[Official] Sociology Optional | IAS Mains | Daily Initiative 3

Profile photo of Aman chauhan Aman chauhan
  • Click here for part 1 of this thread

    Click here for part 2 of this thread.

    Hey guys , many of us are already honing our tikdams for prelims and mains answer writing skills with help of Civilsdaily.

    But ,one more essential part of our preparation is mastering our optional subject .It is not possible to succeed in Mains exam without having a good command over the optional and what else can be simpler to grasp than the science of society(sociology).
    Sociology has 3 parts just like a beautifully written essay An introduction, content and conclusion .

    Introduction

    -What is sociology , methods used ,its difference from other sciences ,etc

    Content

    This is the backbone of sociology .Content of sociology is its Thinkers and their perspectives
    -Karl Marx
    -Max Weber
    -Emile Durkheim
    -Talcot parsons
    -RK Merton
    -GH Mead

    Conclusion

    To relate the content with the institutions of our society like religion , education , political system , etc
    Now everyone can write an essay but to truly ace in the essay we need to master the art of linking the content with a conclusion ,don’t we ?

    So, rather than just mugging up the perspectives of various thinkers we need to comprehend them and apply them wherever we want and we are asked to .

    We will start with the thinkers first as it is the heart and soul of sociology .

    Slowly we will discuss events in our society and try linking them with various perspectives .This way we will be able to tackle the dynamic demand of UPSC.

    We all are beginners and we will make mistakes but that’s how we will learn .

    From 21st October I will start asking questions everyday from Thinkers and first thinker will be Karl Marx (please read about him and his perspectives of society) . This way we will know what we will be answering after a couple of days and prepare accordingly .

    I hope we all write answers and give feedback to grow as a community around science of society.


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  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hello everyone….. guys m so sorry i wont b able to post questions today.. so kindly anyone comeup with few questions i would b thnkful to him/her..
    M out of town today…
    Thnks…
    And sorry for this

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hey hi everyone… how r u doinn???
    Guys due the less participation, myself get too lazy towards continuing this thread….
    Well moving forward…
    Ok lets fill urself with lots of energy and move ahead..
    So friends we will be dealing with 2 main units in this week upto sunday..
    20 feb
    P1 U2 (a) science and scientific method
    P1 U3 (a) qualitative and quantitative methods.
    21 feb : answer writing
    22 feb
    P1 U2 (b) major theoretical strands of research methodology.
    P1 U3 (b) techniques of data collection.
    P1 U3(c) variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity
    23feb : answer writing
    24 feb
    P1 U2 (c) positivism ans critique
    P1 U2 (d) fact value and objectivity.
    P1 U2 (e) non positivist methodology
    25 and 26 feb : answer writing
    So buck up….
    Kindly paticipate as much as u can its a humble request..
    Due to uploading issue here, i cant upload my answers …
    U guys quickly write and post here..
    And review too..
    Thnku so much and gud luck..
    Happy studying

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hey guysss…. how r u all????. M sorry for the delay in posting questions..
    Question for today
    Que1.Discuss the impact of industrialization and urbanization on family in India.(20)
    Que2.Write short note on: Social Consequences of increase in the rate of Divorce. (15)
    Que3. Is patriarchy a universal phenomenon? Critically analyse how does patriarchy affect sexual division of labour in societies. (20)
    Kindly larticipate in writing and reviewing…
    Gud luck

    • Profile photo of Anil Anil @anil-jhajharia

      Que3. Is patriarchy a universal phenomenon? Critically analyse how does patriarchy affect sexual division of labor in societies. (20)
      Ans.
      patriarchy is a social phenomenon, where men hold the disproportionate and dominant share of power in gender relationship. Although, men all over the world have created a patriarchal society, however, patriarchy is NOT a universal phenomenon. The example can be seen in prehistoric china, the minoan civilization etc. to some extend in India’s khasi, Nairas, konds etc (however not completely) are also matriarchy, but not completely. However, in the present context, matriarchy society are hard to find, and males are second to none. Mark Van and Brian Spisak in their experiments found that Isolated society (tribe) tend to be more matriarchal.
      the patriarchy effect on SDoL can be seen from the various justification given for SDoL by various sociologists. Robin & Trillings gave concept of “bio-grammer”. They said that due to biological change due to evolution, women are now designed for lighter tasks. similarly, Parsons said that women are more expressive and men are aggressive. This reflects in natural DoL,e.g. male are given role of soldier, and women for teacher, receptionist etc.
      However, Feminists argue that SDoL is culturally created, and patriarchy is responsible for it. It help in maintaining status quo. e.g. women are given unpaid jobs to exploit them. They are confined to 4 walls of household, which is the creation of patriarchal mindset. Many religious scriptures also describe that women’s job is to serve her husband (SEWA), thus creating and reinforcing SDoL.
      In today’s world, the patriarchal affect on SDoL can be seen in following important streams:
      ->occupation level: segregation and stereotyping. additionally, there is little scope for authority & advancement for women
      ->low wages: recent WEF report said that it’ll take 170 years at least to close gender wage gap. “Glass ceiling” is also created by avoid to restrain women from top.
      ->others: part time wages and sexual harassment

    • Profile photo of Anil Anil @anil-jhajharia

      Que2.Write short note on: Social Consequences of increase in the rate of Divorce. (15)
      Ans.
      divorce is the legal dissolution of marriage. In india, and the world, the divorce rate is increasing. The divorce is a cumbersome process and has many social consequences. These consequences are:
      negative social consequences:
      -> Threat to institution of marriage: marriage is an important social institution. With increasing breakdown of marriage, the institution of marriage may loose credibility. In India, 80% are Hindus who religious belief is in divinity of marriage. With divorce. post modernists say that it is changing the marriage’s status from “divine ordain” to “relationship contract”.
      ->one of the main function of marriage is socially sanctioned sexual gratification (Murdock). With divorce, separated people may turn to prostitution for sexual needs.
      -> Divorce also changes the dynamics of child socialization and emotional stability (T. Parsons’s functions of marriage). Child in custody may be deprived of one parent’s love and contribution in socialization. it might reduce social circle and social capital too.
      -> suicides: Durkheim in his study found that the rate of suicide is more in divorced couples. Various other studies have confirmed this hypothesis. Additionally the increasing rate of divorce means, more alcoholism, more heart diseases , more depression etc.
      -> the legal process and economic resource separation in process may take a toll on the couple and families. Half a couple also means half income.
      Positive consequence:
      -> Divorce is a medium to provide a channel to quit non-working or high conflicting marriages. It is based on principle of individualism, liberty etc which consequently helps in values of modernity.
      ->Ann Oakley says that the increasing rate of divorce means more women are saying no to oppression.
      thus, the increasing rate of divorce have huge consequences, and demand more insights from sociologists and researchers.

    • Profile photo of Anil Anil @anil-jhajharia

      Que1. Discuss the impact of industrialization and urbanization on family in India.(20)
      Ans.
      family is an intimate social group where people are related with blood, conjugal or legal ties. With the industrialization and urbanization in india after british contact, there has been an ongoing change in family.
      ->industrialization and family:
      One of the major change in family is the rise of nuclear families. T. PARSONS says that nuclear families are apt of industrial society. The industrial units are outside home. This has led to specialization of functions, wage earning and mobility. He also suggests that due to industrialization, the people see cost benefit relationship with extended kins. This has led to ISOLATED nuclear family, where there is little contact with extended kins. Additionally, family work as a unit of production.
      Meanwhile, industrialization has also brought monetization of economy, specialization, technology (transport and communication), which has facilitated nuclear families in india. This had been augmented with state’s welfare role in modern industrial economy (W. GOODAY).

