’s interest rate to zero may not be sufficient to stimulate borrowing and lending.

      A negative interest rate means the central bank and perhaps private banks will charge negative interest: instead of receiving money on deposits, depositors must pay regularly to keep their money with the bank. This is intended to incentivize banks to lend money more freely and businesses and individuals to invest, lend, and spend money rather than pay a fee to keep it safe.

      Examples

      An example of a negative interest rate policy would be to set the key rate at – 0.2%, such that bank depositors would have to pay two-tenths of a percent on their deposits instead of receiving any sort of positive interest.

      In 2009 and 2010 Sweden and in 2012 Denmark used negative interest rates to stem hot money flows into their economies.

      Ab hindi me btata hu….
      Tum People and main central govt. or central bank. (bura na maanna, agli baar tumhe bna dunga govt.)
      ab main chahta hu ki mera desh growth krta rhe…na slowdown aaye na recession aaye…..isiliye main tumhe attract krne k liye Phir hera feri ki Anuradha ban jaunga…..ek ka double to nhi dunga…lekin ha tumhe loan dunga taaki demand bdhe market me…and us loan pe main tumhe interest bhi dunga….(kitna kind hu main..) get it?
      in short i’ll pay to borrowers to borrow money from banks or from me.

    •  anurag verma @anurag-verma

      what will be the effect of negative interest rate on currency? Whether it will appreciate of depreciate?

  •  GAURAV KUMAR @gaurav-kumar2

    PL CLARIFY THE STATEMENT “The Budget session of Parliament according to the Constitution comprises two sessions because the first part of the Budget session is always prorogued by the President”

    •  Saurabh Prakash @saurabh-prakash1

      Where did you read this statement.Prorogation means dissolution of a SESSION.If prorogued,the two sessions will have different names.
      It should be adjourned.Between the tabling of budget and its discussion in Parliament,seesion is adjourned so that the Departmental standing committees can examine it.

  •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

    The saltiest lake in the world except poles.
    Dead sea or Lale van.
    Net showing Dead Sea, NCERT says “Lake van”.
    Confused.

  •  Cp V @cp-v

    Hi,

    what is conference of plenipotentiaries? read that rotterdam, stockholm,basel conventions were adopted in these conferences

    2) not able to find aug and sept pdfs 🙂 would want to buy them .

    Thanks

    •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

      conference of plenipotentiaries is related to refugees and migration. and i don’t know much about it. It can be important for Prelims. But this little info is enough to get the marks. and if u want to know more about this. Then “jao jake dhund ke lao, aur fir humke bhi batlao”.

    •  Root @root

      All the pdfs are there on the link (click STORE tab on top). The edition (-3) is actually August newscards edition.

  •  rajiv shaw @rj6095

    Context : Yesterday’s newscard …. GDP growth acclerates to 7.9%
    it has been mentioned….
    Consumption: Gross Value Added (GVA) for the year grew by 7.2% which indicates a consumption-led recovery.

    Q1.Cud anybody kindly help me undrstnd why it is called consumption led recovery?? 🙁

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      GVA has nothing to do with consumption or investment. It’s consumption led growth because consumption has friends while investment hadn’t really taken off.

      It was wrong interpretation by card curator which made you confused.

      Also on newscards comment on story or news itself so that others alsk benefit

      Thanks

    •  rajiv shaw @rj6095

      this is rapid fire response Dr Babu ….itna tez toh fire brigade bhi nahi pahucta…wil surely comment on the card itself 🙂

  •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

    One more short trick of answering questions related to comference on environment like Montriyal, Agenda 21, Basel, UNFCC.
    Agar question aata hai ki “India is not a signatory country of which conference on environment? ”

    Ans. Except NPT and CTBT INDIA has signed all the agreements.

    Correct me if i am wrong Dr. V sir.

  •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

    Again Asking Sir.
    1. Is India a signatory country of Stockholm Declaration?
    2. According to Indian constitution is PM work on the pleasure of President?

  •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

    Is India a signatory country of Stockholm Declaration?

  •  HiTendra Yadav @hitendrayadav

    Hiii…According to Indian constitution is PM work on the pleasure of President?

  •  Ravi Mantwal @ravimantwal

    When the rights that are available against the State’s action only are violated by the private individuals, there
    are no constitutional remedies but only ordinary legal remedies. (Laxmikant)
    Does it mean that article 32 is only enforceable against the state’s action only?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      You are not following prelims titbits my dear.

      I discussed this issue there. Only untouch ability article 17 is enforcable against private citizens.

      Go through all the titbits. Will help you a lot in prelims

    •  Ravi Mantwal @ravimantwal

      Thanks for such a quick response.
      Yes, I have been able to follow it only partially, so missed.
      Thanks again, ‘Senior’ 😀

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      You are not following prelims titbits my dear.

      I discussed this issue there. Only untouch ability article 17 is enforcable against private citizens.

      Go through all the titbits. Will help you a lot in prelims

  •  maverick @maverick-s

    APPOINTMENT OF VINOD RAI AS CHAIRMAN OF Banks’ Board Bureau (BBB)

    The Comptroller and Auditor-General shall not be eligible for further office either under the Government of India or under the Government of any State after he has ceased to hold his office.

    The validity argument that the BBB Chairman does not draw any salary from Consolidated Fund of India and post of BBB Chairman being part-time exclude application of article 148(4).

    Question 1 -Is BBB not a office under Government of India ?
    Question 2 -What kind of institution is BBB ?

  •  Sandesh Sharma @millanjsa1990

    In context to European Central banks, what is negative interest rate? How will it effect them. Plz clarify

  •  GAURAV KUMAR @gaurav-kumar2

    Dr V. Kindly clarify whether Appropriation and Finance bills are introduced for voting after or before the voting on “demand for grants” by various ministries?

    Also are “demand for grants” by various ministries given to “Estimates committee only” or other standing committees are also involved?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Dost. Laxmikant Budget wala part acche se padh lo.

      Appropriation bill is introduced after voting for demand for grants is done.

      Finance bill is introduced with the general discussion on the budget but is taken up for discussion and voting after passage of appropriation bill

      Demand for grants is considered by Deptt related standing committees only

  •  Arslan Ali @arslanarslanali96

    CAN ANYONE TELL ME THAT IS IT ESSENTIAL TO READ ALL NCERT BOOKS FROM CLASS 6-12 THEN GO FOR HIGHER LEVEL OF BOOKS LIKE BIPIN CHANDRA AND LAXMIKANT . IF I AM STUDYING DIRECTLY FROM BIPIN CHANDRA AND LAXMIKANT ETC. IS THERE ANY NEED FOR STUDY NCERT BOOKS ??

  •  Sharma Ishani @montusharma1411

    sir how did you prepare for medical science..kindly share your strategy..

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      iske liye jaldi hi aapko ek blog mil jaega

  •  subhash pachar @pachars1

    Buddy I don’t see hindi of every article posted on ur site ? Humbly I request you please make it a thumb rule to have hindi version of each and every word posted in ur site .
    I really appreciate hard work done by you in last ine year. Your guidance has been crucial in our preparation.
    Keepmit up .
    God bless you.
    Have a great health.

    •  Root @root

      @Subhash –

      Hindi translations are limited to daily newscards. Long form articles and blogs are not currently translated to hindi for a simple reason that there is a lack of threshold participation numbers from the hindi aspirants.

      For now, bear with us on that.

  •  Ashwani Yadav @ashwaniyadav

    Appointed by and oath administered by are same thing or different???

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Oath administration can be delegated to subordinate authorities. For instance ias officers are appointed by President but oath is not administered by President. Similarly CM of delhi is appointed by president but administered oath by LG.

      where president has to administer oath and presIdent signs, it’s under the warrant, hand and seal of president like appointment of CAG, CJI etc

  •  Praveen “VSR” Kumar @google8

    Hi all, Can some one explain the difference between “equality before law” and “equal protection of the laws” as enshrined in Article 14 of the Constitution

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Dost equality before law is negative concept that’s state can not discriminate b/w two citizens

      Equal protection is positive concept that is equality under equal circumstances only that is equals should be treated alike unequals unequally.

      For more refer to laxmikant article 14. Kaafi accha explained hai

    •  Praveen “VSR” Kumar @google8

      Hi Dr.V, But I got the doubt while reading Laxmikanth. Both seems to be same for me. Why two phrases was my doubt? Can you please explain it with an example, plz?

  •  GAURAV KUMAR @gaurav-kumar2

    Can anyone kindly clarify the standard ranges for endo-atmospheric and exo-atmospheric anti-ballistic missiles pl?

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      Hi Gaurav bhai,

      I guess the differntiation should start @ 16 km since that is believed to be where most of the atmosphere is. The actual limit is said to be almost 480 km and i dont think that a missile would strictly go outside atmosphere because it will have to face extremes on reentry (which might lead to detonation) thus not so useful.

      Since a lot of ICBMs use Exo atmosphere part (mostly to conserve fuel # not much air # less drag) therefore the missile defence systems to counter ICBMS have to be capable of exo atmospheric neutralisation.

      Baki read up on the same on this link

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missile_defense

  •  Sathya @shradhakj

    please explain writ of injunction?

  •  Meenu Jain @cutemeenujain

    Someone plz explain me the hybrid annuity mode ?

  •  akash shukla @akash-shukla

    Has somebody watched the Art and Culture lecture series at Mrunal? Please advice if it’s worth watching for a candidate who has taken only a glimpse of Art and Culture….

  •  Priya Kathiravan @priyakathiravan

    Someone please explain me this NEER and REER.

    •  Rahul Koppati @rahulkoppati

      NEER (Nominal Effective Exchange Rate): It is simply the weighted average of exchange rate against a basket of currencies. The weights are determined by relative trade balance with the countres. If India has high trade balance with China, Chinese Renminbi is given more weight.

      REER (Real Effective Exchange Rate): It is similar to NEER, but makes adjustments for Inflation in each country. Suppose if there is high inflation in China, Rupee will buy less in China. Then exchange rate with Chinese Renminbi is adjusted to this inflation. Then weighted average is calculated to give REER.

      The basic difference between NEER and REER is inflation adjustment.

    •  Priya Kathiravan @priyakathiravan

      Thank you.

  •  Rathna Senthil @rathnasethil

    Dr.V Please let me know how to read yojana? To be studied selectively or fully??

  •  Rathna Senthil @rathnasethil

    Hi,
    Am planning to give my attempt in 2017. Is there any chances of removing optionals as am planning to join history optional class next month.
    Criticisms welcome:)

  •  Satyajeet Panchal @satyajeet8030

    What is Green Shoots of recovery in an economy?

    •  Rahul Koppati @rahulkoppati

      Analogy to green shoots after Autumn. To indicate signs of recovery when economy is going down or looks weak. When India has seen decreasing growth during 2013-14, recovery signs in automobile, oil, real estate, etc were seen as green shoots in 2015.

  •  Satyajeet Panchal @satyajeet8030

    What is Securities and Hybrid Securities?

    •  Satyajeet Panchal @satyajeet8030

      Securities :
      1. A thing deposited or pledged as a guarantee of the fulfilment of an undertaking or the repayment of a loan, to be forfeited in case of default.Ex. : Bonds, Collateral.
      2. A certificate attesting credit, the ownership of stocks or bonds, or the right of ownership connected with tradable derivatives

  •  Ayushi Mahapatra @ayushimahapatra

    Hi Dr.V.. Many congratulations !! You would make an amazing bureaucrat ! keep shining 🙂

  •  sukhjinder kaur @sukhjinder-kaur1

    can you please tell me if it is important to have very good writing or just content matters?? please do reply. and what should be covered in right issues of polity session?

  •  Satyajeet Panchal @satyajeet8030

    Why we have a separate Budget for Railways,is it so important Sector to have a separate Budget? And, if it is then why shouldn’t we have a separate Budget for Agriculture as about 60% of our population depends on it?

    •  Satyajeet Panchal @satyajeet8030

      Let

    •  Rahul Koppati @rahulkoppati

      It was a major sector during the British times. It’s share in economy reduced after our Independence. But going by numbers, the passengers and goods carried, it is very important sector in India.

      It is possible to manage railways by regular budget. Even Bibek Debroy committee on restrutcuring railways recommended scrapping Railway Budget. It continues due to legacy and not out of compulsion.

    •  Satyajeet Panchal @satyajeet8030

      What about Agriculture Budget?

    •  Rahul Koppati @rahulkoppati

      It is already a major sector in Budget. In my opinion separate budget will increase bureaucratic overhead. I can’t recall any committee recommending separate budget for Agriculture.

    •  Satyajeet Panchal @satyajeet8030

      I listened about from demands of Agricultural unions and activists?

  •  Juhi Singh @juhisingh

    Employee Pesnion schme (EPS): Will it be applicable to a person working in a private company, say HDFC bank or in an MNC say Google India (based in India). Salary being 10 LPA.

    If yes, who contributes what? Please clarify as per new changes made under Budget 2016-17.

    TIA.

  •  Karan Singh @karan-singh

    why no. of disable from 21.9 million in 2001 it has gone up to 26.8 million in 10 year ??

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      dost methodology change hoti rahti hai.. we anyway underestimate our disabled population. It would be some 5% of population as per UN estimates

  •  Satyajeet Panchal @satyajeet8030

    What is gas pooling in fertilizer Sector? And, why government provided 70% of the total fertilizer subsidy to urea alone, while optimal N : P : K is generally 4:2:1 for most Soil tyoes then why not we should provide subsidies for Urea : DAP : MOP in the same ratio of 4:2:1 ?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      gas pooling means pooling the domestically produced gas with imported LNG. It’s done as imported LNG is costlier so that every unit get raw material at more or less equal price.

      Why fertilizer subsidy skewed because Urea not covered under nutrient based pricing

      Ye blog padh lo for more

      Economic Survey For IAS | Chapter 09 | Reforming The Fertiliser Sector

  •  Satyajeet Panchal @satyajeet8030

    What is aerial fibre network?

    •  Focus Ias @focusias

      AS the name suggests, instead of digging up the earth over here we put in the wires through poles.

  •  Dr V @dr-v

    Dost petroleum products, gems and jewellery, textile, chemicals and agriculture products ka share learn kar le crudely. Descending order mein and crudely remember kiske share mein maximum fall hua hai.. that would suffice. They rarely ask such questions in prelims though you would get them in almost all tesr series.

    Also I update 10th chapter of Eco survey with many concepts not in survey. Have you read that

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      Thanks a lot Sir ji and Congratulations!! 🙂

  •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

    Hi Dr. V

    Which numbers from the Economic survey should we memorize (atleast try to)?
    2014-15 or 2015-16
    I am referring to page 68 of Vol 2 of Survey, Table 4.1

  •  Ashwani Yadav @ashwaniyadav

    Dr. V — Polity quiz link??

  •  Rohit Kumar @rohitkumar1

    why CAPF are headed by IPS officers and not by their own officers?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Yahi to babugiri hoti hai dost. If DG CAPf were to be CAPF officer, why would people go for IPS. Just as Audits and account deptt head CAG is generally an IAS officer, revenue secretary is IAS officer not from IRS, similarly CAPF headed by IPS

    •  Areef Khan @khanjsmithareef

      Due to shortage of their personnel’s specially officers rank capf is assisted by IPS.