      ->urbanisation:
      urbanisation means moving people from rural to urban areas. Every year, 20 millions individuals shift permanently to urban areas in india. The mobility for better helatcare, education, job, business etc., has led to the nuclearisation of family (census data).
      Additionally, sociologists like G. GUPTA says that urbanisation is leading to family of extension in indian families. Here, a part of family moves to urban area creating extended family. The limiting space of living in urban area also making the joint family breakdown.
      however, The both male and female also go to work, and they sometimes take help of extended kins. If parents are required, then they live with their parents who take care of their household while they are on job.
      Ann OAKLEY says that there has been shift in women role. Now they have to face the double burden of job and home caretaker. To sum up, Both factors industrialization and urbanisation are changing family structure and molding more dynamic and complex structure of family in india.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hey hi everyone….
    Guys there would be no questions for today. As we have a vry tiny topic yesterday so i could only found 1 question relating the same. So today clear all ur backlogs. I will post question on 20th for both the left days. I hope u dont mind. If anyone of u have 2-3 questions then he/she can post it here …..
    Thnku so much ….
    Gud luck …
    Happy studying.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hey anyone from all of u guys can plz tell me how to approach question with various dimensions such as discuss, elaborate, critically analyse,with illustrations,explain, critically examine, examine the statement, comment, examine with reference etcc etc.
    Thnks in advance…

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Questions for today:
    Que1.Describe the importance of lineage and descent in kinship and family. (20)
    Que2. Is male authority absent in matrilineal society? Discuss (20)

    • Profile photo of Anil Anil @anil-jhajharia

      Que1. Describe the importance of lineage and descent in kinship and family. (20)
      Ans.
      kinship system refers to the set of practices recognized as relatives wither through blood or affinal. There are two types to study kinship system 1. affinal 2. consanguineous.
      lineage is an exogamous, common ancestory descent group. A descent group relates itself to a common ancestor whether be it unilineal or bilineal.
      The importance of lineage and descent group in kinship and family:
      -> they both help in systematic study of institutions of kinship and family.
      ->in transfer of land and property among kins: K. GOUGH in her study found that there are clear rules for property and land transfer e.g. affinal groups do not have claims over property
      -> They help in generating the identity because of common ancestor and know about their predecessors.
      ->the marriage rules are also defined. e.g. Louis Dumont gave concept of bride giver and bride taker.
      -> descent and lineage help in finding relation with whom we ask help or share happiness in family. e.g. T N MADAN in his study of pandits of kashmir found that children are likely to continue with the fight which their father has started.
      -> many Jati/sub-castes trace their lineage to mythical ancestors (SRINIVAS), thus forming a homogeneous group strengthening bonds of kinship.
      -> others -> their importance in kinship and family can be seen in the form of giving and taking gifts, rites and rituals etc. Brahmins near Haridwar, Banaras etc keep the track of lineage history of a person which signifies the economic and religious importance of them in family and lineage.
      to conclude, the lineage and descent are part of structure of kinship and family, and play a very significant role.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Well written …. no comments..

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      I was also working on that particular question. Very well written with examples.
      I added a few different points
      Descent or kinship system bind people together and defines social unity. Family members get support from the members of the people they are related with. The training of a child is done mostly by the people he or she is affiliated with. Kinship system regulates sexual relationship as it controls incest. Finally, the residence, membership and citizenship of an individual are defined by the kinship system.

    • Profile photo of Anil Anil @anil-jhajharia

      Que2. Is male authority absent in matrilineal society? Discuss (20)
      Ans.
      matrilineal is a descent system where children trace their relationship through mothers. Subsequently, children also follow the social system of mother.
      before we decide whether male authority is absent or not, we have to look at following arguments.
      1. Khasi are the prime example of matrilineal society. however, BURING in his study found that maternal uncle palys very important role in khasi family, and takes care of day to day affairs.
      similarly, CHIE NAKANE finds that although women inherit the property, the line of authority and management of it is done my men.
      2. However, in garo the status of women is much stronger. here, there is no special celebration for male child, and men get status of begetter after marriage.
      3. Nairs in kerala do have matrilineal system, howver, now there has been a rise of bilineal and nuclear patriarchal families.
      4. at Lakshysdweep, matrilineal system is dominant. both strong role of women and islamic traditions are dominant.
      5. although, the status of these societies is matrilineal, the presence of women is very low in village panchayata especially in khasi and garo tribe.
      6. a harvard study by KENNETH Leonard on these society shows that women in society compete way more with men in comparison with patrilineal society.
      _
      Considering these facts, it can be said that male authority IS PRESENT in these matrilineal societies. The degree of authority varies from society to society. however, women’s condition and status is better than patriarchal and patrimlineal societies.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Gm everyone… guys m sorry i couldnt upload questions yesterday.
    It wud b uploaded soon…
    Thnks

  • Profile photo of Niyathi Rao Niyathi Rao @niyathi-rao

    Ans 2. India is a nation that epitomizes diversity in all forms. Due to its large size and accomodative nature, it has been subject to a population explosion leading to it becoming the second largest in terms of population.
    To control this the Government, on the insistence of the UN,came up with the concept of family planning in India.
    Family planning is a right to choose when to have child,responsibly space and number the children keeping overall health in mind.
    This however was subject to various social and cultural barriers-
    SOCIAL:
    1. Fear of stigmatization by village elders,neighbors
    2. Need and desire for a male child to continue family line
    3. Myths about contraceptives
    4. Patriarchy in decision making
    CULTURAL:
    1.Belief in folk medicine or quacks rather than scientifically approved medicines
    2. Treat child as a blessing from God( Gond villages study by Haimendorf)
    3. In certain traditional societies, it symbolized a man’s might to have more kids
    The institution of family has been subjective to every culture.
    However the population concern is a nation-wide one. Thus efficient methods to put the message across subtly must be done through awareness campaigns on social media and posters, following the Nairobi example, communicating with religious leaders and all stakeholders of the society to remove the taboo attached to family planning.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Overall very well mentioned… no further addition required , just a few as due to high poverty and population there is no proper implementations of govt schemes.
      Here u can also mention hindus’ belief about girls as they are “wealth of others family”.
      Muslims dont want to stop the birth of children considering them as god’s gift (u have mentioned it)
      Here we can alao use here govt’s new motto /slogan of “ek beta do beti”
      Otherwise very well penned…

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Guys i cant post my anwers…. due to some technical issues..

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hi everyone
    Questions for tomorrow
    Que1.Discuss the emerging forms of marriage and family with examples from the West and the East.Can there be family without marriage? Examine (20)
    Que 2.Comment on the influence of social and cultural factors on family planning in India. (15)
    Que3.What you mean by marriage and family? Discuss the Structural and functional changes in family in modern society. (15)
    Guys plz do participate , do write and review…
    Thnku so much….

    • Profile photo of Anil Anil @anil-jhajharia

      Que 2.Comment on the influence of social and cultural factors on family planning in India. (15)
      Ans.
      family planning refers to the practice the number of children, the interval between them, reproductive health etc.
      there have been many studies where there is a strong causal relationship between socio-cultural factors and family planning.
      these socio-cultural factors can be classified in following forms:
      1. education- while higher educated tend to be more involved in family planning and use of contraception, and it is less in middle aged lower educated persons. (Thapa and mishra)
      2. religion: there is a strong correlation between fertility rate between different religious beliefs. e.g. Muslims have fertility rate of 2.4, while hindu, christians have lower fertility rate (religion data of census 2011). similarly, the contraception use is less among muslisms(5%), hindu (17%), christian (20%). (Thapa and mishra)
      3. rural people have less focus on family planning than urban. they are also less aware about this. the majority of them get information only through doctor, which limits their reach.
      4. patriarchy: Mishra in his study found that women are hesitant to talk to their husband about family planning. the skewed sex ration and female foeticide is also related to patriarchy.
      5. privacy and shyness: with poor sex education and shy nature of indians about sex, they tend to unfollow family planning. The stigma attached is also a major problem .
      6. higher income group have more focus on family planning than lower income groups.
      7. the vast cultural and developmental difference in northern and southern states can be reflected in fertility rate and use of contraception, where southern states are performing well.
      the family planning in india is dependent very high on above socio-cultural factors. The government has taken many steps to boost family planning. However, the need to spread awareness among lower, rural and neglected section is need of hour. The role of civil society is also imperative, only then india will manage its family planning targets holistically.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      U just reminded me the 4th point thnks….
      Sir plz do let me knw that how could u remind all the studies and sayings of diff sociologists. This done this study. That done that … oh god its too complicated… kindly help with some sort of tricks about socio. Plz its a request …

    • Profile photo of Anil Anil @anil-jhajharia

      1. I’m not really sure what your sources are. However, take few pages separately and go through your notes/sources again. write down all studies in those separate pages and cram them. this shouldn’t be more than 4-5 or 10 pages. If you don’t have any particular comprehensive source, then search thinkers on google, and write their view. this shouldn’t take more than few days.
      2. i’m not sir. i’m just a fellow here.
      3. write survey data from the newspaper.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      By “Sir” i dont mean that u r too aged… .so plz dont misunderstood .As people say a girl as mam it just simply mean like that….
      M so sorry if u understood…
      Thnku so much for ur guidence . Actually i knew that facts and figures are quite imp. But i really didnt think the importance of sociologists.
      I dont have too much in my notes. But i will try to compile from here n there.
      Thnks

    • Profile photo of Anil Anil @anil-jhajharia

      no, I didn’t took it in age perspective either. it’s okay. you can call whatever you want. no issue over this petty thing. 🙂

    • Profile photo of Anil Anil @anil-jhajharia

      Que1. Discuss the emerging forms of marriage and family with examples from the West and the East.Can there be family without marriage? Examine (20)
      Ans.
      Marriage is the union of two persons for economic cooperation, pooling of resources, sharing household, socially approved sexual relationship, reproduction and rearing children. meanwhile, family is the group of people who are related by blood, marriage or legal ties.
      With the emergence of modernity, education, urbanization, nation-state, industrialization etc both institutions are emerging with new forms.
      -> emerging form of marriage in east and west-
      in west, Anthony giddens opines that the confluent love marriages have taken over economic and romantic love marriages. Similarly, with the increase in divorce rates, the reunion marriages and re-marriages are also emerging. some other emerging forms of marriages are same sex marriages, Sham marriages (to get green card etc).
      inter-religion, inter-racial marriages are also on the rise in both east and west. Including these types, in india, inter caste marriages is one of new forms. According to a survey in 2014, about 5% of marriages are inter-caste in India. however, a new form is, the bride price and purchasing form of marriages in states with low sex ratio like haryana have also increased.
      _
      -> emerging forms of family in the west and east
      G. Allen defines 4 types of new emerging family forms. These are
      1. same sex families 2. reconstituted (new family after death/divorce of partner) 3.single parenthood 4. cohabitation.
      meanwhile, in east, particularly in india, the nuclear families are on the rise (G. Gupta, Bailey, Sacchananda etc).
      Also, reconstituted, single parenthood families are also increasing. The demarcation between the roles of men and women is decreasing. in next form, instead of matrilocal or patrilocal families, the changing residence families are emerging due to education and mobility for job.
      _
      ->Sushmita sen and many other single parent have adopted daughter.Teenage mothers without marriage are visible in many countries So,YES, there can be family without marriage.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Lastly rather than saying yes families do exist…..
      We could either say that yes it coul exist but for that someone has to get married so thhat they can reproduce then they in turn wid be supplied to the rest of the part of society either in the form of adoption or surrogacy or by some another way…
      May b i m wrong… plz do let me correct if in case.
      Thnks

    • Profile photo of Anil Anil @anil-jhajharia

      Que3. What you mean by marriage and family? Discuss the Structural and functional changes in family in modern society.
      Ans.
      According to most sociologists, marriage is the union of two persons for economic cooperation, pooling of resources, socially approved sexual relationship, reproduction and rearing children. They also tend to share house hold.
      Family on the other side is an intimate domestic group made up of people related to each other by blood, sexual mating or legal ties.
      ->Structural changes in family:
      One of the most structural change in family is increasing nuclear families. Although, Milten Singer, Kapadia, Irawati Karwe, Desai etc opine that joint family is still reinforcing. But G. Shah says that currently there are two structural changes in family
      1. process of nucleation- the nuclear families are increasing.
      2. process of extension – a part of family moving to urban area.
      in addition to that, the kinship group is shrinking (E. Leech). Ram Mehta , Bailey etc agree with Shah and Leech
      -> Functional change in family:
      G. Myrdal describes 4 functions of family. these are economic cooperation, sexual relationship, reproduction and socialization of children.
      however, W. Gooday’s observations are that due to rising welfare state concept, the functions are changing. people are no longer dependent on extended family as family’s functions are taken over by state. similarly, older authority is losing its significance to the breadwinner. the division of labor line is blurring as women are also working. at the same time, new trends like live-in relationships, more opportunities to end marriage (G.Allen) are taking over family’s functions.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Sir i think here the eg of shakira is something we wud say very unique coz she just announced about her relations , seperations, babies etc… they didnt do any paper work. So very gud eg..
      Overall ur answer covering majorly all aspects.
      Here u can also mention out of clan families,intercaste family , multiculturalism of families , homosexual families and empty shell families…

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Gdmng everyone…. hope u all are going great… guys till the last schedule we have covered a major chunk of our syllbus.
    Ohk so moving forward ,in this particular week we will be dealing with SECTION 7 FAMILY ,KINSHIP,MARRIAGE
    so here is the schedule as follows;
    13 feb: P1 U9 (a) Family , household and marriage
    (b) Types and forms of family
    P2 UB (v)(c) Family and marriages in india
    14 feb : Answers writing
    15 feb: P1 U9 (c) Lineage and descent
    P2 UB (v) (a) Lineage and descent in India
    16 feb ; Answer writing
    17 feb; P2 UB (v) (b) Types of kinship systems
    P2 UB (v) (d) Household dimensions of tge family
    18 feb : Answers writing
    19 feb ;P1 U9 (d) Patriarchy ans sexual division of labour
    P2 UB (e) Patriarchy , entitlements and sexual division of labour
    P1 U9 (e) Contemporary trends.
    20 feb : Answers writing…
    I m unable to upload my pics here so wont b able to post my answers…
    Keep studying, writing and reviewing…..
    Gud luck.
    Enjoy studying..
    Thnks😊

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hello everyone….
    Questions for tomorrow
    Que1.Mention the Impact of Muslims on Indian Society.(10)
    Que2.Describe the socio-economic factors responsible for communal tensions in India. What suggestions will you give to control them?(15)
    Que3.Discuss the metaphysical and ethical basis of Hindu social organisation. (15)
    Que4.Elaborate on the social necessity of religion. Discuss the relationship between religion and science. (15)
    Guys m sorry i inserted 1 more que today, i found all eyqually imp so i couldnt skip anyone from these. I hope it will be helpful.
    Guys plz do write and review …
    I will submit all my answers by tomorrow…
    Thnku so much..
    Gud luck..

    • Profile photo of Anil Anil @anil-jhajharia

      Que1. Mention the Impact of Muslims on Indian Society.(10)
      Ans.
      With the inception of Islam in 7th century, it soon reached to India. Its impact on indian society can be elaborated in following points:
      ->It changed the demographic dynamics of indian society. Arab traders first reached malabar coast and soon muslim community emerged.Later on voluntary conversions as well as non-voluntary conversions led to rise of Muslim population.
      ->As Dumont says that indian society is based on hierarchy and inequality. The concept of universal brotherhood came in contact with idea of caste. It challenged the Brahminical supremacy. Y.Singh calls that it led to synthesis of the two cultures in indian society. he also says that because of muslims and islam, the status of indian society as tribal society changed.
      ->Muslims also impacted on art and culture, architecture, music and cuisines too. the domes and minars, biryani, hindustani music, quwwalis etc.
      -> many social movements like bhakti/ sufi were also influenced by muslims. it promoted liberalism and social harmony.
      however many sociologists like K N Pannikar, Dipankar gupta also trace some social evils in india. Pannikar said that muslim influence led to rigidity in caste system and hierarchy. Dipankar gupta says that many social evils like purdah, child marriage etc can be traced to islamic influence.
      overall, the impact of muslims on indian society has been great and now indian society has really evolved with these impacts.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Here u have described ancient and medieval times impact on society . U can also mention here the contribution of muslims in 1857 revolt simultaneously their behaviour and attitude in freedom struggle and in partition of bengal and Pakistan .. In current context u can mention here about terrorism ( majorly nourished by muslims) , plight of muslim women in indian society for istance triple talaq, wearing of hijab and burkahhs.
      So critically reviewed… sorry for that
      Thnks