  •  Bhavana H S @bhavanaahs

    I read various internet sources for madden julian oscillations, but they were very vague. i did not understand them.
    Please tell me about el-nino modoki phenomenon also.

  •  prathyusha sai @prathyusha-sai

    sir iam frm arts background from inter, what should i do to cover other subjects? iam frm hpg base

  •  chitranshu tomar @educatedcrazysperm

    which approach is better

    downloading RsTv debate
    or just reading about that debate on civilsdaily only

  •  Ravi Mantwal @ravimantwal

    Sir, due to Coriolis effect anything moving from equator to north would deflect right. Then why do trade winds after crossing equator deflects left? (pre southwest monsoon)

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      Okay when we go near the equator,the winds should be moving faster to conserve momentum of the system that’s why they get accelerated causing change on direction. Note to the direction, if you go from NP to equities the winds deflect towards your right. Similarly if you go from South Pole to equator, the winds would deflect towards your left..

      Ultimately, if you’re looking at a globe such that NP is up top and SP at the bottom, the winds would be deflecting to your left always. Hope this helps. Check out some videos on you tube on Coriolis force. They’ve explained the technical jargon I have written in the first few lines in very simple terms.

    •  Ravi Mantwal @ravimantwal

      Thanks Man! 🙂

  •  Baleel Ahamed @baleel-ahamed

    Sir,i have obc dated 26-6-2014. Can i apply for upsc prelims. Would there be any problem? Or should i take obc afresh?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Dost obc certificate is generally valid for only an year do in all likelihood you will have to get a new one. No certificate is required for prelims so fill up the form and get it issued as it would be required when you submit derailed application form for mains.

      Or ask some obc friends of yours who filled the form last year.

      Best luck

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      or may be 3 years. Please do check.. but there shouldn’t be any problem in filling up prelims form

  •  Gaurav Kumar @abhi431991

    With full capital account convertibility, will the FIPB norm in FDI be automatically removed?
    Will the P-Notes purchase via FII be limitless?
    Will it impact Gov borrowing? If yes, kindly confirm pl

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      With full capital account convertibility, capital movement will be free except in a few sectors where govt explicitly prohibits it.so it will be mostly automatic with only reporting requirements.

      Govt cab impose regulations even in that case and those regulations may or may not cover p notes.

      Corporates will be free to borrow from external sources. External commercial borrowing norms will be very relaxed.

      Govt is even today free to borrow from external sources as much as it likes

    •  Gaurav Kumar @abhi431991

      In short it will impact ECB mainly. That’s It!! Right??

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      nope.. fdi fii would be freer. default would be free capital flow.. so fii would be able to invest as much as they want in stock market, bond market..no lock in nothing.. same would be the case with govt bonds but govt may impose some regulations.

      Just as there is current account convertibility but still there are import export regulations but they are minimal. So would be the case with capital account convertability

    •  Gaurav Kumar @abhi431991

      Ok. So implications would be wider. Thanks Dr V.

  •  Gaurav Kumar @abhi431991

    DR V. ONE QUERY.

    IN CASE OF SDR, DO DEPOSITOR NATIONS EARN ANY INTEREST ON THEIR SDR DEPOSITS TO IMF IF THE DEPOSITS MATCHES WITH SDR QUOTA ALLOCATED?

    ALSO HOW INDIA CAN INCREASE ITS SDR QUOTA KEEPING IMF QUOTA FIXED?

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      Yes SDR do accumulate interest. As to how to increase the SDR without increasing IMF quota, I think SDR can be increased by simply adding to your already existing amount in any of the designated currencies (dollar,pound,yen,euro, etc). I don’t know if this is related but China got it’s currency included (starting October) by doing activities such that a lot of trade in the world to take place directly using renminbi. For example it has an agreement with Russia where Roubel can directly be exchanged into yuan without converting to dollars first, thus direct trade. The more direct trade you have in the world, the more your currency affects international monetary situation. Hence the more likely is it likely to get included. Also, you have to resort to financial lobbying and arm twisting.

  •  Cp @chandraprakash-varadaraju

    what is Jan Annusuddhi Yojana? found mention regarding this in budget speech but could not get clarity on the same.

    •  Gaurav Kumar @abhi431991

      Jan aushadhi yojana started in 2008 by MoH&FW is a scheme of providing low cost affordable and generic medicines to the public through the chain of stores called Jan Aushadhi Stores, which sells the essential and life saving medicines described in Schedule I to the customers as per Drug Price Control Order – DPCO 2013 executed by NPPA (National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority). This is mainly to improve public health by making essential and life saving drugs available to them via these stores.

      Public can buy these medicines through doctor’s prescription only.
      BPPI takes the responsibility of making the drugs available to these stores and opening up more stores as per the public need.

      Thus, Jan Aushadhi Stores are helping in improving public health by assuring 3As – Availability, Accessibility and Affordability. I hope your doubt is clarified.

  •  Ashutosh Pandey @ashutosh-pandey

    hello Dr V ( Gumnami Baba sir) what will rbi do, if lots of dollors come to india in terms of exchange rate obv.? and is undervaluation will hold good for india???

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      so, if lots of dollars come, it would put upward pressure on exchange rate. Obviously RBI wouldn;t allow too much appreciation of rupee as that wuld hurt exporters so it would start buying dollars so that rupee stablizes at a comfortable level and volatility is minimized.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      so, if lots of dollars come, it would put upward pressure on exchange rate. Obviously RBI wouldn;t allow too much appreciation of rupee as that wuld hurt exporters so it would start buying dollars so that rupee stablizes at a comfortable level and volatility is minimized.

  •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

    Am i right in assuming that in order to form a Constitutional Body or giving a Constitutional Status to a Statutory body, A Constitutional Amendment Act needs to be passed for that effect?

    Or is it that whatever was made by Constitution makers (UPSC, EC, etc) was all that could be made and from then on the max we can do is make Statutory Bodies. (Doesn’t seem likely though)

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      By constitutional amendment we can make any body constitutional so there was debate over making lokpal a constitutional body. A constitutional amendment bill was also introduced but eventually bill lapsed and now lokpal would only be a statutory body.

      Similarly if not quashed, NJAC would have been a constitutional body.

      Hope, it’s clear

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      Yes Sir. Thank you

  •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

    Why the fundamental right of “Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth” is not available to Foreigners?What is the logic?

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      I think it has to do with place of birth part. They are not Indians, they can’t be given government jobs since a lot of them require one to be Indian Citizen(except when they form part of advisory/specialist committee). And hence, they are being discriminated against anyways (in the above respects).So better put that in writing that they can be discriminated so that they dont go on knocking judiciary doors for the same

  •  John Nash @johnnash

    why heat waves cause more death in andhra and telengana compared to other parts of india:any geograpical factors?

    •  Focus Ias @focusias

      There is a funny angle to it. The higher number reported could also an estimation error.-

      “The state government has not made postmortem a must to certify a death as heat related as several deaths had occurred this year before it acknowledged the prevailing temperatures as a heat wave and announced ex-gratia.

      People normally do not agree for postmortem in such cases, and in many instances the deaths are reported after the last rites are done. So the local committees ascertain by taking statements of eyewitnesses and family members that a victim was working in the heat before his death. – See more at: http://indianexpress.com/article/india/weather-india-2/2000-heat-wave-deaths-only-a-third-confirmed-in-andhra-pradesh/#sthash.uZgntjAK.dpuf

  •  Dr V @dr-v

    I hope, everything is clear now.

  •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

    Which are the major antecedent Himalayan Rivers?Please explain how GORGES, V Shaped valleys, rapids and waterfalls are an indication of youthful stage of the RIVERS?Aren’t gorges formed by antecedent(OLDER)rivers?Hows waterfalls and rapids an indication of youthful stage? Samething about V shaped valleys.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      see antecedent does not mean older, it means rivers originating before the mountains through which they cut through were uplifted. GAnga, Brahmputra, Sutlej are such rivers.

      Youthful stage means more energy, less sediment, more force. Now if you apply more downward force to land , cutting would be more and V shaped valleys would be create, older stage, less cutting, U shaped valleys

      Similarly when they cut too much and make beautiful deep gorges.

  •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

    Are OCEANS WETLANDS?Why or why not?
    Also why are there NO wetlands in ANTARCTICA?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      dost, wetland is transition zone b/w land and water bodies..Swamp, marshes, bogs, peats are wetlands not rivers and oceans. Technically water depth should not be greater than 6m at low tide.

      Antarctic is a desert, there is no water, hence no wetland.
      But recent researches suggest there could be water beneath the ice and it might eventually turn out to be world’s largest wetland

  •  Sathya @shradhakj

    what is the exact need of payment banks? doesn’t low cost accounts of PSBs and other banks suffice

    •  Focus Ias @focusias

      In the words of RBI –

      The objectives of setting up of payments banks will be to further financial inclusion by providing (i) small savings accounts and (ii) payments/remittance services to migrant labour workforce, low income households, small businesses, other unorganised sector entities and other users.

      They can reach these guys better and faster than the structured PSBs, Banks…

    •  Sathya @shradhakj

      thank you 🙂

  •  rajiv shaw @rj6095

    As per my understanding I feel that interest subvention was helping farmers even when there was no crop failure and hence it has been replaced by d crop insurance scheme which wil support farmers only when there is crop damage due to natural calamities or adverse weather conditions.
    On the other hand DBT linked Aadhar has introduced with a primary aim of making d subsidies to d poor more targeted and reduce d slippages as was d case previously….again it wil also helps to realise d aim of financial inclusion….providing social security benefits, etc to d masses in d long term….kindly rply If I went wrong somwhere.

  •  Carpe Diem @ankurupadhyay

    Hi!

    On one hand we say that substantial number of interest subvention loans are diverted to non-agri uses and on another hand we cite DBT using Aadhar linked bank account as a solution to it? How are these two linked?
    How can DBT changes the way farmer uses the money?

    Thanks in advance!

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      so. I think, you understand how interest subvention scheme funds can be diverted. DBT can be linked to the input purchase, just like LPG.

      You buy 1kg of seeds, receive 100rs in your bank account. It will be further authenticated by bio metrics. This way it could reduce diversion.

      If they decide to transfer money unconditionally, money can be used for any purpose ad chances of money not being utilized for agri purposes would be there but even in that case, as layer of bank getting reimbursed is removed, efficiency gains will be achieved.

      I hope, it’s clear now.

    •  Krishna Kunal @kunalkrishna85

      also DBT eliminates market distortion, thus paving way for exit for inefficient firms, say, a fertilizer industry (ES 15-16)

  •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

    1.Does Mountainous soil have high Humus content or low humus content?Why?.
    2.How come laterite soil, with such high bacterial content, have low humus content?

    •  Saurabh Prakash @saurabh-prakash1

      Humus is formed by breaking down of organic molecules like plants,etc. into simpler organic molecules by microorganisms.It provides nutrients essential for plant growth, increases soil water absorption, and improves soil workability. If too much bacteria present, this rate is intensified and the simpler organic molecules further breakdown into inorganic molecules or minerals which are again washed out by the high rainfall in such areas.SO fertility is very low.

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      1.Mountaneous soils have high humus content as they are basically derived from organic matter.(Another name,Forest soil)

      2.Lateritic soil have high humus content in wetter parts,as it promotes microbial activities.

    •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

      But NCERT’s say,”Humus content of the soil is removed fast by bacteria that thrives well in high
      temperature. These soils are poor in organic matter”.???????

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      It depends whether the soil is present in alternate wet-dry region or completely dry region.

  •  John Nash @johnnash

    regarding TReDS,finance minister said that that a significant part of the working capital requirement of a MSME arises due to long receivables realization cycles.What is “Long receivables realization cycles”?

  •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

    Does only antecedent rivers form gorges?

  •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

    1.Are all antecedent rivers in the himalayas older than the Himalayas?
    2.Are ghagra,chenab older than the himalayas?
    3.Are ghagra(with origin in Tibetan plateau),chenab antecedent rivers?

  •  Gyanendra Singh @gyanthakur1992

    What’s the difference between money bill and financial bill?

    •  rajiv shaw @rj6095

      In one liner I wil say ‘all money bills r finance bill but not vic vrsa’.
      Money bill & Fin bil I(Art.117 (i))…..can be intro.ed only in LS & on prior recommendations of Prz..
      Fin bil I(Art. 117(i)) – contains any/all prov.s of art.110 + other matters of legislation.In all othr respect it is same as ordinary bill.

      While Fin bil II(Art. 117 (iii)) – contains matters involving transaction from Consolidated Fund Of
      Ind. but non of d matters of Art. 110.
      In al othr respect it is same as an ordinary bill. Recommendtn of Prz not required for its introduction.
      However this bill cannot b pass by either house until Prz has not asked d reapectiv house to consider/take up d bill.

      Hope I didnt confused you 🙂 ….tried to make it simple.

    •  Rini Sen @rini

      Please read this story – the CD explains part of it to understand the money bill/ financial bill controversy in it.

      Aadhaar Cards: The Identity Revolution

  •  Baleel Ahamed @baleel-ahamed

    What is offset and multiplier . Can anyone explain please

    •  Focus Ias @focusias

      Thora context bhi dedo dost. Where did you read this?

    •  Baleel Ahamed @baleel-ahamed

      In defence friend.recent governmnt intervention in offset agreement

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      And multipier is basically incentivising the foreign seller firm to invest in a specific targeted sector say MSME or technological acquisition as a part of their offest obligation.It is a factor applied to actual offset transaction to calculate the actual credit earned.
      Ex. Say India has a multipler value of 3. Here if the offset obligation is 30 million$ (taking previous example) then French firm would invest only 10million$ (30/3) in technological acquisition and complete the offset obligation.(which was earlier 30 million$)
      Thus,foreign firm is incentivised to invest in a targeted sector.

      Baki Dr.V can correct me if I am wrong anywhere.

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Offset in layman means counterbalacing.

      Offset policy is basically an agreement between the foreign seller and domestic buyer where the seller undertakes certain programme so as to compensate buyer’s expenditure and generate benefits for the economy of the buyer’s nation.Offset obligation is in percentage term of the total transaction.
      Ex-India purchases 10 rafaels from french firm for say 100 million$.Then french firm has to reinvest certain part of this say 30% i.e 30million$ in India so as to build indegenious capablities and boost manufacturing component

  •  varun negi @varun-negi

    Why India’s rank slid down so drastically in World Happiness Report?
    111 se 156?
    Although it is difficult to predict but still if someone has some idea/points please do share!

  •  Ashutosh Pandey @ashutosh-pandey

    Dr. V, in SR Bommai case, how idea of secularism came? and what was outcome of case did he become CM again or not?? just for general idea

    •  Palash Luthra @palash-luthra

      Idea of secularism as one of the determinant for ‘constitutional/unconstitutional’ actions of state. SC held that if the political party sought to use religion as one of the plan to the extent of eroding the ‘secular philosophy’ of the Indian constitution, then its tactics will be held unconstitutional. Thus, President rule can be applied in this case too.
      The President rule continued in Karnataka (SR Bommai was the leader of state government) and hence CM wasn’t reinstated

    •  Ashutosh Pandey @ashutosh-pandey

      good one palash bhai….

  •  Kiruthika Rajendiran @kiruthikarajendiran

    With reference to the Hindu opinion article, Road map for a robust defense industry (http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/columns/road-map-for-a-robust-defence-industry/article8414445.ece)

    It is mentioned that, ‘Offsets are trade distorting’ I couldn’t connect how offset obligations end up distorting trade. Could you please help me visualize?

    •  Palash Luthra @palash-luthra

      It is “trade distorting” in the sense that there is no free flow of investments because you are bound to invest a certain portion back into the Indian economy.
      Consider a situation, you go to shopkeeper to buy sugar but shopkeeper impose a condition that it is necessary to buy salt too. Now, how does this idea sound? You are not able to deal in a free manner

    •  Krishna Kunal @kunalkrishna85

      Slightly misplaced example. “Consider a situation, you go to shopkeeper to buy sugar but shopkeeper impose a condition that it is necessary to buy salt too. Now, how does this idea sound? You are not able to deal in a free manner”

      it should be “Consider a situation, you go to shopkeeper(seller) to buy sugar but you(buyer) also impose a condition that it is necessary for shopkeeper to open a coldrink stall in your colony(not free distribution but still… against free market principle). Now, how does this idea sound? Shopkeeper(s) are not able to deal in a free manner.”

    •  Kiruthika Rajendiran @kiruthikarajendiran

      Thank you! I guess that makes sense

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Palash is right Kiruthika. At the risk of being repetitive let me explain how offsets work.Suppose, India is planning to import 1b$ worth MMRCA from France but India attaches the condition of 30% offset with specific provisions thay 30%of MMRCA will be manufactured in India. Idea of free trade is to maximize choices so that most efficient manufacturer would produce the goods. Here suppose most efficient manufacturer of component parts is located in Paris but by making it compulsory, they will have to be manufactured in India by inefficient firms. Thus against free trade against competition against efficency.

    •  Kiruthika Rajendiran @kiruthikarajendiran

      Thank you Dr. V! The contextual example certainly helps understand better 😀

    •  Ashutosh Pandey @ashutosh-pandey

      in same article, there is a term FDI via automatic route ?? what is it and how may routes are there?? about offsets, in my view, as some trading partner may not happy to reinvest offset liability or due to offset cost of trading may increase more so may be both part not agree to desired cost… just an idea, still happy if some one reply correctly…

    •  Palash Luthra @palash-luthra

      FDI via automatic route doesn’t require prior approval from RBI/government/Foreign Investment Promotion Board but only to be notified to the regional officer of RBI
      In other cases, you require approval from the above mentioned agencies

  •  changemylife @changemylife

    in cassino mission article you have mentioned
    This was the first landing ever accomplished in the outer Solar System
    my doubt is how come saturn an its moon Titan considered as outer solar system??

    •  Focus Ias @focusias

      It could be for an intuitive understanding – dividing dollar system into inner, middle and outer zone for the sake of reference, thats it!

    •  changemylife @changemylife

      dollor system or solar system

    •  Focus Ias @focusias

      solar! That was a typo. sorry…

  •  changemylife @changemylife

    can any one explain me what is negative subsidy?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Subsidy is transfers from govt so negative subsidy will be opposite of that ie transfer to the govt ie taxes or user charges or license fee or royalty etc

    •  changemylife @changemylife

      Negative subsidy term related to power generation through imported gas,
      earlier Govt used to give subsidy to the bidders of (imported)Gas,
      but this Govt imposed Negetive subsidy on bidders that is they has to pay to govt for power generation (through imported Gas)
      yes they have to pay (rather than receiving subsidy as during the case of previous year) so bidders paid 0.02 rupees to he govt for each unit of power generated…. this is called Negative Subsidy

    •  Palash Luthra @palash-luthra

      Disclaimer: I can be wrong here !
      IMO, negative or positive subsidy is a matter of perspective. Suppose, the government provide subsidy to import of an item that is even produced domestically. So it will hurt the domestic industry and hence a form of negative subsidy

  •  sam @sam-r1o

    Dr. V , hi
    Could you explain all types of Motions in Parliament in simple language, there are so many Motions there! Also explain Cut Motions of Budget part giving simple example. Your explanation would put some Emotions in these Motions ☺

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      I know of only one motion that is loose motion. On a serious note, will try to do a proper article explaining all the motions, resolutions, cut motions etc with examples and comparison asap.

    •  sam @sam-r1o

      Thanks Dr. V . waiting for that Article

    •  Ashutosh Pandey @ashutosh-pandey

      Dr. saheb…. can u plzz through some light on this solar panel issue in WTO… ???

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Pandey ji aapne weekly round up nhi padha kyaa.. itna crisply explain kit’s hai, kahin aur nhi milega.

  •  Palash Luthra @palash-luthra

    Sir, how do power exchanges work? The question is with regard to ES chapter “Powering One India”.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Like any other exchange, it brings buyers and sellers of electricity together on a common platform and thus help in price discovery.

  •  Rajesh Badavath @rajesh-badavath

    Q) Nepal and India relations need to be judged based on their own merits rather than asking china in to the picture. Analyze the relations and add note on recent visit of Prime Minister Oli to China

  •  Surendar Subbu @surendarsubbu

    Hi Dr V, i am interested in Economy optional in this year exam…. can you please explain the syllabus and relevant source of study or do we have any plans for optional also…. i am doing self study.
    PLease help
    Thank u so much for your help 🙂

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Google Gaurav Agarwal’s strategy. He got highest marks in economics 2 years back. You will know better

  •  Sanjana @sanjanalsr

    Thanks.
    So art 75 essentially means that Ministers are individually responsible to prez since they hold office during the pleasure of the president.

    •  rajiv shaw @rj6095

      I wil just try to add a bit here…ys thre is an implicit individual reposibility undr Art. 75….but that doesnt mean prz. can remove any minister when he wishes..he has to act on d advice of d PM & COM….42ND Amd. made this advice binding on prz….44th Amd allowed prz to ask for reconsideration of d advice but d reconsidered advice must be binding on d prz.

    •  Sanjana @sanjanalsr

      yes. President is not the real head of the executive and only the nominal head due to these reasons. thanks!

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Added below,check..:)

  •  VK @vidushi-kaushik

    Can someone please explain how exactly the Ujjwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana works? I read somewhere that that once the DISCOM debts are taken over by the State Governments, the interest costs will come down from 14% to about 7%. How will this happen? Many thanks in anticipation of a response!

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Since DISCOMs are treated as NPAs and rated low by credit agencies,they are being lended at much higher interest rate.
      In accordance to UDAY,as the state Government in liable to take on debt of DISCOMs by 75% in two years,also the remaining could be restructed(not compulsory provision) it would significantly improve the operational efficiency and in turn credit worthiness,as the debt would be backed by Government bonds.So,it will bring the interest rate charged on stressed assets at near 14-15% to 7%.

      (This is just my attempt,if my understanding seem to be wrong anywhere,feel free to correct)

    •  VK @vidushi-kaushik

      Thanks for your response Anurag!
      I agree with you that with DISCOM debt being taken over by state governments, the credit worthiness of DISCOMs will improve significantly. But that will be helpful vis-a-vis any loans taken by the DISCOMs in the future.
      It is being contended that the interest cost of the existing debt of about ₹4.3 lakh crores will come down from 14% to 8%. My understanding is that – once the debt has been taken over, it will be converted into non-SLR bonds issued by the government, which are serviced @ premium of 8%. Effectively, the interest rate comes down from 14% to 8%. Any thoughts?

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Not necessarily sevicing @8% as its on states.Also I explained the same in laymen tern since you asked for idea.

      Yes,conversion to non-SLR bonds is amongst the salient feature of the scheme,and would be helpful for existing debt,but for the future loans,it would be the credit worthiness.

  •  Sanjana @sanjanalsr

    The Council of Ministers is Collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. I have a doubt regarding individual responsibility of the Union Cabinet Ministers. Art 75 states that ministers hold office during the pleasure of president. Does is mean ministers are individually responsible to the prez? I read on gktoday that Union Cabinet Ministers are individually responsible to the Parliament.
    Someone Please clarify.

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Art 75 states that ministers hold office during the pleasure of prez.

      It means that Prez (on the binding advice of PM) could anytime remove the minister,even when CoM enjoys confidence of loksabha as a whole.

      Here,minister is responsible to prez,which is a key provision to ensure collective resposiblity of the minister.
      Since,collective resposiblity also means that each minister is resposible to stand by Cabinet Decsions,this can only be achieved,if PM is given overiding power to dismiss a minister(Through Prez) in case of disagreement.

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Rather I would say it is implicit that minister is responsible to prez(cabinet).

  •  Root @root

    @Everyone – We would really appreciate you taking time of to answer each other’s query along with putting down your own. The whole idea to have this forum up and starting dedicated threads on ques/ answers is to involve all CD members.

    IF we see only one sided participation, then we might resort to go selective on question answering.

  •  rajiv shaw @rj6095

    Dr. V cud u kindly xplain d meaning of “Giffen goods” with a real life example…ys I undrstnd it is out of contxt…actually I was reading an article nd I got stuck in this

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      Griffen goods- demand of goods increases with price increase. For example, when there is price increase of essential commodities due to hoarding and virtual scarcity their demand increase, as in the case of arhar dal few months back(200 rs per kg). Another example can be limited editions of cars and other entities

    •  Focus Ias @focusias

      http://www.investopedia.com/terms/g/giffen-good.asp

      This is the best sources to get a video understanding of it – two examples also given

  •  Baleel Ahamed @baleel-ahamed

    Which one is nodal agency for cyber security NTRO or CERT.what are the relation in between these entity

  •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

    I have a doubt regarding follow up of current affairs. When we come across any news( for example, it was recently in news that govt is considering including road in PSL), we have to make notes of the end result and final outcome or we have to also note preceeding follow up discussions on that news?

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Though. I am not an expert in the matter,still I could share as much as I experienced.

      Regarding your question of followups,yes they are important as it builds the overall analysis regarding any project sanctioned by govt(not every discussion,but its on your descretion to filter out the odds)

      ‘Stories’ here in CD is in my opinion ‘one stop solution’ to keep tracking the followup discussions with respect to any relevant news.(They have topics mentioned)

  •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

    How to create a new thread? Can it be done on mobile?

  •  changemylife @changemylife

    Geo-Fencing of railway stations is must for paperless ticketing system:
    plz explain what is geo fencing and how it works in railways

    •  Focus Ias @focusias

      Geo-fencing is a virtual barrier which uses the global positioning system (GPS) or radio frequency identification (RFID) to define geographical boundaries.

      Geo fence is a sort of virtual barrier in terms of technology – funda is that GPS and Radio Frequency ki help se they will mark the fences or barriers which need to be adhered to by the rails.

      http://indianexpress.com/article/india/indian-railways-to-tie-up-with-isro-for-enhanced-safety-efficiency/

    •  changemylife @changemylife

      paperless ticket kaise hota h geo-fencing se?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Dekho dost bahut simple hai.. Focus dude/ dudette has explained the concept of geo fencing very well. For paperless ticketing, you would want to make sure that a clever person like focusias does not book his/her ticket when s/he spots TTE in his / her coach. If that’s not the case, nobody would buy tickets and immediately book a ticket when he spots a TTE. So here, geo fencing would not allow you to book a ticket once inside the station or train premises or on that route.
      I hope, it’s clear now.
      Please spread the word about CD among friends and juniors. Share your interview transcript, when it;s done on forum.
      Thank you.

  •  Sahil Garg @gargsahil58

    Which poverty line does India currently follow -> Tendulkar or Rangrajan…and how to search for such doubts on internet ? which ministry website etc etc. ?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Planning commission used to provide poverty data. Niti ayog so far has not released any poverty figures, it’s an every 5 year exercise. Poverty estimates at present are based on Tendulakr line, latest from 2011-12 I suppose.
      RAngrajan recommendations have not been accepted by the govt Even niti ayog supported Tendulkar, so Tendulkar line will be continued IMO when new data is released in coming year after NSSO survey.

    •  Shiksha Swami @shikshaswami

      Rangrajan

  •  Baleel Ahamed @baleel-ahamed

    Does it seem that there is a convergence of indira awaas yojana and house for all scheme. In IAY how a beneficiary can construct house without contractor. Is it to be done by himself

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      I think it is the other way round. India gandhi awas yojana has been reformed and subsumed under housing for all( for example, rajiv gandhi rural electrification scheme subsumed under DDUGJY). Regarding contractors, it can be through open bidding and fixed prices by government or government may subsidise the amount if it is more than the budget of entitled beneficiary

  •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

    Dr.V
    Wishing you a very happy and colorful holi.:)

    Help me out with this too,
    Supreme court ruling held that Art 74 is mandatory and prez cannot exercise the executive power without the aid and advice of council of minister.Thus even after the dissolution of the lok sabha,council of minister doesn’t cease to hold office.

    I think it can only be the case when council of miniter advices prez to dissolve lok sabha.But in other case around,when the COM loses majority in the lok sabha,it has to resign,what happens now?Does the Leader of opposition forms his alternative govt appointed by prez?or the CoM stays even after resignation,untill next general election and formation of the house?because executive power by prez without COM would be violative of the constitution.
    Please Clear the doubt.Thanks in advance.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Happy holi,
      Yes, until the next CoM is sworn in, president has to act on the recommendations of old CoM even when LS is dissolved. He can not act without the recommendations. He has no discretion accept to send the advice back, sit on the ordinances etc.
      At the time of Kargil conflict/ war, there was only a caretaker NDA govt and president accepted all it’s recommendations, It’s a well settled fact that president has to act on the recommendations of even caretaker govt.

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Thanks a lot Sir,
      Explained with a suitable example as well..

      Sir,
      Capital market type kuch aane wala hai kya? 😛

  •  Dr V @dr-v

    Poora blog hi likh diya tumhare liye. I hope, that clears your doubt

    Indian Polity | Powers of President and governor

    Also follow the collection to read more such articles
    http://www.civilsdaily.com/collection/constitution-simplified/

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      I owe you big time Dr.V..:)
      Please mention the correct answer key too.
      Thanx a lot.

  •  Baleel Ahamed @baleel-ahamed

    What is the need for country like india in mars mission. Please explain in economical point of view ….?please in english sir

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      When you write country like India, I take it that you intend to say a very poor country where women and children die during child birth, women are anemic, children malnourished, 300m under poverty so we need more MGNREGA, ICDS, PDS, Free Health, Free Education etc. So rather than spending money on vanity projects like MOM, we need to divert that money to MGNREGA.

      But the problem with this conception is that it’s binary, either or. Why can’t we spend on both. Granted funds are limited but we can set aside a small sum for research. Just think, if we hadn’t invested in space research and built and launched satellites, many more people would have died during floods and cyclones. If NASA hadn’t invested in research, we wouldn’t have ever heard of Teflon, now household name.
      Just see the effect, if we don’t invest a few cents in such projects. Our best and brightest who wants to research will migrate to west, already there’s too much brain drain. Young kids will be inspired from whom? Were you not inspired by Einstein or Neil Armstrong’s feet of going to the moon?
      There are so many intangible and long term benefits of investing in scientific research. It’s not apparent when we start researching but history tells us that investment in science give back many times over.
      So the idea should be to strike the right balance. We need better schools, better health care, so we need to invest in that but we also need to invest in science. Our spending on R&D at .9% is among the lowest in the world

    •  Baleel Ahamed @baleel-ahamed

      I am convinced with ur reply sir. However i cant imagine any immediate benefit out of mars mission. By spending on research about origin of species what we will get except text book updation and pride. though I am convinced about why india has send telecom and remote sensing satellite, i cant see any tangible effect that benefit to some extant large number of people

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      If Darwin hadn’t researched about origin of species, we would have never known the concept of survival of fittest, That’s a very important concept, not just for the textbooks but for our lives.
      At the time of launching of satellites, we didn’t know they could be used in such ways. Basic science research is important in itself.
      If Einstein hadn’t worked on mass energy conservation, he was actually working on cosmic matters, we would never have got nuclear energy. Photoelectric effect experiments gave us solar power. We just don’t know. We need to keep investing in basic sciences. they expand frontiers of knowledge.
      What if tomorrow we discover some very rare minerals on mars which are even better than rare earth metals. how will we get them then? USA and Europe will tke all the minerals and we will be buying from them at exorbitant price. We need to do research. I am not saying, spend all the money in basic science research but do spend some money and don’t just consider them vanity projects.