    • Profile photo of Anil Anil @anil-jhajharia

      thanks for review. I would be more happy if you be critic rather than giving a pleasant one. this is totally fine with me. 🙂

    • Profile photo of Anil Anil @anil-jhajharia

      Que2.Describe the socio-economic factors responsible for communal tensions in India. What suggestions will you give to control them?(15)

      Ans.
      Communalism in India is one of major problem. In Indian society, communal tension is unholy nexus of religion and politics. it develops when one’s love towards own community is more than wider society, and becomes incompatible with other social groups (bipin chandra). the socio-economic factors for communal tensions are:
      -> history: use of religion in national freedom movement, new festivals like Ganesha festival by Tilak to bring nationalism, partition on religious lines etc created a foundation for communal tensions.(K N pannikar)
      -> illiteracy: Amertya sen argues that illiteracy leads to absence of secularism and intolerance. It further leads to communal tensions in wider society like india.
      -> competitive politics : Many sociologists like Rudolph, Rajni kothari emphasize that communal tensions are product of increasing competitive politics. With first past the post system for elections in place, the polarization is encouraged thus communal tensions.
      -> Disassociation relationship among groups: According to Dipankar gupta, the distrust among different group leads to communalism. e.g. Hindu right wing believes that Muslims are not loyal to India, thus animosity.
      ->poverty and resources under stress: while developed states like Kerala has successfully managed the diversity, poverty, low per capita income in states like UP often leads to communal tensions.e.g analysis of Mujjafarnagar riots by various sociologists in newspapers.

      Solution:
      -> The rise of developmental politics, the recent apex court to avoid religion in election is a welcome step. we need to focus on illiteracy and economic development at the same time.
      -> As Rajiva Bhargava suggests that we need to disassociate the state from religion e.g. Appointment of IAS officers in managing religious institutions, derecognise political parties based on religion, political reforms are the key.
      -> at last, we need to inculcate the values of secularism and tolerance in youth and children to get rid of the communal tensions in india.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Very well written answer explaining each and evry aspect … complete answer…
      Thnku so much for participating… kindly be in continuation…

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    @atifhussain1894 What u dont understand… just follow the schedule, write the answers and post it here (either write it here or upload the pic of ur answer here)…
    Thts it…

  • Profile photo of Atif Hussain Atif Hussain @atifhussain1894

    I don’t understand the initiative. I means it’s too haphazard. Sorry if it’s me. Can someone explain how to practice answer writing through this initiative.

  • Profile photo of Dhruv Gaund Dhruv Gaund @dhruv1253

    @Kavi Gautam…. Hello… First of all… I appreciate ur initiative… I will be joining to this very soon… ☺

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Most welcome and thnku so much….
      Guys but plz hurry up coz this initiative will complete its task by march end…
      As tomorrw will be our test so i wont be able to participate today..
      Will cover both days’answers on last day.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hey guys… howz u all doing??
    Hope u all are doing good ( except answer writing here, just pulling ur leg…) plz dont mind..
    Ohk so here are the questions for today..
    Kindly participate..
    Que1.Critically Examine Emile Durkheim’s Concept of Sacred and Profane and how it can be viewed for Indian Society (15)
    Que2. Write short note on” Positive Religion. (10)
    Que3. Define Sect, Cult and Religion . In what way do Weber’s views on religion differ from those of Durkheim. (20)
    Enjoy writing…
    Thanku so much…

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hello everyone…
    Here is the schedule for next 4-5 days. With this we will be completing with RELIGION- WESTERN AND INDIAN..
    9 feb:
    P1 U8 (a) Sociological theories of religion
    (b) Types of religious practices: animism, monism etc
    P2 UB (vi) (a) Religious communities in India.
    10 feb: answer writing
    11 feb: P1 (c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.
    P2 UB (vi) Problems of religious minorities
    12 feb ; Answer writing
    Guys i have decided to prepare ncerts separately so that we could completely understand the things once more, in case u skipped any portion of the schedule or if u have insufficient notes for any topic.
    @bahugunaakshay you will find ncerts more helpful for paper 2 as it has a lots of currents examples. Which will help us alot.
    Guys plz take out tym for socio too so that till march end we could revise the whole syllbs atleast once. I knw u r devoting tym accdg to ur weakness but its also as much important as other subjects….
    Well i could only request u, rest is upto u….
    Thank u so much..
    Keep writing and reviewing…😊
    Gud luck🖒

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Ans 3
    When we claim we are Indians or part of any other nation – what do we mean exactly. We usually mean we are ‘citizens’ of that state, belong to the civil societies that constitute the people of that nation and it also means that we identify ourselves with that nation and/or the people.

    The Concept of Citizenship: the basic character of citizenship in a state is determined by the nature of the social and political relationship that the individual in that state has with the state and society. He has an awareness of his social and political rights and duties and responsibilities and that constitutes his sense of citizenship of that state substantially. Citizenship is also as concept in modern times associated with concepts like social, economic and political equality and social welfare and individual liberty.
    Acc to marx true citizenship can never happen ultimately if class division in society exists. They argue that citizenship in a liberal democracy is really ultimately a tool used by the upper classes to maintain their privileged position and is against the interests of the proletariat class fundamentally. Marx had dubbed the liberal democratic citizenship as ‘bourgeois citizenship’
    The Idea of Civil Society: The idea of civil society is actually quite old but it has become fashionable again in the last decade because of the developments in political evolution worldwide particularly after the fall of the former communist countries in Eastern Europe. Also in recent years non-state actors particularly non-governmental organisations and movements have become very influential in shaping public policy and in supplementing in its implementation. Generally in fact by civil society is meant various kinds of social and political forces that are outside the direct control of the state. These can be from the economic sphere, cultural sphere and from environmental groups etc. In fact it can be said there are three main sources of civil society – economy, society and culture.
    Marxist Thoughts on Civil Society: Marx started with Hegel’s idea of civil society to build his analysis of history, society and the state. He fundamentally differed in his view of the state from Hegel in that he argued the state is a function of and subject to the conflicting forces of civil society and is not an all-inclusive political community created as a result of synthesis. The civil society according to him was nothing but the system of economic arrangements for production and exchange in the market system of capitalist society with division of labour and the existence of division in society into classes. Marx did accept the view that civil society had risen from the separation of the state from private economic production in the post-feudal era.Thus Marx viewed civil society in a capitalist society as a part of the commercial and industrial life, which makes human beings acquisitive and egotistic and creates a tendency in them to relate to each other only on the basis of money relations.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Ans 3
    Structural elements of social movements are-
    1.Ideology
    2.common goal
    3.collective action
    4.leadership
    There could be 2 reasons by which any movement came to an end . First when its demands being fulfilled or secondly if its forciblydone by govt or any other organisation .
    First important part of social movement is ideology.Ideology is clear vision of issue for which movement is happening . If it has clear ideology it can easily mobilise the mass. Which will give stronger impact. If it fails to do so, it may come to an end soon after reaching to a few heads. For instance 1857 revolt remained concentrated in north and hence vanished.
    Each movement has common goal ,which people are striving to achieve.for instance,social reforms movements during freedom struggle for improvement in social fabric of society.
    Collective action is another important element of social movement.Once people are equipped with necessary resources they protest against established institutions.For instance-anti corruption movement of anna hazare mobilized huge number of people.
    Further,if leadership is weak movement can’t be sustained for longer time.For instance-Quit india movement turned to be violent without adequate leadersp.
    TN agitatiobs against ban on jallikattu without any leader.
    Also,it is said that any movement can’t sustained for longer time.Once its goal is achieved it may disappear.For instance,gay rights movement in west.Recent approval by federal court may lead to end of gay rights movement.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Review plz
    Ans 1. Social movement can be defined az collective action based on mass mobilisation which seeks to bring about change in society. Its always a result of relative deprivation.
    Mahatma Gandhi was a great revolutionary. Revolutionary as a word defined for a person who brings radical reforms. The sarvodaya, non-violence, truth, spiritualism, creative work and gram swaraj are the main components of Gandhian thought. He propagated these ideas around the globe. It’s no wonder when Nelson Mandela says Gandhi ji was his source of inspiration during the struggle against apartheid.
    Being a revolutionist heposses sone qualities as good leadershipsp, convince mass mobilisation, non violence, patriotism , influential etc…
    Social movements have five main components: Objectives, ideology, programs, leadership, and organization. They are interdependent, influencing each other. It involves a set of ideas, propositions and values that enable to perceive in particular manner social reality. The set of ideas and ideals form ideology.