    •  Baleel Ahamed @baleel-ahamed

      I got what i want. Thankz a lot sir. Thanks for ur commitment.

  •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

    Sir,
    Is the advice by Council of minister headed by Cheif Minister is binding on the goverment?
    As no such provision was added in 42nd amendment wrt governor.
    Also,whether the matter falls in governor’s descretion or not ,the decision of governor is final and cannot be challenged on grounds that he ought or ought not have acted in descretion.

    I think there are specific provisions which are binding and rest lies non binding,please clear the doubt.

    Thanx in advance.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      There are specific instances when he has to reserve the bil for president. For instance, if any bill seeks to derogate power of high court.Rest is all simple

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Recommending imposition of prez rule is also a constitutional descrition of governor?
      Isn’t it a big power under discretion?

      Also my question was,the word ‘shall’ has not been added in the 42nd amnedment act,so why is the advice binding?just because his position to state is analogues to that of prez with centre,its binding?Or is it the convention established by parliamentary system?or our contitution provides us with matter where the advice is binding?

      Sorry,if I am eating your brain up..but it has been in mind for a long time,months..

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Tumhare liye poora blog hi likh diya. I hope that clears your doubts

      Indian Polity | Powers of President and governor

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Kamaal karte hain Dr.V..:P Thanks a lot..:)

      Aur bhi bohot saare doubts tayyar hai..:P

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Yes, ordinarily it’s binding. Yes, governor enjoys discretion but what can he do with that discretion? He can only reserve a bill for the consideration of president. Rest all is situational; discretion like recommending president’s rule, inviting a person to form govt etc.
      Of course he can sit on a bill for as long as he wants but even president can do so. Constitution prescribes no time limit for giving assent to any bill.

  •  vijaym.patilsr @vijaympatilsr

    Well its regarding geo I want to ask as India’s latitudinal extents 29°2’25”
    As distance covered betn-3200kms

    And longitudinal is 29°17’14”
    Distance covered betn-3000kms
    Why it is so ?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      You see longitudes converge at the poles. Draw a circle and see it for yourself. Distance b/w any 2 longitudes will be zero at poles. so as you move beyond the equator longitudinal distance keeps on narrowing and becomes zero at poles. Sine 90 = 0. Just make a diagram and calculate distance from angle.
      But in case of latitudes distance remains the same as at equator and that answers your question.

  •  John Nash @johnnash

    what are the conditions required for a currency to become an international currency like dollar?seeing the relative weakening of us economy vis-a-vis china,is there any possiblity that yuan will replace dollar as international currency.

  •  Rajesh Badavath @rajesh-badavath

    Hello Dr.V ,, can you explain something about Kaveri engine it’s utility for the exam

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Kaveri enjine was supposed to be developed to propel our light combat aircrafts (LCA)Tejas. Project was started in 1996 but DRDO failed to develop the proper engine. I think, DRDO is working on successor projects now. Has this been in news? I don’t think it’s very much imp for exams.

  •  Rajesh Badavath @rajesh-badavath

    can u explain smthg abt kaveri engines its utility fr d exam

  •  changemylife @changemylife

    plz explain what does this mean
    Critics complain that the new GDP series portrays an overly robust picture of the Indian economy while other macro indicators such as bank credit growth, rural demand and factory output do not support such a depiction.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Dost read this blog.. sare blog padha karo

      [Video] New Methodology of GDP calculation: What’s all the fuss about?


      Basically if GDP grows, investment would also increase so ppl will borrow more, bank credit growth would be more, rural ppl will also buy things so demand will be high, factories will produce more so output will be higher

    •  changemylife @changemylife

      but your video doesn’t touched my question..

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Dost tumhara doubt blog ke comments par clear kar diya gya hai.. Fir bhi doubt ho toh read thishttp://m.firstpost.com/business/why-raghuram-rajan-doesnt-trust-indias-gdp-numbers-2603304.html

  •  rajiv shaw @rj6095

    Could anybody kindly help me undrstnd ‘purchasing power parity’ with a real life example??

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      In simplest terms, if it costs 100rs to buy a bigmac burger in India and 1$ in USA, in terms of PPP, 1$ = 100rs . That is if we bought only burgers. But obviously consumption basket is much larger, so we do the weighted avg as explained in our inflation article.
      So amount of rupees needed to buy same basket of goods in India is PPP rate. Why it is different from nominal exchange rates, cost of labour-labour is not really mobile, you can have a maid in 1000 bucks per month in India but you wouldn’t get a maid in 100$ per month in USA i.e 6700 or non traded goods, so if you wanted to buy a house, it would cost more in mumbai, land prices are much much higher and land is not tradable.
      Basically, it depends on cost of living. in nominal terms 1$ = 67 rs but in India, you can buy much more in 67 rs than you can buy in US in 1 $ so in purchasing power terms, 67 rs are wort more than 1$. they might be worth 1.5 $ or more depending n consumption basket and cost of living in the two countries.
      Hope, it’s clear now.

  •  rajiv shaw @rj6095

    It wil of gr8 help if sombody help me undrstnd what is meant by provisioning of loans for banks…and ‘held to maturity’???….related to Uday scheme & RBI moves to boost bond issued by states

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Dekhiye dost, iske liye you should raed newscards and blogs regularluy

      [Video] Rajan’s solution for NPAs: Deep surgery not Band aid


      provisioning explained in the blog

      Copy pasted from yesterday’s newscard
      What is held-to-maturity (HTM) security?
      What? A debt or equity security that is purchased with the intention of holding the investment to maturity
      How it works? When investors purchase debt securities such as bonds, they have two choices: to hold the security until maturity or to sell it before maturity
      A debt security is described as HTM if the holder chooses to hold it for the entirety of its term
      For instance, if the holder of a 10-Year Treasury bond chooses to hold it until the maturity date in the tenth year, the Treasury bond qualifies as HTM
      Advantage: As fixed-income items, HTM securities are not susceptible to market price fluctuations as returns are locked-in at the time of purchase

  •  John Nash @johnnash

    what is exchange traded fund and how it works in laymen terms.if possible pls avoid jargons.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Layowman ki terms mejn samjho tum.
      ExamplE sare awesome psu stocks (say 10pc from all awesome psu) put in a bucket. Value of bucket would be value of all the stocks put together in the bucket. Now divide the value in 1000 or million parts. Each part becomes a new stock. Give it to public at that rate. Laywoamn its user excange traded stock anf entire fund is exchange traded fund. It can be traded like normal stocks.
      Because of diversification, risk decreases , easy to administer ..charges less. Thus good for retail consumers.
      Doesnt this appear similar to mutual funds..difference is mutual funds are not traded only underlying stocks are traded but etfs themselves can be traded.

  •  Ravi Mantwal @ravimantwal

    Sir!
    Are we supposed to read the entire 12th five year plan as well?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      What can not be retained and revised should not be read for exam.. So, reading 12th pna would be futile but read this approach paper to 12th plan.. Just 150 pages..read 20 pages a day, 2 weeks mein ho jaega..BAhut gyaan bhara pada hai ismen..
      http://planningcommission.nic.in/plans/planrel/12appdrft/appraoch_12plan.pdf

    •  Ravi Mantwal @ravimantwal

      Thank you Sir! 🙂

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Sir,pls dont say yes..:P..its bulky as hell

  •  Observer @uaddavveer

    what is the difference b/w GDP and GVA?? Please…

    •  Palash Luthra @palash-luthra

      GDP=from consumer perspective i.e. value after production + taxes – subsidies
      GVA=from producer’s perspective i.e. value just after production
      So, GDP=GVA + taxes – subsidies

  •  Rajesh Badavath @rajesh-badavath

    Sorry for reposting!,,,,
    why indira gandhi devalued rupee in 1966 and why it failed?

  •  Shiksha Swami @shikshaswami

    Private transfers are included in capital account of BOP?

  •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

    With regards to Money Bill:
    Is the final decision of the Speaker wrt a bill being a money bill or not,subject to judicial review?
    As in can a court now look into whether speaker’s decision regarding passing aadhar bill as a money bill ?
    PS:Please enable some sort of notification in our account itself to alert us when our query is answered.All the queries being answered flood into our mail and it is rather difficult to sort out ours from among the mess.

  •  sam @sam-r1o

    Hello Dr V.

    I read your article on inflation,but unable to understand base effect concept,in comment you had replied to someone as =Pranav. . You misunderstood .. good that you attempted question and asked for clarification..
    See, I wrote in the article that base year is just for creation of consumption basket while inflation is measured year on year. This way, on previous years base, this year’s inflation is calculated and if inflation was extraordinarily high last year, due to high base, this year’s inflation will appear subdued and this is what is known as base effect. I hope, you are clear now.

    But still concept not clear, can you define it more simply using example,Please

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      simple, price of pulse 100 rs in 2010, 200 in 2011, inflation is 100% (it may be due to very poor monsoon). Now in 2012 prices are say 150rs, now if you compare it with 2011 prices inflation is in negative but compare it with 2010 prices, it’s 50% higher price in 2 years. Statistics will show deflation but is it actually like deflation. No, because 2011 was not an ordinary year. Deflation is due to high base of 2011

  •  Parmar Pradyumansinh @pradyumansinh1434

    ‘Hedging’ I m nt getting clear meang of this will u please explain

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Hedging is simply covering risks.Insurance is an example of hedging as you cover the financial risk to your family in case of loss of life in LIfe Insurance.
      Similarly a farmer can hedge price for his crop by agreeing to sell at predetermined price. Now it does not matter if prices fall, he will receive assured income but he won’t be able to take advantage if prices rise beyond the predetermined prices.

    •  Parmar Pradyumansinh @pradyumansinh1434

      Thnx dr v

  •  John Nash @johnnash

    what is the difference between psychological egoism and ethical egoism?

  •  Shiksha Swami @shikshaswami

    Which of the following are not determined by RBI?
    1.Prime lending rate
    2. base rate

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Prime lending rate has already been replaced by base rate in year 2010.Base rate is determined by rbi.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      You are right about prime lending rate being discontinued but even base rate is not determined by RBI but by individual banks based on cost of funds, operational costs etc

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Well I really Sorry,to Shiksha and Dr.V.Actually it was a question I solved sometime ago and the answer was base rate,so I thought of sticking to it,without comfirming the same.
      But as Dr.V rightly said,each bank has its own base rate.

  •  changemylife @changemylife

    what is IEBR, and its role and function in budget plz explain

  •  Priya Kathir @priyakathir

    Hey Dr.V! A doubt again. ?
    There is something called discretionary and statutory grants under grants in aid to the state’s by the centre. Now, why was this discretionary grants recommended by planning commission? Why was planning commission significant than finance commission here?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Discretionary grants have a two-fold purpose: to help the state financially to fulfill plan targets; and to -give some leverage to the Centre to influence and coordinate state action to effectuate the national priorities.
      Put simply if centre had no discretion in awarding grants to states, states would simply not listen to the centre.
      Why planning commission- because FC is formed once every five years while PC worked round the year plus planning was done by PC and discretionary grants were arguably to meet plan targets.

  •  Palash Luthra @palash-luthra

    How do power exchanges work?
    Does it imply that people buy power contracts on the exchange and then a specific distributor/generator delivers the power to that customer?

  •  Mayur Barve @mayur17mb

    How can lok sabha use money bill route for aadhar bill? So does it means that lok sabha can pass all the bills via money bill route? Or The bill requires to have elements mentioned in the definition of money bill (article 109,110)

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Clever lawyers can do anything. Govt’s contention is that it’s a money bill because primary purpose is withdrawal from consolidated fund of India and other things like UIDAI are contingent on it.
      Critics say primary purpose is to give statutory backing to authority and money withdrawal from CFI is contingent on that, hence not a money bill.

  •  Rajesh Badavath @rajesh-badavath

    “Maritalrape” could you please explain me?

  •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

    Good Evening Sir,
    Can you please explain restrictive practises?And what is vertical and horizontal fixation of price?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Restrictive trade practices essentially are practices that work to restrict competition. For instance, there are two kiranawallahs in your locality. If they decide to divide the are of their operation, shop A will serve only to customers from east side and shop B will serve customers from west side. Now as they have allocated markets for themselves in which there is no competition, they can charge any price they want. This is an example of restrictive trade practice.
      Other examples could be simple cartelisation i.e both the shops together fixing prices to maximizing profits for themselves. Govt licensing also create restriction on entry of new firms, an example of restrictive trade practices. Anything which hampers smooth functioning of free market, retards competition is restrictive trade practice.

      Price fixing, horizontal price fixing happens as we saw in cartelisation. For instance, all the telecom operators come together to fix prices for call rates. Horizontal because it’s horizontally across an industry.
      Vertical when for instance apple decides all the retailers will sell apple products at same price. So apple controls the entire value chain from production to distribution, marketing and servicing.
      Such price fixing is illegal and competition commission of India look into these aspects

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Good Evening Sir,

      Very well explained.Thankyou.

      Has the competition act successfully succeeded MRTP act?What are your views?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      What would you do of my opinion but anyway, MRTP act was the shittiest piece of legislation ever enacted in India. Indira Gandhi just wanted to push corporate to the ground.
      CCI is a much better body just like anti trust bodies in developed nations. It is yet to come into its own but with time, it will evolve into a great institution. Competition act is a very good piece of legislation.

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      What would I do of your opinion?:/ I think that’s why we are here,it’s important to us.

  •  sam @sam-r1o

    Dr.V
    Why world bank report on urbanization in south Asia call it as ” messy & hidden ” how urbanization in India is hidden (it says urban population growth is not driven by rural to urban migration 44 % of urban population growth that India experienced between 2001 & 2011 was due to natural increase and 29.5% to the reclassification of rural settlements into census towns)

    Please explain it in simple language

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Sure
      It’s very simple actually. Messy because urbanization is unplanned resulting in more than 100m people living in slums and shanties wiith no amenities. Urban areas look like a mess so it’s messy. More growth at the periphery of metros where slums come up.

      Hidden meaning urbanization not recognized as such. Meaning there are areas with urban characteristics i.e high density, non agriculture work, yet not classified under urban areas. It;s the direct result of unplanned messy urbanization. As I already mentioned more growth at the periphery, resulting in urban population spilling over into the area classified as rural. Formation of urban sprawls etc. In short, these areas at the periphery have urban like character-stick yet are not regarded as urban.
      I think, its clear now. Do write back

    •  sam @sam-r1o

      Dr V
      Thanks for explanation, one more thing
      What it means by reclassification of rural settlements into census towns ?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Copy paste from wiki
      In India, a census town is one which is not statutorily notified and administered as a town, but nevertheless whose population has attained urban characteristics.[1] They are characterized by the following:

      Population exceeds 5,000
      At least 75% of male working population is employed outside the agricultural sector
      Minimum population density of 400 persons per km
      So when a rural area assumes these characteristics they are reclassified as census towns i.e there is no municipality there but only for census purposes

    •  sam @sam-r1o

      Sir from where I can get civils eaily digest ,to cover news from September, October ,November 2015

    •  Focus Ias @focusias

      they are yet to release the old ones. abhi sirf 3 hi nikale hain…

  •  Palash Luthra @palash-luthra

    What is meant by ‘dynamic complementarities’? ES: section 5.4, page 85

  •  John Nash @johnnash

    doctor,pls explain chinese economic crisis and how will it affect india and world?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      It has already been explained in a RSTV discussion on the forum..search in the forum.you will find very detailed explanation

  •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

    transfer pricing is used for tax avoidance, not tax evasion

  •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

    States share both federal and unitary relationship with centre.

    Is this statement right or wrong?As in normal times,the relation is normal and during extraordinary times,it becomes unitary..so what should be the answer?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Question post kar do dost.
      You are correct in your interpretation but states share federal relationship with centre as the relationship b/w state and centre is governed as per constitutional provisions. Emeegency is an extraordinary device for a limited period

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Post kar du?I didn’t get you Sir..

      Means normal prevalence should be kept in mind i.e federal with state and unitary with UTs..isn’t?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      I meant If question is from some tesr series, write down the actual question.
      Otherwise what prevails in normal circumstances will hold good. Centre state Federal, centre ut unitary.

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Nahi Sir,question dimaag ki upaj thi..:P
      I will be posting some more..

  •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

    Can you please explain Transfer Pricing with a relevant example..?

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      Transfer pricing is related to shifting of profits. Parent company buys goods from its own subsidiary company/branch. For example in case of India, parent companies are located abroad with their headquarters but their subsidiaries are operating inside India due to favourable conditions(cheap labour, raw materials etc) to avoid taxes(capital gains tax etc.). But cross-check and verify this because I came across this term in various newspaper articles and this is explanation is from limited understanding of those articles

  •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

    Good evening Sir,
    Can you please explain Nominal and real exchange rate,as well as the concept of NEER and REER?
    Thanks.

    •  Aditya Gupta @guptaadityaindore

      Nominal exchange rate is current exchange rate that you hear about which appx 1$=68 Rs
      Real exchange rate is the purchasing power of currency in its own country to that of in other country. say lets say nominal exchange rate of dollar to rupee be 1$=50 while in india 50 rs can bring 1kg of rice while same i$ in america you can buy 1 kg of rice than the real exchange rate would be 1$=25 rs.
      thus on the basis of nominal and real exchange rate NEER and REER are calculated respectively.
      NEER is the nominal exchange rate of a currency to weighted aggregate of nominal exchange rate of basket of currencies. similarly
      REER is the real exchange rate of a currency to weighted aggregate of real exchange rate of basket of currencies.

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Thanks 🙂

  •  Mohit S Chib @mohit-schib

    Sir then in what conditions the commercial bank can withdraw money from ” it’s deposits with RBI”

  •  Mohit S Chib @mohit-schib

    Sir, Reserve money consists of two things- vault cash in banks and deposits of commercial banks with RBI… If I m a account holder in the commercial bank and want to withdraw the money… Where will the bank take out money from..??/Vault cash or deposits of commercial bank with RBi…
    I feel it should be vault.. What’s ur opinion sir.????
    PLZ reply.. I m still a novice in economics 🙂

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      yes. that would be vault cash. overtime bank won’t go back to RBI right!

  •  Yogesh Gupta @yogesh-gupta

    Does Sec 8(4) of RPA 1951 stand struck out or Parliament has amended RPA, 1951 to circumvent it ?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Naah.. nothing has been done by parliament. It stands dead and buried (if buried can indeed stand).

  •  John Nash @johnnash

    why indira gandhi devalued rupee in 1966 and why it failed?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      for the simple reason that the country was in the dire need of foreign cash and World Bank loosely the US proxy made it contingent on devaluation. It failed because World Bank didn’t keep its end of bargain and did not immediately provide the aid it promised. Plus successive droughts and all.

  •  Pavneet Kaur @pavneetkaur8604

    In our constitution from 1960 jury trials are banned completely but then also in some special cases jury trial is done…so which part of the constitution which article allow to do call jury and what are those special cases in which jury (5 judges) makes decision?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      5 judge bench is not jury. It is constitutional bench which decides on constitutional matters. Jury consists of lay people like you and I not legal luminaries.

    •  Focus Ias @focusias

      i think the system has been abolished already? which is the recent case where a jury was put in charge?

    •  Pavneet Kaur @pavneetkaur8604

      During 26/11 attack (for trial of Kasab) and in Nirbhaya case also jury was called…

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Naah.. jury trial was abolished in India after that very famous case of naval officer K.M. Nanawati who murdered his wife who murdered his wife for having affair with his friend. If you have read the claay novel midnight chidren, commander Sabramati’s case is loosely based on officer Nanawati’s case.

  •  Carpe Diem @ankurupadhyay

    Hi

    I didn’t get the concept of REITs. “They typically pay out all their taxable incomes as dividends to shareholders” Can you elaborate this?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Concept is simple. It’s like mutual fund. You and I and others put some money with the fund manager. They invest it in real estate projects (typically completed). We are the part owners of that real estate property as per our contribution. They put it on rent. Profits are typically distributed to shareholders as dividends. thus product becomes very liquid, also like share REIT units can be traded in market. After this year’s budget announcement income is only taxable in the hands of investors that is they don’t have to pay any corporate tax.

  •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

    Sir,I seriously need your help over it.
    I have been quite incosistent with my current affairs,reguarly missing a day or two in a week,please guide me a strategy with which I can recover relevant current affairs from exam perspective(please mention sources if useful,other then CD)
    Thanks in advance

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Go through CD newscrads daily without fail. Read important articles in full. Download Vision current affairs booklet from their website and read that every month. you will be good .

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Thankyou Sir.

      Also please tell the issue from which the current affairs will be relevant for 2016?Should I do it from july?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      I suppose prelims in in 1st or 2nd week of august this year. So current affairs of march, April, may and June will be the most important. Do them thoroughly i.e. you have not lost anything yet. After that December, January, february. Just go through current afairs of septemebr, octomber, november for very important points.
      Similarly for mains, current affairs of oct November, September and august are the most important.
      Don’t make the mistake of reading thoroughly from july because when you start doing that you mss out on the most important stuff, Instead do most current stuff first i.e. feb, march, april, may, june thoroughly. For july to dec you can rely on newscards only while taking care to read important events thoroughly like climate deal, WTO talks etc.

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Thanking you here would be so little,you boosted my confidence.\m/
      As I have not been that irregular,but you 1-2 days a week,lazinesss kills me..:p

      I have been waiting for Economics strategy for prelims,when is that coming?

  •  Vishnu Gowtham @vishnu4066

    what is meant by COMPETITIVE FEDERALISM

  •  Vishnu Gowtham @vishnu4066

    what is meaning of anti markets and pro competition???

  •  Observer @uaddavveer

    ‘Everything you want to know about’ HIGHER EDUCATION in India? PLEASE

  •  Observer @uaddavveer

    What are the laws that govern Universities in India? Their autonomy, appointing VCs, their salaries, curriculum etc. How do I holistically understand the JNU and Hyderabad University issue? Thanks…

  •  Priya Kathir @priyakathir

    To build basics in IR do you suggest Rajiv Sikri? Is it a good choice? Or just Wikipedia is enough? asking so to save time.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      It’s a very decent book.. i would say go for it.. read it like a good non fuction book without taking notes but understanding stuff

  •  Rajesh Badavath @rajesh-badavath

    I have one more doubt sir…confused by my friends
    Pls clarify me…reg
    1.dissolve
    2. Dissolution
    3. Dismiss
    4. Suspend
    Of houses

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      Ye to simple wikipedia kar lo dost.

  •  Blue Kites @kadamlucky9

    How do I unsubscribe from the forum?

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      No one knows. I think homepage pe jake scroll karo and then you can find the unsubscribe button

  •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

    Article 2 confers the power to the parliament to admit or establish any state,which has not been the part of Indian Territory prior.Also article 2 does not mean constitutional amendment and laws can be passed by simple majority.

    Then why incorporation of Daman and diu,dadar and nagar haveli,goa, puducherry done by consitutional amendments?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Amendment is required when parliament decides to amend other provision of constitution simultaneously which are deemed amendment for instance creation of article 239A which provided for local legislature. Amendment is not required for the purpose solely of 1st schedule and 4th schedule appointment.
      For instance if India decides to annex Madhesh, creation of Madhesh as such will not reqiure amendment but now Madesh will have representation in parliament and if it crosses threshold of 552 seats in LS, constitutional amendment will be required.

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      So you mean to say,the 10th or 12th or subsequent amendments were made not on the event of admitting or annexing a territory,but for providing local govt or adjusting seats for lok sabha??

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      You understand that even under Article 2, a bill has to be passed by simple majority of both the houses such as andhra Pradesh reOrganization bill for creation of telangana.
      Now in the case of pondicherry that bill was combined with other provisions and passed as one constitutional amendment bill.
      Even at the time of formation of Nagaland, constitution amendment was done to amend article 371 and give nagaland the status of special category states under Article 371. So all such provisions are combined as passed as one.
      For article 2 and 3 amendment is not required as seen in case of AP reorganisation bill.

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      Passing with simple majority under article 2 is not deemed as amendment?isn’t?
      I think I am lacking some basic concepts here,so sorry for the trouble:(
      What you want to convey is,granting statehood or separating union territory,itself alone doesn’t require amendment,but to sustain features which will enable governance in the region do require amendment?so it all is passed alltogether as amendment?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Read this and observe every time amendment was not done and also read the comments below where I have answered a few doubts.http://www.civilsdaily.com/en_US/blog/timeline-states-and-ut-reorganization/

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Part 1 is right. It’s not considered amendment passed by simple majority but to sustain features of governance which otherwise would require constitution amendment, constitution amendment bill is passed. So for instance, madhesh is annexed into India and made a UT. No special provison is made to create a legislature etc like Delhi or pondicherry amendment would not be required but if legislature is created under article 239, amendment would be required.
      So the basic concept which you need to remember, amendment not required under article 2 and 3 or 1st schedule.

    •  Anurag Dixit @anurag-dixit

      I am your JABRA FAN sir..:D,Thanx a lot..

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      Issi baat pe, ye lo –

  •  John Nash @johnnash

    pls list the important bills from prsindia websites.

  •  John Nash @johnnash

    suppose the earth’s axis was tilted 40 degree to the plane of ecliptic instead of 23 and 1/2 degree.what would be the global effect of this change.Pls answer?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Dost my brain does not work as fast as John Nash. It’s more of a physics question. @rohitpandey apply physics bandhu.
      Here is my understanding, at present arctic circle and antarctic circle are beyond 66, now they would be beyond 50 degree. You know what happens in arctic, 6 month day, 6 month night. so more area of planet would experience that.
      Now, as heat depends on angle of incidence, poles would actually receive more sun, 50degree incidence v/s 66 degree.
      More heat meaning ice will melt in summer or less ice would remain than is at present
      Apply similar principle to equator, tropics as well.

  •  John Nash @johnnash

    why the jet stream has a meandering shape?
    why they flow west to east in both hemisphere?
    what is jet stream disturbances?

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      Dude! One cannot solve geography questions over forum man…. I hope someone with optional = grog replies to you on this…

  •  Ashutosh Pandey @ashutosh-pandey

    Hello Dr.V (or Dr DD= doubt destroyer …)
    i got some small doubts…
    1-tax on 60% epf is in the air…. but at what rate???
    2- there was a line in paper, no tax if they buy annuity ?? what is this???
    is epf a tax saving tool? how? waiting for quick response like pizza order… thanks sir!!
    just a small info epfo is a statutory body under labour min.of india

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      I saw the pizza word and i thought you would order pizza for me if i resolve your doubt promptly.

      Anyway. at what rate..Whichever tax bracket you come depending on your income and withdrawal, 10% , 20% or 30%.
      2. So if they buy annuity from the same amount i.e. instead of getting it in their bank balance, annuity is like annual payment, sort of insurance it will not be taxed.
      Yess tax saving tool, because amount you deposit in EPF is not taxed so if your gross income were 11 lakh and you saved 1 lakh in epf, u save 30% of 1 lakh in taxes.
      Hope, it clears your doubt.
      Mujhe ab pizza order karna hoga..

    •  Ashutosh Pandey @ashutosh-pandey

      sure Dr. Saheb………. economics se dar lgta h sir pizza bill se nahi… hukum kre to sahi…. kab aur kaha….???? @rohit sir: entire team ko milega sir…

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      hahaha – bhai inmein se kissi ka bhi mains/ interview nikla to cheese burst pizza pakka hai tumhara

  •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

    Sir, is there any alternative for g.c leong as I found it to be boring and tough for prelims?

  •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

    Sir, please start geography series with infographs like that of economics

  •  sam @sam-r1o

    Dr. V
    I was reading about Nationalisation of Banks & how it was revolutionary decision.
    Sir, can Education & Health could also be Nationalised?
    Nowadays there are Many private Educational institutions and Hospitals which are running like chain business & there is hardly regulations in how they charge . There is example of small country like cuba where Medical education & Health is of prime importance and available very cheaply and free for those who cannot afford it.
    Now we see that More than 90 % of workers in informal sector does not have basic minimum skills. The Grand idea of make in India would also get boost from it as skillful labour would be made available to it.
    We want to become super power & compete with countries like USA & China ,presently we cannot compete with them though India is exporter of talent to these countries but it would be different situation when everyone is able to get education and then the innovation would come ideas would come from each & every strata of our country which even today is privilege of few . Merely Making RTE Act which provides education till 14 years of Age is not sufficient the Specialisation and skills are required which could be provided only by Higher education and Research & development. And then only could get dignified living and would led to have less dependent on Government & in real sense Knowledge is power would be manifest through each and every citizen

    So should education and Health Nationalised, though there would be oppose from the big players who own them and have power to influence decision making ( these are only people who take decisions nowadays as they become politicians) but largely common man would be benefited from it & would bring change in society.

  •  sam @sam-r1o

    Dr.V
    Sir, why there are so many Regional Trading Agreements such as SAFTA, EU, ASEAN, and now TPP why they emerge? Have WTO failed to create common training platform and at same time many Regional bank are NDB, AIIB, ADB are there so how can we co relate these both issues ? Is world getting benefited from these institutions and is Global trade increasing,and which if yes which countries are getting benefited from it ? Is regional disparities reduced or increased due to these institutions. If possible could you write an article which could cover all these issues,Please

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      yess sumer is right
      http://www.civilsdaily.com/en_US/blog/what-is-economic-integration-and-what-are-the-different-types-of-trade-agreements/
      i answered the question in the comment section of the blog.