    The most prominent ideology is ‘Satyagrah’. Gandhi ji gave new identity to the social movements by adding character of ‘Satyagrah’ and ‘Ahinsa’. This was evident in most recent movement led by Anna hazare ji. In which he peacefully protested for strong Jan Lok Pal. He took ‘Fast’ or ‘Anshan’ for many days to kneel down the government.

    Gandhi ji believed that good aim is achieved only by good means. The bad means cannot give us a good result. If we want a good society then it is possible only through non-violence and truth. Through violence we cannot achieve the aim of good society. These prophetic views act as guideline to the social movements in India.

    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      First of all thank you so much for continuing this initiative. Last few days were quite challenging for me….. OK now coming to this answer…. I think this is the best way to start any answer by defining the term. well written. Can’t give much suggestions as I myself have not yet been completed this topic. but try to review again after reading some sources as answer seems interesting.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Thnks…
      Complete urs…soon

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Kindly review people
    Ans 5.Our constitution accepts the necessity of modifications according to changing needs of the society. Secondly in the actual working of the constitution, there has been enough flexibility of interpretation. These factors made our constitution is a living document .
    Also constitution is a fundamental legal document which enjoys legal sanctity whether written or unwritten it regarded as supreme law of land providing principle of governance of the country.
    It is am mirror for social change.For instance the amendments of 42 and 44 brought in major change to reflect the societal context of that times.
    It works as a living document of social change from social,economic,political sphere of life of peoples which is given below:-
    1)social:-constitution provides various laws in form of fundamental rights,dpsp,fundamental duties which works as a agent of social change of peoples by way of participation, adult franchise,secular credentials,reservation or equal treatment ,rte etc. made caste to break bondage of ritualism,education to marginalized,and prove to be a change in agrarian and urban class structure.
    2)economic:-constitution provides everybody equal pay for equal work without exploitation and in dignified way with no gender discrimination thus empowering women and the last man standing.
    3)political:-constitution allowed everybody to participate in governance by way of 3 tier govt. structure with due care to marginalized peoples and right to propagate,profess or practice any association irrespective of any religion or caste.
    Today there is a proposal to amend the document to introduce GST in concurrence with liberalised world.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hello everyone…..
    Que for last 2 days..i.e 5 feb and 7 feb
    Que1 .Mahatma Gandhi is often described as revolutionary. Examine this characterization in the light of the theory of social movements. (20)
    Que 2.Write a note on S.N.D.P. Movement. (10)
    Que 3.Write short note on the following from a sociological perspective : Citizenship and Civil Society. (20)
    Que 4.What are the Structural elements of a social Movement ? state how a social movement comes to its end . illustrate your answer with example. (20)
    Que 5.Write a note on Constitution as a living document of Social Change. (15)
    Guys plz try to write and review….
    Thnks..
    Gud luck ..
    Happy writing.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    @bahugunaakshay @rahul-pandey @aksinghjat
    @shelly-singh @niyathi-rao
    Hello everyone…. hope u all r doing good..
    Guys i knw u r busy in preparation for prelims and yes it is much more important but simultaneously we should study our optional subject too. We cant take it lightly. Coz we knw this is such a kind of subjct in which a little more knowledge than others would help us to fetch brownie points. So plz dont take it for granted. In this subject we have to make a grip on contemporary issues, this could only happen if we would devote 2-3 hours “daily” on this including answer writing. Without making anything presentable and attractive to the xaminer our knowledge would be worthless. This art could come to us only n only by ANSWER WRITING.
    I knw many of us are the very beginners so its somewhere more difficult to continue with reading as well as answer writing. But beyond every hurdle evry difficulty we have to do it. Coz by this only we can master this subjct…
    Guys if u r not intersted and finding this a wastage of tym . Then plz do let me know. I will stop this initiative. Atleast just “do reply” for this post.
    Request to all of u.
    Yesterday i was somewhere outside thts why could nt did answer writing.
    By tomorrow evening i will surely submit my answers. Sorry for that.
    And plz do let me knw what u all guys are suffering from.
    We will surely come to a solution collectively..
    Thnks

    • Profile photo of Against_All_Odds Against_All_Odds @ankit-singh7

      First of all i would like to appreciate your efforts for the kind of hard work you have put in here to keep this initiative going as is evident from these posts.
      I am planning to join this initiative soon.just one query
      Is this the only schedule you guys follow over here just like the one you’ve just posted or is it mentioned somewhere else
      If otherwise please provide the link.
      Thank you

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      No no there is nothing except this thread….
      We are doing everything here only..
      It would a pleasure if u would join this…
      Thnks

    • Profile photo of Niyathi Rao Niyathi Rao @niyathi-rao

      Hey kavi, you are right.Was out of station. Will be regular. Thanks for holding on. Kudos to the effort

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Welcome back and Thnku so much…

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hello everyone….
    Sociology intelligentsia where are u all????? After every 4-5 days i have to pinch u off to participate. Guys it a requst plz plz plz do participate.. oherwise there will be no use of this platform w/o u all.
    Well here are the questions for 3 feb 2017
    Que 1.According to Weber, “The economic aspect is crucial in classes,honour is crucial in status groups and power is crucial in parties”. Explain .(20)
    Que 2 Write a short note on C. Wright Mills’ Power Elite. (20)
    Que 3.Also explain the various types of Authority. (10)
    Thnks…
    Keep writing and reviewing….

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Kindly review
    Ans 2
    Elite theory initially developed by Pareto and Mosca refers to a group of minority in every societal setting which rules.This dominant minority group is reffered to as Power elite.The elite theorists views the power concentration as the result of the inherent qualities of these elites.Cunning,intelligence were seen by the Pareto whereas Mosca mentioned the exceptional organizational capabilities.Thus power elites have some inherent capability to rule according to the elitist theory.This they uses to further their (elite)group intrests.
    The elite theories and power elite concept was further enriched by C.W.Mills who stated,in his study of American society,elites to be the persons holding command posts in key institutions i.e.miltiary,business corporation or Federal government.Further elitist also maintained the presence of the power elites in every society whether capitalistic,democratic or Eastern Europe’s communism or traditional societal structure.Mills sighted it in capitalistic democracy of America.Westergaard and Resseler’s opined their presence in Britain as capitalistic class dominating the power politics.Raymond Aron in his mention of European communist society led to its mention their although it was a little fragmented group comprising many different representations.T.B. Bottomore also mentioned the Brahminical dominance in Indian Caste structure as the elite domination.Thus somwhere its universality is there.
    Earlier Elite theorists mentioned the elites to represent the upper class strata,high prestige clubs,mainly dominant caste or group like protestants or brahmins,as mentioned by Mills and Bottomore diffrently.These elites served to protect the status quo and values of theie status like institutionalization of capitalistic ethos and consumerism.
    But contemporary societies with Democratic,egalitarian values have the dominant elite group much more flavoured than earlier wherby elites are composed of all diffrent intrest group being represented.Thus the intrests of diffrent groups are protected for ex.improved representation of SCs and STs in Indian polity strengthened their bargaining position.Raymond Arron also mentioned the presence of diffrent group leaders like trade union,business class,militiary generals etc. all in powerful elites.Thus a sort of pluralism.But the group remains and always minority elites dominates majority.

    • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

      HI Kavi please mention your source of reading for these topics?
      also for paper 2.
      please help me. i only have access to IGNOU BA notes.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Hey hi..
      I have coaching material which are not complete. I usually goggle the topics. Except than this i have nothing. How r IGNOU nots???

    • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

      IGNOU notes are good for basic theory and thinkers. BUt for the contemporary material i am not sur eof any fixed material.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      For paper 2 i generally use to go throug the current scenario . Majorly the topics in news. Or some past and present events of society. For facts and figures i do googling….

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Kindly review…
    Answer 3
    Collection of people who are in same place at the same time, but share no definite connection with one another are called as Quasi-groups.
    In other words it is an aggregate or attention to show how social groups emerge , combination which lacks structure or change and get modified organisation. These grouos lacks awareness.
    E.g. passengers waiting at a railway station or airport or bus stop or a cinema audience

    Weber defines classes as Quasi-groups composed of individuals who share a similar market situation.

    There are two types of quasi groups:
    a) Aggregates
    b) Categories

    Aggregates:-
    In which two or more people are physically together at a certain time and at a certain place.
    For instance passengers and spectators at stadium etc.

    Categories
    In this type people are physically dispersed, but share common traits and interests. It refers to Social classes as defined by Weber.
    People at internet based educational forums or meant for any other purpose.

    Some of the features of Quasi-groups are:-
    a) Unorganized.
    b) Lack of awareness.
    c) Potential group.

    Unorganized:
    These groups have no definable structure. They are yet to be infused with a sense of “we” feeling.
    For eg. People of various religions , languages and countries.
    Lack of awareness:
    Members of group may be unaware, or less aware, of the existence of groupings. They might be assembled together due to some accident.
    For eg. Unknowingly recruited youth at various terrorist institutions or notorious activities.

    Potential group:
    A potential or quasi group consists of a group of individuals having some common characteristics who does not possess any recognizable structure. But on being organized they became a social group.
    For eg protest of various political parties against Demonetisation and protest by various states against Nirbhaya Rape Case.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hey hello everyone questions for 1st Feb
    Que 1.Write short note on bureaucracy in New capitalist economy. (20)
    Que 2.Elaborate the concept of political elite. Explain how social structural origins of political elites influence their political orientations.(20)
    Que 3.Write Short note on Quasi-groups. (10)
    Guys plz plz particiapte in writing as well as in reviewing….
    Happy writing
    Gud luck. 😊

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Kindly review people
    Ans 2
    Yes Cosmopolitanism associates with modernity. A modern society is appreciative of cultural difference and does not
    close its doors to cultural influences from abroad. But such influences are always incorporated in a distinctive way, which
    can combine with elements of indigenous culture. The English language despite its foreign inclusions does not become a
    separate language, nor does Hindi film music lose its character through borrowings. The abserption of diverse styles,
    forms, sounds and artifacts provides an identity to a cosmopolitan culturre. In a global world where modern means of
    communication are shrinking distances between cultures a cosmo politian out look allows diverse influences to enrich
    one’s own culture.
    Observation and examples of enthnocentrism :
    (i) The question of enthnocentrism arises only in that situation when cultures come into contact with one an another.
    Enthnocentrism is the application of one’s own cultural values in evoluating the behaviour and beliefs of people from
    other culture. This means that the cultural values projected as the standard or norms are considered superior to that of
    the beliefs and valus of other cultures.
    Example : During British Colonial rules in India Maclaya put his famous minute on education in year 1835 to the British
    East Company in India. Through his minute he had examplified enthnocentralism when he says,“we must at present do
    our best a form a class who may be interpreters between us and millions whom we govern, a class of persons India in
    blood and colour but English in taste, in opinion, morals and intelect.
    ii)The British people were ethnocentric as they regarded the Indian culture as primitive and orthodox. Similarly tje people belonging to cities consider the people of village inferior to them.
    Above egs show that unlike cosmopolitan, ethnocentic ranks the culture as superior or inferior.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hello everyone…
    Schedule for next week..
    31 jan
    P1 U-7 (b) power elite,bureaucracy, pressure groups and political parties
    P2 U-C (iv) (b) political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite.
    1 feb = Answer writing
    2 FEB
    P1 U7 (a)-Sociological theories of power
    P2 UC (iv)(c)-Regionalism and decentralisation of power
    3 feb= answer writing
    4 FEB
    P1 U7 (c) Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society , ideology
    P2 UC (iv)(a) Nation, democracy and citizenship.
    Chapter 3 of XII class NCERT -Story of indian democracy
    5 feb= answer writing
    6 FEB
    P1 U7 (d) Protest,agitation, social movement, collective action , revolution
    P2 UC (iv)(d) Secularisation
    7 feb = answer writing..
    Guys if u find any chapter of socio ncerts relevant to these topocs then plz add here.
    And plz do participate in answer writing
    Gud luck…🖒

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Kindly review
    Ans 3
    Culture : Generally the term culture is used to refer to the acquiring of refine taste in classical music, dance-forms,
    painting.
    This (culture) refine taste was thought to distinguish people from uncultred masses, even concerning something we
    would today see as individual, like the preference for coffee over tea.
    *Culture and Sociologist : By contrast, the sociologist looks at cultural as something that distinguishes individual, but as
    a way of life in which all members of society participate. Every social organisations develops a culture of its own.
    *Definition of Culture : One early anthro pological definition of culture comes from the British scholar Edward Tylor,
    ‘culture or civilisation taken in its wide enthnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knownledge, belief,
    art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.
    * Definition given by Malinowski : More than hundred year later on, the founder of ‘functional school’ an anthropology,
    Bronis law malinowski of Poland wrote about culture he define this term in the the following manner “culture comprises
    in-herited artificats, goods, technical process, ideas, habits and values.”
    * According to Ralph Linton, “The culture of society is a way of life of its members, the collection of ideas and habits
    which they learn, share and transmit from generation to generation.”
    * Clyde Kluckahn says that culture is a design for living, held by members of a particular society.
    In indian perspective we could say we have a rich and diverse culture in the whole world. For instance our indus valley civilisation is the oldest and rarest culture ever. In that particular era we had a huge diversity in comparison to contemporary times. Say in living style, in construction of houses , in attire , in town planning, status of women in society, paintings, scripts, burials etc.
    Today we have differnt lifestyle and culture. So by knowing all this we can say understanding of culture in social science differ from the evryday use of the word culture.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Gdmng everyone… hope u all are doing well.
    Kindly participate in answer writing as much as possible…
    Here are the questions for today. With this we’ ll be finishing with our january’ s part. From tomorrow our new portion will be startd..
    So try to complete all ur backlogs.. and participate in next syllabus enthusiastically…
    Questions: )
    1.Urban decay: the culture of overcrowded neighbourhoods and slums in industrial
    cities. Explain (20)
    2.Is cosmopolitanism something you associate with modernity? Observe
    and give examples of ethnocentrism(15)
    3.How does the understanding of culture in social science differ from the
    everyday use of the word ‘culture’? (20)
    Schedule for the next couple of weeks will be posted here itself by the eveng…..
    Gud luck…

  • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

    Rahul, Kavi p=please help with Urban neighbourhood question. i am stuck with this.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      M facing problm in uploading

  • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

    Kindly Review
    Q1-Rapid urbanisation and sustainable development do not go together. Discuss with arguments.
    A1- With rapid urbanization and industrialization, the world has witnessed wide economic imbalances in rural as well as urban places, mainly manifested as slums in urban centers and metropolitan cities.

    Due to heavy Rural-Urban migration and lack of opportunities for improving financial condition, this trend has caused heavy burden on the state’s self sustaining capability as it’s resources are constrained but demand increases exponentially.
    The UN World Economic and Social Survey report had said that people living in sub-human conditions in slums, without basic amenities like clean drinking water, electricity, nutritious food and proper primary medical care would touch a record of 3 billion by 2050 – Thus seriously impacting the UN Agenda of Sustainable Development by 2030.
    This dangerous trend has all 3 impacts i.e. social, economic and environmental.
    Without addressing the rampant urbanization we tend to:
    Further increase pressure on agricultural and cultivable land due to higher food consumption;
    Exacerbate the already grim effects of Climate Change due to heavy Fuel and conventional resources Over-Utilization;
    Heavy burden on economic resources in addressing consequent health and infrastructure related issues.