    •  sam @sam-r1o

      Sir I read it
      Sir but without protecting interest of country why should one sign any agreement (as in case of india,which is important for us ) why delays are caused at WTO because developed world is designing all rules & laws and assure that their interest is kept intact and others should follow accordingly. How is it possible sir?? That interest of developed – developing & underdeveloped countries are same ?
      When countries like India try not to sign TFA, developed countries blame us that we are creating hurdles in world trade,but is it really true?
      When TTP is formed who wrote it’s rules? Are Developing countries which will participate into it really benefit from it ? Or act just as readymade market for developed countries.
      So at world level the importance of WTO increases further where the consensus matter most not power.

    •  sam @sam-r1o

      Thanks

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      Read this series and follow it as CD is building it. You will get answers…

      http://www.civilsdaily.com/en_US/blog/an-ias-aspirants-guide-to-cracking-international-relations/

    •  sam @sam-r1o

      Thanks

  •  Mritunjay Sachdev @mritunjaysachdev

    Thanxx Doc sahab !

  •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

    Guys,also,do we have to mug up all sorts of rankings(eg:slum literacy,slum sex ratio etc) based upon census 2011 for prelims?

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      No one does that da

  •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

    Why is reliance on fiscal stimulus preferred and recommended over monetary stimulus to revive growth

  •  Noddy @mrvaruntripathi

    I was reading ‘ La La Land Budget’ from Indian Express today. Please explain me these lines –
    ” Public spending was more or less budgted to be under control. Whether this was done to persuade RBI Governor R Rajan to cut rates, to protect India’s credit rating, or out of genuine concern about the debt-to-GDP ratio, it was a relief.”

  •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

    Guys,pls explain
    ‘Modal’ rate in agriculture,difference between tariff bindings and applied tariff rates?

    •  Sneha Sodhi @snehasodhi

      Tariff binding is the highest rate a country can apply on products under WTO. Applied tariff rate is the rate actually applied.
      Model rate is standard rate applied on most product such as model service tax of 16% or so. Similarly there would be some model rate on agriculture 40% or so. Kunal, sumer or DR. V please correct me if I m wrong

    •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

      tnx for the first 2.Can u please clarify upon Model rate a bit more?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      model rate means std rate which is applied across most products. So for instance if model rate in agriculture is 40%, there will be 40% tariff but in some commodities it may be less or more depending on FTAs and national circumstances. Say model excise rate is 16% but on cigarette, it is more than that for it is harmful product.

  •  Mritunjay Sachdev @mritunjaysachdev

    IF there is an increase in fiscal deficit
    What will be it’s effect on private investment,demand in the economy ?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Aggregate demand will definitely increase as government spending increases due to higher fiscal deficit.
      Normally it is said that as govt borrows more, less money to lend to private sector, interest rates rise and private sector investment down. So called crowding out of private sector.

      But if credit demand by private sector is weak as is the case presently and government invest in infrastructure via higher borrowings, private sector also get some contract and in this scenario investment will increase.
      Did it help solve your query? Please do write back so that we could understand your demands better and engage with you guys in better way. Also suggest this website to your friends and colleagues. Network effect works here. More high quality people, higher quality discussion which is helpful to everyone

    •  Mritunjay Sachdev @mritunjaysachdev

      why the Eastern Coast is more prone to cyclones ?

  •  John Nash @johnnash

    Please explain why coriolis force is maximum at poles and zero at equator.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Ekdam super wal explanation.. concept

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      Geography is by far the worst discipline I have read. Second is year book!

      Koi samjha do coriolis force please! Kuch to seekh lenge…

  •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

    Sir, please start series on geography from prelims point of view(like international relations series)

  •  Sathya @shradhakj

    Dear CD,
    Can you please compile the news stories under various subjects like economics, IR etc

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      good idea- start collating stories for one of the categories… I will pitch in for the other – we can do that in this forum only for everyone’s help. whats say?

  •  Simran Bains @simranbains

    What is domino effect?

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      V for Vendetta dekhi hai movie?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      My favourite movie man. Narration was mind-blowing. @simran, simple chain reaction so for instance, if one major bank fails, it will start a chain reaction leading to failure of other banks and a financial crisis coz all banks are interconnected to one another as they lend to one another, one’s borrower is another’s depositors etc.

    •  Simran Bains @simranbains

      Acha itna simple! 😛 thank you! 🙂

  •  Pranav Pathak @pranavpathak

    Hi
    For mains exam how much do Statistics matter? This is important to ask now because it will certainly take a lot of time to memorise them.

    Lets say for example if a question is concerning Swachch Bharat.
    So in my answer I quote Schemes like Namami Gange, mention Swachch Bharat Cess and Swachch Bharat Survey, etc (and others, ie any scheme that could tie up to this)
    But I do not quote statistics like say (made up numbers in this case) that 80% of urban populace doesn’t have toilets, 6 lakh people defecate in open,etc.

    Does it put me at a disadvantage? Are such stats expected and appreciated? If yes then how to remember them and how to know which ones to remember?

    Thanks in advance

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      Important stats are good to keep but do not worry about them so much. 6 lakh people defectae in open etc is not so much of a game changer….

      Wahan pe anyway you have to remember pivotal points and right about them.

      You need to remember important policy stats only. Eco survey pad ke dekh… most repeated stats… around JAM etc etc…

    •  Pranav Pathak @pranavce15

      Thanks. I don’t know why it didnt send me an automated mail. Was just scrolling through the forum while I found you answer

  •  Kapil Kumar @kaps545

    WHAT IS SPECTRUM? WHICH SATTALITE RADIATE THESE FREQUENCIES? HOW MUCH SPECTRUM IS SOLD IN INDIA? HOW MUCH IS AVAILABLE TO BE SOLD.

    •  Sudhish Kamal @sudhishk231991

      I don’t have full knowledge but here is what I know….
      Spectrum can be understood as the space in which waves of particular frequencies can travel. It is divided into bands for high and low frequencies. Now we use radio waves (mostly I think) to transmit digital data so we need to have the licence to use these waves. Since govt controls the whole space of spectrum in which waves can travel do we need to obtain a licence for a particular wavelength or frequency.

    •  Kapil Kumar @kaps545

      धन्यवाद मित्र

  •  Blue Kites @kadamlucky9

    Hi CD! What is meant by ‘ADD’ as a trade measure consistent with WTO?

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      If ADD = Anti dumping duty, then the answer is this –

      If a company exports a product at a price lower than the price it normally charges on its own home market, it is said to be “dumping” the product.

      So essentially, if that results in a lower price of the product than of its home grown stuff… then the exporter is killing the competition artificially…

      WTO agreement allows governments to act against dumping where there is genuine (“material”) injury to the competing domestic industry.

    •  Blue Kites @kadamlucky9

      Shuqriya Sumer!

  •  praneetha vishnu @praneetha-vishnu

    yours CIVILS DIGEST are useful for PRELIMS or not????

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      Yes buddy. It is very. Compiled newscards give no nonsense summary of news.

  •  Sudhish Kamal @sudhishk231991

    Can please someone explain about Money Market, Capital Market and Stock Market in simple language.
    What are they and what happens there. How sensex and nifty indices work. Why they fall and rise. It is really confusing….

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      Let CD cover in the economic survey series of posts…. kaafi bade saawall hai yaar ye…

  •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

    Hey der V,
    Why India is said to be in a demographic trap ?

    •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

      Also read in todays newspaper that India should allow industries and companies to buy electricity directly from free markets to make,’make in India’ a success.So my doubt is,what is the present status-as in how does comanies buy power now?And how is it an impediment to the success of MII?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      combination of high fertility (birth rates) and declining mortality (death rates) resulting in a period of high population growth rate is termed as demographic trap. India especially northern and eastern states still have very high total fertility rate resulting in population growth.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      At present there are many distortions in the electricity market. For instance if a company in Tamil Nadu decides to buy power from a power producer in say Kerala, TN govt imposes from 50 to 100% tariff on that power bought. It prevents creation of single national market of electricity, increases cost of power, small industries can’t afford to generate power from diesel gen sets and they suffer.
      I would suggest you read last chapter of first volume of economic survey titled, powering one India.

    •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

      Thnx again Dr.V!

  •  Ashutosh Pandey @ashutosh-pandey

    bit confused in judicial body,quasi judicial and tribune body…. functional differences???

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Judiciary is the judicial body, no confusion in that.

      Tribunal are created to ease to workload on judiciary and handle specialised cases such as income tax tribunal, central administrative tribunal. They are manned by both judicial members and administrative members. Appeal against their decision can be filed in high courts and supreme court. They do decide on matters of fact and law.

      Quasi means like similar to , quasi judicial bodies are like judiciary in that they take decisions, for instance National Human Rights commission hears both parties and pass its judgement but they do not have any power of enforcement. Generally they send recommendations to govt. Even Finance commission is a quasi judicial body

  •  Sahil Garg @gargsahil58

    1. Jats are asking reservations in jobs only , or even higher education ??
    2. Under whose jurisdiction will it be to provide reservation, central or state govt ? I believe it should be state govt, but why a panel headed by Venkaiah Naidu is formed ?
    [Questions might be silly/stupid, but please answer ]

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      1. Does it even matter? If they are included in OBC, they would get all the entitlements than any other OBC is entitled to i.e. reservation in both jobs, educational institutions and other things such as scholarships and all.

      2. There are two separate lists for OBC, central list and state list. They are included in lists on the recommendations of National backward class commission and state backward class commission respectively. Hence, both center and states have jurisdictions here.

  •  Sandesh Sharma @sandeshsharma

    Special purpose vehicles?? Not getting them. They r referred to as bankruptcy remote entity. Why?? Confused

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      SPVs are created basically to finance and manage a specific project by different organizations. Take smart city project for instance, it will be operationalised through an SPV. So central govt, state govt, municipality and Private Players will pool their resources and get equity and management control as per resources pooled. This SPV will have it’s own CEO, Board of directors to raise debt, and run project.
      Now because, an SPV is a separate legal entity that is if Reliance was the private developer, once an SPV is formed, reliance will not have direct say in its operations. If suppose projects goes bust and is unable to generate cash flows, reliance itself will not be affected as SPV is a separate legal entity. Only the funds reliance invested will be lost by reliance. That is why it is also called bankruptcy remote entity i.e. Reliance has now got remote from the bankruptcy proceedings of SPV. Banks will not come to reliance asking for repayment of debts taken on behalf of SPV.
      hope it’s clear now.

    •  Sandesh Sharma @sandeshsharma

      Awesome. Thnku so much

    •  Sandesh Sharma @sandeshsharma

      Sir / mam… Plz explain this,

  •  Ganesh Usha Rajan @ganesh-usha-rajan

    Can you please make a video explanation of Crop insurance schemes and concepts involved with special thrust on PM Fasal Bima yojna?

  •  JYOTI JK @bhuvikagarg

    it is advised to finish newspaper in less than one hour or full one hour.. but while reading newspaper and making notes from it i take more than one and half hour. don’t know if my reading speed or writing speed is to be blamed. and whenever i finish reading and check if i have covered all the necessary areas on your website and insightonindia website specially on insight india only one topics seems to be familar(with the hindu). when i cross check the news article on insight india(which they mention are taken from the hindu) i cant find them in my newspaper is delhi region the hindu different ? is all the necessary news of the day from different website and other newspapers needs to be covered in that single ONE HOUR?

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      Start from Hindu after page 6-7(where national news begin). there will be 2-3 important news on that page. After that come to editorial and perspective(only 2-3 articles are important from exam point of view and make notes of them only). Avoid reading editorials on politics and miscellaneous topics as they are biased. After that move on to national page which redirects from front page (2-3 articles only). Then come to international page(avoid or read articles involving Indian interest and diaspora). Move on to business page(important and 4-5 articles will be there but avoid business and industry related news). It will take 1 hour to finish it and making notes of editorials will take another half an hour.
      At the end of the day, supplement it with civilsdaily and any monthly magzine(note:-yojana magazine is a must but it is not for monthly current affairs, it gives insights on government issues). It will be more than sufficient and do look over news articles like gender, caste etc. if your optional is dynamic one(sociology). It will help in value addition

  •  Gyanendra Singh @gyanthakur1992

    Governor can’t pardon death sentence because pardon lies with President….. But the governor can suspend, remit or commute a death sentence? Iska kya matlab?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Very good question Gyanendra. I am glad you asked.
      Pardoning removes both the sentence and conviction i.e. not only are you set free, it is as if you were never convicted i.e.you can contest elections again etc.
      On the other hand, commutation of death sentence would not set convict free but convert death sentence into rigorous imprisonment, remission into simple imprisonment. But most importantly, conviction remains.
      So if a person’s sentence is reduced to less than 2 years, he can’t still contest election for conviction remains. But note here that in pardon, he is set free and can contest election as conviction is also set aside.
      President can pardon death row convicts, governor can not.

    •  Gyanendra Singh @gyanthakur1992

      Is there any case of pardon giving by President?

  •  aparna m @aparna-m

    Why is it said that Governor should not advance a session of legislative assembly on his own when article 174 clearly spells out “at such time and place as he thinks fit”?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      In a parliamentary democracy, presidents and governors are only titular or ceremonial heads. Art 174 is to be read alongside article 163 which says that governor will act in accordance with the aid and advice of council of ministers.

  •  Sahil Garg @gargsahil58

    Raghuram Rajan mentions two approaches to clear loans : band aids and deep surgery, what does that mean ?
    Acc, to me ->
    band aid = keep giving loans – when good growth – loans taken will be paid back to banks.
    Surgery = asset reconstruction company method , where bank gets some amount back and the project is shifted to some company..

    But, plz clear if my interpretation is correct ?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      yes, you are more or less correct.
      Deep surgery would mean recognizing bad loans as NPAs and then doing restructuring (simple or strategic), writing off part of loan, selling loan to ARCs, initiating bankruptcy procedures etch whichever might be the most suitable.
      Also when a loan is declared as NPA, govt would be willing to do it’s bit like providing clearances to corporates, resolving other sectoral issues, recapitalizing banks etc.

      Band aids you are right is extending and pretending and praying for miraculous recovery.
      hope it helps.
      we will probably be doing an article on whole problem of bad loans in which every concept will be tried to be explained in a very lucid manner.

  •  Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

    Sir, how does the cleaning up of balancesheets of banks, spur economic growth and increase profitability? This may sound like a silly question but I am unable to see a clear link between the two. Thanks.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      An article coming up soon.

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      No its not a silly question. Cleaning up of balance sheet means clearing up bad loans and debts. This increases banks ability to give more loans for infrastructure development(economic growth) thereby getting interest in return leading to more profitability of bank

    •  varun negi @varun-negi

      But are we developing a criteria for handing out the loans?I mean how do we ensure ki agle aane wale loans will not turn NPAs?

  •  Gyanendra Singh @gyanthakur1992

    How the Raja mandala diplomacy benefit india and what is actually mean by it?

    •  Sneha Sodhi @snehasodhi

      RAja Mandela diplomacy is series of articles written by country’s best known foreign policy expert professor C Raja Mohan.

    •  Gyanendra Singh @gyanthakur1992

      Where I can find it?

    •  Sneha Sodhi @snehasodhi

      they are published every Tuesday in Indian express. You can find his articles on their website among columnists.

    •  Gyanendra Singh @gyanthakur1992

      Thanks sneha

  •  Siddhartha Singh @siddharthasingh

    Sir, what exactly the terms ‘interoperable’ and ‘open source framework’ indicate? Please make me understand.

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      OPEN SOURCE = A program in which the source code is available to the general public for use and /or modification from its original design free of charge. the idea is that there is no master who control the strings. There would be checks and balances in the system but no dictatorial control.

      compare android with iOS. Android = open source (to an extent). iOS = not so.

  •  Priya Kathir @priyakathir

    Hello CD! Can I ask a doubt here about history? If so please clarify me the following. Permanent settlement is one where revenue is fixed. That has to be paid to the government. And the excess collection is kept with the zamindars mostly. But what’s all about government claiming 10/11 of the ‘rental’ under permanent settlement? I don’t get it. If its fixed what’s the need of ratio here? Ref. old ncert mordern India pg.76 and pg.144. I dunno if it can be asked here but this damn doubt made me forget all that I initially understood about permanent settlement. Please clarify.

    •  Jayansh Singh @jayanshsingh22

      Under the Permanent Settlement system, zamindar acquired ownership rights of the land(ultimate ownership still rested with the British govt as it could sell the land in case of non-payment of revenue). However, tenants(farmers) were left at the mercy of zamindars. The government fixed 10 parts out of 11 parts of the revenue(rent) from the zamindar and the 11th part was his remuneration. However, what the zamindar would levy from the tenants was not fixed. So basically, higher the value of 11 parts, more would be the earning for the zamindar from the 11th part. As the increase in either the price or the quantity of land produce over time wouldn’t have resulted in any increase in tax, Cornwallis hoped that zamindar’s remuneration would motivate him to work on the productivity of his land and take care of his tenants. This clearly did not happen as tenants’ conditions continued to remain deplorable as the zamindar used his income for his own luxuries and became wealthier. I hope this clears your doubt.

    •  Priya Kathir @priyakathir

      Yes I get it now. Thank you for explaining.

    •  Jayansh Singh @jayanshsingh22

      You’re welcome.

    •  NANDAN DAGA @ndd6892

      The ratio will be permanent but amount may vary from region to region.

    •  bhatnaveen11 @bhatnaveen11

      I think,out of the collected fixed revenue,govt and zamindars will share it in 89:11 ratio..

    •  Priya Kathir @priyakathir

      You were right. It’s more or less like what you said. I misunderstood.

    •  Priya Kathir @priyakathir

      I don’t think so. Please read those two pages and see.

  •  Dr V @dr-v

    Having passed the law, govt. has been constantly trying to extricate itself from the law by various clarifications and insurance and all.
    S. 17(b): the operator the right to recover .capped at 1500 crore
    S. 46: puts liability on N-suppliers in case of accident due to faulty material supplied
    A clarification issued by MEA says that the right to recourse will be possible only if under 6a, it is written in the contract between the NPCIL and the supplier. Thus it isn’t by default part of Civil N-Cooperation agreement.
    Ratifying CSC is furger step in that direction that even if there are differences, India would be bound by its international obligation.
    Of course main point of concern is supplier’s liability. CSC is about operator’s liability. In spite of all the clarifications, doubt remains as to how the courts would interpret various provisions in case of an accident.

  •  Pushkin Negi @pushkinnegi

    With India ratifying, Convention on Supplementary Compensation (CSC)- Why is there a question mark of it being consistent with the provisions of India’s Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act (CLNDA)-esp sec 17b and section 44?

  •  NANDAN DAGA @ndd6892

    Why does CBI needs permission of Governor to prosecute Ashok Chavan.

    •  Shikhar Sachan @shikhar-sachan

      Today’s newspaper says CBI was not required to go to the governor because a) This is not a an act of discharging public duty and b) sanction is not required once the accused has delimited office.

    •  NANDAN DAGA @ndd6892

      Yes, The Hindu editorial.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      If argument no.1 is applied, prosecution would not be needed anywhere not even under AFSPA.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Hey,
      There were such reports even when mr. A.p. Singh and later Ranjit Sinha became director.
      Prosecution is not required on demitting office if person is chargesheeted under prevention of corruption act . I don’t know under which laws is he getting chargesheeted.
      In D.Raja case(2g) no sanction was required as he was charged under corruption act and had demitted office but in this same case cbi obtained prosecution permission against 2 civil servants. Hence chawan’s argument that sanction was required.
      Plus conflicting court opinions in mayawati and badal case.

    •  NANDAN DAGA @ndd6892

      Chavan is charged under Prevention of Corruption Act and in PCA permission is required only when official is serving an office.So this seems confusing matter

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      That’s correct .i didn’t know he was charged under PCA. D.Raja case mejn koi permission was not required.
      Was looking for this article ..just found it.go through this http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report-dna-exclusive-was-governor-s-nod-must-for-prosecuting-ex-cm-ashok-chavan-in-adarsh-scam-1953425

    •  NANDAN DAGA @ndd6892

      Quite informative article.But how can this be possible–>
      “Chavan had asked the CBI to invoke Section 197 of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) before chargesheeting him.”

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Very good question
      Section 197 of CrPC requires sanction of competent authority to prosecute a public servant if the offence is related with the discharge of official duty.

  •  Gyanendra Singh @gyanthakur1992

    What is anti defection law?

  •  Sandesh Sharma @millanjsa1990

    Buyers credit vs suppliers credit. Confusing. Plz explain?

  •  Sneha Sodhi @snehasodhi

    Why don’t u guys create a separate thread for economy and polity? this forum is getting cluttered.

  •  Shiksha Swami @shikshaswami

    Difference between disinvestment & divestment?

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      Disivestment- 51 percent or more stakes and management remains with parent company. If less than 51 percent, then it will be privatised( in case of government companies). It is used in context of govt. PSU where government sells it’s shares for more revenue( as in case of cil Ltd. Government recently sold 10 percent of its stakes) and reduce loss incurring burden

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      No practical difference. One and the same.

    •  maheep 2006 @maheep2005

      Divestment: When a company divests, the company disposes of part or all of its business. Divestments commonly occur when a particular division of a company does not live up to its expectations. This can result from financial reasons or because the division has violated the principles of the parent company. Another common reason for divestment is social pressure placed on a company conducting business in or with a country that has an unfavorable political climate.

      Disinvestment: Disinvestment, occurs when an organization liquidates or sells part of its assets or an entire division without the intent of reinvesting in it. The divestiture typically occurs so that the organization can use the assets to improve another division. A disinvestment can occur with the sale of capital goods or closure of a division.

  •  bhatnaveen11 @bhatnaveen11

    What is the difference between absolutism and totalitarian state?

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      Absolutism- autocracy
      Totalitarian state- centralised and popularly elected governments (fascism, nazism, communism etc)

  •  maheep 2006 @maheep2005

    In which ocean strongest seasonal Changes occurs?

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      Maheep – this question could just be answered by a simple google query. Please do that.

    •  maheep 2006 @maheep2005

      Answer: Indian Ocean or Atlantic Ocean ?

  •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

    Please explain upfront cost, escrow clause, viability gap funding, right of way in ppp project for bharat net. I came across these terms while reading newspaper

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      All 4 of your doubts should be clear now.

    •  Kunal Grover @kunal-grover

      Ek hamari taraf se bhi… “right of way” is for emergency vehicles like ambulance fire brigade… if an emergency vehicles approaches all vehicles should give it way…something non existent here but followed religiously in foreign countries….

      upfront cost…cost paid at the inception of a contract..

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      haha. der aaye durust aaye. But how is right of way related to PPP projects here?

    •  Kunal Grover @kunal-grover

      seems two concepts have been mixed up…. right of way is used in connection with movement of emergency vehicles..rest shivam can provide where he read..may be there is some other side as well..

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      I came across ‘right of way’ term in forumias current affairs in PPP bharat net article but sometimes they have editing issues. I read current affairs from different websites like civilsdaily, insightonindia, forumias etc for clarity

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      Oh. That explains it. Coz I went back and searched for the 2nd feb article on this and I couldn’t find any term remotely close to it!

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      Right of way and upfront cost – chood do yaar. Don’t zoom too much into the lingos!

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Let me come in here .. right of way is, as the term implies, right to pass through a way usully public, sométimes private property… legal enforcable right to be precise. Now how it comes in ppp bharatnet. To lay down optical fibre cable, telecom companies have to dig in land. Contract to these companies is given by central govt while land belong to state govt, forest land to forest deptt, agriculture land to farmers. Now they might just refuse and not allow digging in to lay down cables. We all know about bureaucratic wranglings.
      This right of way clearace has been identified as one of the prime reason for slow pace of implementation of this ambitious project.
      I think this much should suffice.

    •  Kunal Grover @kunal-grover

      ?????

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      Thanks….as always Dr.V rocks

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      Escrow are usually funds which are parked in the middle. So in a buyer – seller model, paypal acts as an escrow system which holds the money till both the party are fine with the deal (no exchange- no return funda)

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      Viability Gap funding – There are many projects with high economic returns, but the financial returns may not be adequate for a profit-seeking investor. So in case a govt wants to get someone interested but he is a bit risk averse, govt agrees to pitch in.

      So this is sort of govt. way of assuring the private player that the PPP project is viable and I am gonna fund the gap which you cannot afford right now.

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      Thanks buddy

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Dost jyada nhi ho gya ye sab ek question mein ?..let someone else answer or we will do an article on stupid terms which harass aspirants

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      I find sometimes economics easy but these stupid terms really make me rethink about my perspective for this subject. Please do make something

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      I think application of economics is far way better than this theoretical economics and their confusing terms

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      Yep. Agreed. Someone should write a really simple book around economic terms. It messes with our story like understanding otherwise…

  •  Yogesh Gupta @yogesh-gupta

    As we know, the rationale of Skill India and Make in India is to develop manufacturing hub in India and make Indian economy export-oriented. China, already a manufacturing hub, is experiencing a slowdown due to declining global demand. As and when global demand rises (business cycle), why would the world prefer our products over China given the fact that they have a technological advantage, low taxes, low labour cost and faster decision-making Govt. (Communist form).

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      Actually it is debate type question where many answers and views can be possible but these questions are important from mains point of view

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      Low taxes – SEZ, national manufacturing zones in india
      Low labour cost- reforming labour laws which was in news recently. I think govt is working upon it. In case of China and Japan both have demographic dividend problem and China has decided to scrap one child policy to tackle this menace. In case of India, prime minister said about tilted demographic dividend in favor of working age group (15-59)
      Faster decision making- there is single window clearance and e- governance system. This decisions can be taken single Handley by any govt. However for a broader domain like GST it requires approval of Parliament. In case of China, it is a fragile economy like Russia where economic sanctions can be imposed due to its involvement in disputes
      Technology advantage- I think products are simply made in China but there is no technology transfer and research and development. Same is case with India
      I hope this helps…..

    •  Yogesh Gupta @yogesh-gupta

      So our benefit is limited to low labour cost only ?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Everything is right save for the lower labour cost component . Labour cost has risen many folds in last decade and it will only increase as Chinese demography is not at all favourable. Chinese population is declining and its working age population will fall significantly resulting in ever higher labour cost.
      China might become the nation which grew old before iT got rich.
      Problem for India and our biggest challenge is gonna come from automation. Robotics .3D printing etc.

  •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

    One belt one road initiative of China is like silk route which connected Europe and Asia through land. But it is given that OBOR will connect China to Malaysia, Nairobi in Kenya through suez canal in Mediterranean Sea (water route)?.

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      Actually I wanted to ask if meaning of the word ‘road’ in OBOR is in real sense or not since it was compared to silk route

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      U have got it totally wrong … obor ie one belt one road involves two projects in its ambit .
      1. Belt- silk road economic belt which is an on land project
      2. Road – 21st century maritime silk road (msr) which is a maritime project.
      Both projects meet at various nodes and complement each other.

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      Thanks

  •  sridevi nune @sridevi-nune

    What is westphalian system?

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      I am curious. How did you come over this term? Was it in news recently? Or is it an optional thing?

    •  Kunal Grover @kunal-grover
    •  Dr V @dr-v

      You don’t need to go deep into the history to know how Westphalian system came about. Essentially a series of peace treaties in westphalian region of germany ended major wars in continental Europe in 1648, one of them being 30 years war involving holy roman empire.
      Treaties essentially established that all nations are coequal. Will not be subject to external pressure. Essentially they established the concept of sovereignty of nation states. So modern concept of sovereign nation states is based on westphalian system.

    •  sridevi nune @sridevi-nune

      Thank you Dr V

  •  Shiksha Swami @shikshaswami

    As we know crude oil prices are lowering globally then why indian govt. Raising petrol prices by hiking excise duty on petrol & diesel?

    •  NANDAN DAGA @ndd6892

      Many reasons:
      1.Govt will get more revenue which can be used for funding infrastructural projects(roads,railways) or meeting fiscal deficit target.

      2.This money can be used for building strategic reserves of oil (currently in news)

      3.Because of declining oil prices tax income of Govt on it through taxes is also declining (as tax on oil is ad valorem tax- tax on value of the product)

      4.Investment in oil exploration (domestic and overseas) through ONGC

      5.If in future oil prices spikes this money can be used to subsidize it.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      To mop up more indirect taxes and keep fiscal deficit under control

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      I think lowering crude oil prices will lead to filling of forex reserves and hiking duties will give way to less money circulation among people which will keep inflation in control and strengthening of rupee value against dollar. Please correct me if I am wrong

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Govt is unceasing taxes thus preventing input prices to fall, in effect preventing cost push disinflation. If govt did not raise taxes, it would actually result in lower inflation. Of course, it all depends on govt fiscal management. If they borrow like crazy, every gain will be frittered away.

  •  Sandesh Sharma @millanjsa1990

    How TPP – mega regional free trade agreement is going to effect IPR regime and evergreening in india?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      They gave stricter clauses relating to IPRs, allow evergreening. Though India is not part of such deals as of now, they are expected to shape the global agenda. With WTO going nowhere, such blocks will control the world trade and India might have to change its ipr laws to join such blocks in future or risk being cut off from global supply chain.

  •  Sandesh Sharma @millanjsa1990

    Transfer pricing? Not getting

    •  varun negi @varun-negi

      Hey Sandesh!
      Linking it to current affairs,have you heard of the news that US has asked its companies to produce Active pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) locally?
      Its impact?
      See like for example an Indian medicine company has a branch in the US,now to manufacture APIs in India is cheaper.
      So the Indian company will produce that good and sell it to its subsidiary.This is transfer pricing.

      How taxes are affected?
      Now big companies like Google/facebook register their subsidiaries in remote islands like Bermuda/Cayman islands where the taxes charged are next to nil.Now if suppose Nike(for example) makes a good in Africa and sells it to the tax haven(say Bermuda) at a very cheap price.Now Bermuda will sell the same good to the parent in US at almost the retail price!!
      So the profit is accrued only by Bermuda(and not Africa and US partners) which is taxed at a very low price.

    •  Sandesh Sharma @millanjsa1990

      Thnx buddy

  •  varun negi @varun-negi

    I have some basic understanding of what and when (How not perfectly though) of Indian history.
    But Sumit Sarkar has stumped me totally.I really wish to read that book as I have heard its good from Mains perspective(+interest)
    What should I do?

    •  Rini Sen @rini

      This is the book – plassey to partition right? Have you started reading it or are just weighing option?

      It is a bit different and should be read later (if you want to). He provides perspectives on left and right ideologies OR what we can say – how historians comment on an event.