    What is urgently required is a broad inclusive approach to address these problems : problems of Land acquisition so as to reduce pressure on land, economic inequality to be addressed by redistribution of resources; switching to renewable fuels for clean energy and clean environment to address environmental aspect; New employment opportunities for the needy.
    The world stands to loose immensely if the problem of rapid urbanization is not dealt with soon.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Very well mentioned all the aspects. Would be much better if u do partion according to topics. Can include all the schemes by govt for urban ulpiftment.
      Various pollutions occurs, deterioration of building can occur. Threat to animals and birds.

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Questions for 27th Jan, 2017
    1. Write short note: Informal sector in the urban economy in India. (20M)
    2. Rapid urbanisation and sustainable development do not go together. Discuss with arguments. (20M)
    3. Write short note: Urban neighborhoods. (20M)

  • Profile photo of ABHISHEK GAUTAM ABHISHEK GAUTAM @abhisheklands

    Need detailed strategy of sociology… Topic wise books and references

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      @abhisheklands kindly go throug the first thread for all the references and ongoing topics along whole scedule upto 30th jan is here on 3rd thread…..

  • Profile photo of Mihir Bedekar Mihir Bedekar @bedekarmihir07

    Can u please add on whatsapp group
    7758846886 mihir

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      @bedekarmihir07 there is no wtsapp grup. Whtevr is goin on is here itself onlyyy…

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Attached

    Kavi Gautam’s answer.. Kindly review.

    Attachments:
  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Attached

    These are Kavi Gautam’s answer as she is facing problem in uploading the same.

    Attachments:
  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Questions for 25th Jan, 2017
    1.What is Migration. Discuss causes & consequences of migration in India with a sociological perspective. (20M/300 words)
    2. Write short note with a sociological perspective on evolution of modern industries in India. (10M/150 words)

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Kindlly review

    Attachments:
  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    At independence about 75% of the country population was dependent on agriculture. Productivity in the agriculture was low because of old techniques and dependence on monsoons .Thus stagnation in agriculture during the colonial rule was permanently broken by the green revolution.
    Social consequences of green revolution are as follows:
    Economic impacts –
    (i) Increasing agricultural productivity: Wheat by 100% and rice by 30% in 5 years from 1966-67
    (ii) Shift from subsistence-farming methods to capital-intensive techniques

    2. Social impacts –
    (i) Agriculture was increasingly seen as a profit-making venture, especially in Northern India and some parts of south as TN and AP
    (ii) New avenues of employment for landless labourers

    3. On international relations –
    (i) Lower dependence on food aid from USA which allowed India to pursue an independent foreign policy
    (ii) Lower outflow of foreign exchange

    4. Political impacts –
    (i) Greater peasant mobilization in the form of pressure groups
    (ii) Nationalization of banks which allowed greater credit extension to farmers

    However, there were negative impacts of GR as well which can be seen as follows:

    1. Economic impacts –
    (i) GR was successful only in North India. Eastern and Central States were practically untouched
    (ii) Agriculture became increasingly dependent on industries and lost its self-sufficient character. Increased imports of pulses

    2. Social impacts –
    (i) The benefits were largely accrued by the large farmers as land reforms were stalled
    (ii) Social conflicts between religious communities

    3. Political impacts –
    (i) Politicization of procedures for fixing MSP
    (ii) Push for caste based reservation which was primarily supported by farmer-classes

    4. Environmental impacts –
    (i) Unscientific usage of fertilizers lowering soil fertility and poisoning of food
    (ii) Lowering of ground-water levels ans degradation of soil

    Hence, we see that inspite of bringing about food-security in India, the drawbacks of GR were clearly significant and have been magnified in the recent times. Following a sustainable model of agriculture can be seen as the way forward.

    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      Wow.. Beautifully written. But it looks more like GS answer rather sociological.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Thnkss.
      ohk i will trim its sociological part.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Review plz

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    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      Review for Ans.2- This is a complete answer, u hv not left any stone untouched especially by mentioning all programmes & policies. for this answer according to me you definitely deserves highest marks.

      For Ans.1- It’s like Ok Ok, according to me you have emphasized on feminization of labor in both formal & informal sector. but question demands only informal sector. But still if u want to add something about formal sector then according to me it should be at most 2-3 lines. Sorry again for critical review….

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      hahhaaha….. i dont knw how this got posted here . but thank god it atleast happend. kindly review. i did a lot of hard work in this answer.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      thank u so much. its ok even i also want critical review….. i
      plz tell me more points for answer 1.
      Again i m unable to upload…

      Attachments:
    • Profile photo of Akash Singh Akash Singh @aksinghjat

      Attached

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    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Incomplete answer… kindly check.

  • Profile photo of Angel V Singh Angel V Singh @shelly-singh

    ANSWER 1

    In the mid- and late-20th century, Green Revolution occurred in India that dramatically changed the field of agriculture by transforming rural economy and thereby affecting the social setting of the people in rural India.

    Salient features of Green Revolution:-
    1. Gradual replacement of traditional agricultural practices by modern technology
    2. Confined only to the production of HYV cereals viz, wheat, rice, maize & jowar.

    Social Complications of Green Revolution

    1) Only farmers with relatively high land holdings (like in Punjab, Haryana and Western UP) were able to extract the profit out of it than small farmers (Bihar). Like never before, it deepened the rural poverty between big/medium farmers (10-20%) & small farmers (80-90%), leading to a new kind of social stratification!

    2) Owing to more intensive farming, the nature of demand for labourers has changed; like, preference to labourers with superior skills which disturbed the old ties between land owners and their labourers.
    Transient or seasonal labour became more important creating resentment and unrest among local workers against both land-owners and seasonal workers. This further escalated tensions between owner and local labourers, and also threat to imported labourer.

    3) Prof C.H. Hanumantha Rao concluded- “Technological changes have contributed to widening the disparities in income between different regions, between small and large farmers and between land owners on the one hand, landless labourer and tenants on the other.”

    4) Technological change without institutional reform worsened the socioeconomic inequalities and fostered tensions. Only few agricultural communities with traditional skills, such as Jats of north India, were able to realize the potential of new agriculture, while other farming groups couldn’t easily do much.

    5) The increased income led to the conspicuous consumption by many rich farmers.

    Despite several benefits, Green Revolution has not really begun in fullest sense. The task to broaden the technological breakthrough and to translate it into socio-economic revolution is still anticipated.

    • Profile photo of Angel V Singh Angel V Singh @shelly-singh

      Kindly review! 🙁

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      @shelly-singh.Actually i read it yesterdy but forgot to comment
      It wac confined only to wheat first and to to rice. Not maize or barley
      Hanumantarao concept is incredible.
      Kindly add points on subsidies more used by rich rather than poor. These HYV seeds reqire more fertilisers and more water.
      Read mine at once.

    • Profile photo of Angel V Singh Angel V Singh @shelly-singh

      @kavigautam thanks for reviewing.
      I cross checked on net and bibhash sir notes (page 36) and found that although the revolution focused more on wheat and rice, it also included other HYV cereals like maize and Jowar.
      Thanks for other suggestions…
      Keep reviewing!

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Try to rely majorly upon ncerts’s facts. This topic is beautifully mentined in 11th class ncert (economics).

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Questions for 23rd Jan, 2017
    1.Write short note on social consequences of Green Revolution.
    2.Write short note on the changing modes of production in Indian Agriculture.
    3.Write short note: Scope of Sociology and its relationship to political science.
    All the best.

    • Profile photo of Angel V Singh Angel V Singh @shelly-singh

      Hey frenz, pls mention either word limit or marks for the questions! The word “short note” reconciles with the huge amount of content asked in the question! 🙁 :,(

    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      Ok 🙂

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    @discuss plz solve the issue of uploading images…..
    Its being too long …

    • Profile photo of Discuss Discuss @discuss

      @kavigautam, many times there are random plugins installed on the browser, or you could have older versions of browsers and these result in such errors.