      If you have gone through history, then its a good book to read up for more depth.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Nope Rini. Plassey to partition is by shekhar bandhopadhyaya and is a good and easy read.
      Sumit Sarkar history of modern India is really a complex book even for history optimal people. My 2 cents, read the book only if u have lots and lots of free time and you are prepared to jhilaofy your brain.

    •  varun negi @varun-negi

      Thanx Dr.V! and Rini.
      So would you rather I read Shekar Bandopadhyay for mains?
      That and Bipan Chandra( India’s Struggle for Independence) will be sufficient right?
      Obvio that is after I have read the NCERTs.

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      IMHO, Bipan chandra has lost its hallowed place. There are much better books… TN NCERT, NCERTs are better. Plassey to partition is also a good addition if you want to weigh opinions…

  •  vineela k @vineelak27

    I have started my preparation recently. Just started my optional. So I have this constant doubt about my preparation. Can I make it to mains if I am consistent in my preparation from now?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Short answer is yes .
      Study general studies static topics to gain some confidence for a month or two. Take our quizees. Get a feel of UPSC stle questins. Then you can do your optional . And last 2 months fully focused on general studies.

    •  vineela k @vineelak27

      okay, thank you. I don’t really know what will happen, but I will give my best.

    •  Sumer Shah @sumer

      Focus on the prelims vineela. No one can actually answer that question for you!!! Koi bhi issue ho to write back here, we will try to help out in a way or another.

      If you can be consistent – rank 1 is your game then 😉

  •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

    Can we separate bookmarks in CD app subjectwise?

    •  Shikhar Sachan @shikhar-sachan

      yes go to the bookmarks screen and use filters there.

  •  Shikhar Sachan @shikhar-sachan

    one doubt. Subsidy leading to inflation – is it demand pull or cost push?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      hey shikhar,
      subsidies are in effect unilateral transfers from govt. to consumers. More money in the hands of consumers # more purchasing power # more demand for goods and services # demand pull inflation.
      MSP given to farmers often increase food prices beyond normal market price and may result in cost push inflation. But this is one kind of anomaly where subsidies are increasing prices. Here too note that, farmers are also consumers and they would demand more goods and services with the bounty they received from govt. resulting in demand pull inflation.
      All in all, subsidies result in inflation mainly through higher demand.

    •  Shikhar Sachan @shikhar-sachan

      Thanks Dr V. Makes sense. I was under the impression that we cannot in general conclude that it leads to demand pull inflation. But your logic is spot on.

  •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

    Is it necessary to make notes of newspaper? Like we can save bookmarks in CD app as they are in the form of news only. I make notes of editorials only

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Click on the link available with newscard if u want to know more about that piece of news. Rest you can do with bookmarks and magazine.

  •  Gyanendra Singh @gyanthakur1992

    What should be the stand if the question asked about LGBT laws…… Good h that I knew…. But what bad? I mean negative point

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      We should take stand after final verdict of supreme court. Like our answer should be inclined towards the verdict(70%) and 30% answer can be about shortcomings of verdict. You can find both pros and cons of verdict in newspaper editorials

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Naah. Verdict will be about constitutionality or otherwise of section 377. It will not be about desirability of the section. You can take stand against section 377. It’S a public policy and human rights issue.

    •  Gyanendra Singh @gyanthakur1992

      Thanks

  •  Sandesh Sharma @millanjsa1990

    What should b the ideal answer for the questions like ” write short note on carbon sequestration, mega tropics, Basel 3 norms, in about 50 words.
    Should we write simple note about them or write like carbon sequestration definition, then it’s impact, some statistics, how it works etc ( in one line each)

    Plz suggest, these sort of questions r asked in state psc.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      You should present a bit of analysis. Risks and uncertainty involved in fancy carbon sequestration projects like carbon capture and storage. Simplest regenerate the forests but forest cover going down world over .. what’s the need .climate change and all ..obviously keeping time and space constraints in mind, present the best analysis after giving the short definition.

    •  Sandesh Sharma @millanjsa1990

      Thnku boss

  •  Sandesh Sharma @millanjsa1990

    Not able to understand exactly, the reverse bidding? Anyone, claritfy

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      It’S very simple. In normal conventional bidding buyers bid to buy something. So for instance if original painting of Monalisa is being auctioned, buyers will quote prices and one with the highest bid will win.
      Reverse bidding is exact opposite. Here sellers compete to sell their product. So for instance if govt wants to buy say helicopters with certain specifications. Sellers will quote prices and one who is willing to supply at lowest price will be awarded the contract. This is called giving contract to L1, the lowest bidder.
      Simple, no?

    •  Sandesh Sharma @millanjsa1990

      Thnku. ? got it

  •  Sandesh Sharma @millanjsa1990

    How is hybrid annuity model different from ppp model. It seems almost similar??? Plz clarify

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Check our new blog on hybrid annuity.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      May be we shall write a separate article on different types of ppp projects and way forward. If not, your query will be answered within next 48 hours. Meanwhile u can read it http://www.civilsdaily.com/en_US/?s=Hybrid+annuity+model

    •  Sandesh Sharma @millanjsa1990

      Ok. Thnku. ?

  •  Sachin Atwal @sachin-atwal

    18 college students drowned in murud beach on 1st feb. Can someone please help me understand the role of low tide in this incident.

    http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/students-drown-in-arabian-sea-near-mumbai/article8179449.ece

    •  Kunal Grover @kunal-grover

      Low tide sucks in the people as water moves back. I remember it from Goa where while visiting the beach we had the guards shouting one fine day not to go in there as it was low tide..

    •  Sachin Atwal @sachin-atwal

      Makes sense. Thank you.

  •  Sushantl Jaiswal @sushantljaiswal

    how to approach reading text for upsc from ncert or any other text , not merely learning facts but analysing and reflectiing . are there any steps like sq3r or reading thrice. i want to know step of reading a chapter

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      You should try to connect dots of current affairs articles since they are dynamic. NCERT are helpful in prelims which is fact based while mains is analytical

    •  Kunal Grover @kunal-grover

      Analysing and reflecting actually just means connecting the dots and looking at the things in entirety and not in isolation. For example when you read about distribution of particular forests then you it has to be connected with the climate in that region, kind of soil there et al.. got it? Please in some region might form homes on hill tops.. why? may be security from others? Getting it?

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      Sushant yaar, ye sawaal ka to koi sahi jawaab hai nahi.

      Generally, give it a reading first and then come back to it again. You will start reflecting and analysing the text. Try karo aur batao…

  •  Ashutosh Pandey @ashutosh-pandey

    i was reading PRI in polity, got a doubt, how parliament decide that some thing need separate schedule o not? like some part have schedule for not? why cant list of 73 and 74 amend can be put in constitution itself??? just for general idea… plzzz clear my silly doubts

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Very good query Asutosh. This means you are actually trying to understand the logic behind everything.
      See schedules are like appendices of a book. What are appendices for? Either they explain something in detail which is not that important for the body of the book or statistical tables are presented in appendices. Open your economic survey and u wil find 100s of tables in appendix or just open your Laxmikant and look at appendices. If they added in the main body, you would not find the survey worth reading.
      Similarly in Constitution, schedules are associated with articles and they explain and elaborate the articles. Schedule 11, 12 you mentioned. Schedule 1 is associated with article 1 , so it lists names of states and UTS. Schedule 7 with article 246 lists matters in 3 lists or schedule 10 explains further 1 special disqualification provision, anti defection law.
      They are meant to keep main body of the constitution easy and concise. How does parliament decide? Well, most of the lists are in schedules. Names of states and UTS, schedule 11 and 12 u know, 3 lists in schedule 7, distribution of seats in RS under 4th scheule //list goes on.
      I hope, u r clear now.

    •  Ashutosh Pandey @ashutosh-pandey

      u r such a great trouble shooter….. thank sir…

    •  Kunal Grover @kunal-grover

      That’s because he is a doc and that too from AIIMS. They got medicine for everything. Personal experience. 😛

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      Personal experience kaise ho gaya baba? Don’t tell me literally dawai lene gaye they and they rescued you in a minute!

    •  Kunal Grover @kunal-grover

      Subh Subh bolo Pande ji,
      About a decade ago a relative got disease after roaming into almost every hospital for about 6 months, it could be identifies in AIIMS only. Others could not even identify. Finally AIIMS treated it to full cure. That’s why personal experience of the wonderful professors and docs in AIIMS.

    •  Rohit Pande @rohit

      Oh Oh. Arey ye to serious turn le liya kahani ne. Fir to satya vachan. Hail doctor!

    •  Kunal Grover @kunal-grover

      Absolutely!

    •  Root @root

      That’s a nice explainer V!

  •  JESSU SHIRISH @jessu-shirish

    IR is very vast.And PM Modi taking world tours, how would someone remember every thing?? Do I need to do IR everyday. Is there a smarter way(accumulated over a week’s IR or most Important IR of Month) to handle ?? How would I go ??

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Follow daily news cards. Bookmark imp ones. Revise on Sunday . Also go through section on world affairs on app . I would suggest you to watch india’s world and world panorama on rstv every week

  •  Shiksha Swami @shikshaswami

    It was in the newspapr tht president’s rule (art.356) in AP was approved by cabinet. But the word cabinet only appears in art 352. Please clear this doubt.
    Thank u

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Hey shikha,
      You are right that word cabinet only appears in article 352 that too consequent to 44th amendment act but remember that president has absolutely zero discretion in Indian constitution. He has to act in accordance with the aid and advice of council of ministers save for the fact that he can ask CoM to reconsider its decision.

      In everyday parlance cabinet is de facto CoM. Every imp. decision is cleared by cabinet and then conveyed to president. Only difference is that art 352 requires written advice from Cabinet.

    •  Shiksha Swami @shikshaswami

      Thank you

  •  Pushkin Negi @pushkinnegi

    Why is the Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organised Crime Bill, 2015 being sent by the state for Presidential assent?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Once a bill is reserved for the consideration of president, role of governor ends there. Since the bill, in the past, had been reserved for presidential assent and was denied assent by president, present bill has also been reserved for consideration of president.

  •  John Himani @johnhimani88

    Dear Dr V. First of all Big thanks for what you are doing. Quick question – when I click on your profile, shouldn’t I be able to see all your contributions on site. I mean all the blogs, It seems some of your content is disappearing from website. e.g.-The economics Tests and explanations you conducted is not now showing. Please help.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Thanks for appreciation. It’s all team work. All quizzes and discussons are available on separate question tab. We have started polity quizzes now . Take the quizzes, read the explantaions and get better at answering questions. Here http://www.civilsdaily.com/en_US/questions/

  •  Dr V @dr-v

    You could also give example from a recently cited study which found 63 people holding wealth equivalent to bottom 3.5 billion population . Stark statistics
    Check out this link http://www.weforum.org/agenda/2014/05/can-capitalism-be-inclusive-sustainable/

  •  Abhinav Shukla @abhinavshukla

    HELLO SIR WITH DUE RESPECT TO YOUR EFFORTS FOR MAKING NEWS SO CRISP, I WOULD SUGGEST YOU TO PLEASE ELABORATE SOME TERMS AND CONCEPTS IN A MORE SIMPLER ENGLISH LANGUAGE/SIMPLER TERMS (WITH EXAMPLES IF NEEDED ),THAT WILL ALLOW THE BEGINNERS LIKE ME TO HAVE A COMPLEMENTARY STUDY OF THE SYLLABUS AND CURRENT HAPPENINGS.

  •  Sahil Garg @gargsahil58

    Can Capitalism bring inclusive growth ? (Essay – Mains 2015)…please provide some concrete points/links or anything….and can it do so for India ?

    My view : Yes, capitalism can bring inclusive growth , but inclusive implies that economic status of every class will rise, but there will certainly remain a gap between capitalist and worker class.

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Capitalism should be taken as absolute free market with govt only securing external borders and enforcing contracts. Classic Libertarian premise. But this construct depends on all other things being equal that is in some imgained past everyone was equal and system.since then was fair.but we know thats not the case.
      For instance, if we had applied total free market approach dalits and Adivasis could never have been able to compete in the market economy for they were neither educated nor skilled . Over time differences will only increase. Recipe for chaos and social revolution.
      U could attempt it by defining the scope of capitalsim, how socialism degenerated into authoritarianism, competition and incentive aspect of capitalism.
      Govt could come in to provide social and public goods like health, education, to smoothen the rough ages of capitalism .
      Talk about sustainability of environment as corporates destroy forests in turn destroying tribal societies.
      Talk about ethical capitalism, compassionate capitalism, triple bottom line etc.
      If u like philosophical perspective, u can supplement theories of John locke vs veil of ignorance theory to provide analysis with the perspective of justice for inclusive growth implies economicjustice.

      Many more ideas will come ..just keep reading, writing, commenting, discussing

  •  Manish Singh @bmanish003

    Is it necessary to study old ncert book along with new ncert

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      For history read old books. For the rest, read whatever u like.

    •  Kunal Grover @kunal-grover

      Better if not necessary.

  •  Root @root

    Everyone,

    We are evolving and adding more dimensions to Civilsdaily’s offering. This thread is one of the many which are going to come.

    If you have been a community member for long and want to jump in and help out with some questions – ESPECIALLY around the how to’s of studying NCERTs/ others… PLEASE PLEASE do so!

    We would be much obliged that you helped a fellow aspirant 🙂

    That being said, the best way to utilise this dedicated thread is ask better question, keep it precise and give a little bit of context on why you are asking it. That would make it interesting for us and everyone to pitch in with elaborate answers!

    Got it? Awesome!

  •  greengian green @greengian-green

    -How to practise answer writing
    -How to guess the topics that may come in exam ? I mean is it necessary to study the topics that are related to previous years?
    – Is there a possibility of removal of optional?
    – Do you have any tricks to remember nuances and tricky info in topics?
    – how to remember the syllabus by heart.
    – can u suggest some new or workable strategies for mains?

    •  shivam singhal @shivamsinghal18

      1. Join test series and get it evaluated or practice on insight.
      2. How to guess topics for exam?? Prelims- polity, history, geography, economics, science, environment, art and culture [questions come from their static part]
      Mains- topics relevant to current issues for past one year. In fact geography and history questions were also related to current affairs. For world history,world geography etc. static part will suffice
      3.optional will not be removed
      4.revise it many times.
      5.strategy for mains- prepare ethics, essay, optional thoroughly. For GS PAPER 2 and 3 current affairs will suffice. GS PAPER 1 has some static portion like world history etc.

    •  Kunal Grover @kunal-grover

      1. You can practice answer writing by following method….
      a. Read a story
      b. frame a question
      c. write answer in time bound manner
      d. BEFORE YOU GO TO POINT a. , AVOID WRITING ANSWERS THAT’S THE ONLY WAY.. NO MAGICAL BULLET, BEFORE IT IS TOO LING MAINS SHALL COME AND YOU MIGHT STILL BE FIDDLING WITH “HOW TO PRACTICE ANSWER WRITING”.

      2. You can not really “guess”. UPSC is even smarter to understand what topics can be guessed and they keep them in cold storage as salvos to be used 2-3 years down the line. Between you can keep track of current affairs, see how they relate to syllabus and do a background search on them to find out any imp related act or ruling or event..

      3. Only UPSC knows that. No RTI shall reveal it till it is notified. So dont lose your sleep over it.

      4. There are no tricks