      There are 2 generic solutions –

      1. Open the chrome browser in incognito mode(it is present as an option in the chrome menu). Try logging in. If your picture doesn’t come up, then simply refresh the page.
      This solution should work. If it doesn’t try following 2.

      2. The second solution is clear all the cache and cookies of your chrome browser. Here’s a link on how to do it.
      http://www.phonearena.com/news/How-to-clear-cookies-cache-and-history-in-Chrome-for-Android_id70104
      Alternatively you can try clearing memory from the applications menu also.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      thank u so much i will try…

  • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

    Answer 1.
    Not sure if I got the context of the question correct but anyways, friends do point out what part of answer needs to be done away with.

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    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      Good one. But I think example of formal sector is of no use here as question is more specific towards Informal sector. and overall u hv fairly touched the demand of the question. Keep writing.

      Some recent India specific facts, which we can use while drafting answer related to women empowerment or gender equality are-
      1) India could add 60% to 2025 GDP by bridging gender gap at work : McKinsey Global Institute(MGI).
      2) India has among the worst levels of gender wage disparity (men earning more than women in similar jobs) with the gap exceeding 30% – ILO.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Frankly speaking i never heard about wage gap anywhere in my surroundings except the newspapers and books. Do this really exists??

    • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

      Oh yes !! This wage disparity point was in the back of my head but somehow I forgot to jot it down.
      Thanks for the review bro. I deviated more towards formal sector part.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Beautifully mentioned a few egs but u can add today’s condition how women has overcome the constraints flexibility and lower wage. Many CEOz and MDs posts in various formal nad informal sector are grabbed by the women. Arundhati Bhattacharya, chandra kocchar, sikha sharma etc.
      As they now have responsibility of their family equally as their male companion. How they transformed from home maker to bread owners.
      We can even set here an eg of the movie Ki And Ka. How there is a trend changing the world

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Guys do u have any problem if we would let our sundays free from socio ???

    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      No Prob…… Lets use Sundays to fill the loopholes or complete the backlogs.

  • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

    Please review. Thanks
    Ans 3

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    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Overall nicely written. But u didnt concluded with the solutions. Mentioning the states in which its still prevalent will boost ur answer. U can add the contribution of NGOs, panchayats.
      Awareness through nukkad nataks, various tv progns such as UDAAN etc…

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    @discuss problm occuring in uploading pics. Kindly help

  • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

    Ans 2

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    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      Well written. This is really so difficult to complete such question within stipulated word limit because of its nature but u hv beautifully done that. I too agree with kavi’s points. Women & Child could have been taken on priority. But overall one of the best & complete answer. Keep writing 🙂

    • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

      Ok duly noted. Thanks both of you for your time. Yes I missed those parts. Reminds me of revising current affairs and government schemes now. 😉

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Hey u should also describe about women and children as their position is very miserable in villages and about their health too. A point should b there about education, senior citizens…
      Otherwise mentioned points are good.

  • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

    Hi please review my answer for 18th Jan before posting your answers for 20th.
    Thanks

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    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Trt to add contemporary egs in indian context. Otherwise ur intro part is very good and perfect.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Guys kindly use web cam scanner to take pics of the answers….
      It will give u more fineness.

    • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

      Ok thanks. Yes I was thinking the same about Indian feidalistic features too.
      And both points well noted. Will use camscan for clarity now😃

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Questions for tomorrow-
    1) Write short note on feminization of labor in informal sector.
    2) Describe the salient features of the poverty alleviation programmes. What modifications would you suggest to make them more effective?
    3) Write short note on Bonded Labour.

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Kindly Review

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    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Look i have a confusion in this now…. accd to the me the strategies should be those which shoul b according to us and initiatives those which are there by the govt….
      I dont knww what does this question want…
      Ur que is xplaining every initiative and schemes which has already been started by the govt..well mentioned
      Guys plz anyone come up with ur answer.. will help us in getting the sense of question..

    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      Correct. According to me what we think doesn’t make any sense here. India has representative democracy. So whatever Current Government thinks becomes mandate of the people. Actually I think mentioning case studies which express the condition of villages is futile here. Kindly correct me if m wrong.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      I think we shud do comparative study here.we should for instance take any scheme/bill/act/law and then xplain whether its is good or bad according to that particular area or for the whole country. Then we should give our views on that particular .what shud fit well, what shud be the corrections to it…
      Lets say surrogacy bill i think govt should come up with strict rules rather than the prohibition and regulations. This used to be a means 9if livelihood to major parts of india say bihar and gujarat.
      Right???

    • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

      @kavi though you are partly right in saying that we should do A comparitive study of schemes, but I think the question is saying Discuss, so we are not being asked to Critically discuss the schemes here. So yes maybe a simple overview of schemes should suffice.

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Attached
    Kindly review

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    • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

      Wow this is something completely untouched by me. The CDP. Great answer

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Nicely mentioned all the aspects … specially the failures and commitee…
      Keep writing..
      Keep reviewing too….

    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      Thank you & Sure I’ll try my best to do that as well.
      Actually I read your 2nd answer and influenced by the way you presented and now trying to incorporate some of them in my answer. But I think you missed some contemporary aspect. by this I mean if you would have mentioned some recent programmes & policies their itself then I think ans looks more attractive.
      Hope u dnt mine if i copy some of the best part from ur answer 🙂

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      I have a plenty of things to incorporate but when i startd writing i go beyond the limit and missed many points in between…..
      Copying is birth right here…..🖒
      Go ahead..

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Guys plz anyone provide the 3rd ans….
    I really dnt understand and in fact i dont find this portion in my notes…
    Plz

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Que 2.

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    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      @kavigautam Kindly read the question carefully as Question is direct and asking about recent strategies & initiatives for Rural development of India. After reading your answer it shows you have mentioned recent conditions of Rural India in spite of mentioning recent govt initiatives & strategies. M sorry for such critical review. Hope u take this in positive sense. Also review my as well. I am expecting same critical review 🙂

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hey gdmng everyone…..
    Kindly review.
    Ques 1

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    • Profile photo of Niyathi Rao Niyathi Rao @niyathi-rao

      While the answer has all the points, I think conclusion could have been better.Good answer overall.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Thnks for review…..
      Kindly upload urs so that i could “steal” more good points from it….😆

  • Profile photo of Shyam Jaiswal Shyam Jaiswal @shyamj78

    Any good books for sociology ?

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      @shyamj78 kindly go through the 1st thread. U will get info about books and sources. Some pdfs are also there that will surely help u out……
      Gud luck

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Questions for 18th Jan, 2017
    1)Distinguish between the Social Organization of work in feudal society & in capitalist society. (Mains-2014/15)
    2)Discuss New strategies & initiatives for Rural development in India. (300 words)
    3)How far did the Community Development Projects help in realizing the goals of planned change? Critically examine. (300 words).
    All the Best Guys 🙂

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    @viswaraj05 some of the thinkers clips by mahapatra sir u will get on utube.
    Try to find topic wise probably u may find everythg….

    • Profile photo of Viswa Raj Viswa Raj @viswaraj05

      Thanks for ur advice…how to start sociology optional as beginner

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Hey..
      Look we all here are just the beginners so we aren’t following any particular pattern . Just keep studying by following the schedule. Try to write answers whatever u can write just penned it down. No matters how perfect is it. Just try to write….
      Happy studying
      Gud luck

  • Profile photo of Viswa Raj Viswa Raj @viswaraj05

    Can anybody provide me lecture for sociology optional

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Schedule for Coming weeks (From 17th Jan to 29th January 2017)

    Our target is to cover WORK, ECONOMIC LIFE, AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY from both paper 1 & Paper 2.
    This section includes
    UNIT-6 (PAPER 1): Work & Economic Life
    UNIT-C(ii) (P2): Rural & Agrarian transformation in India
    UNIT-C(iii) (P2): Industrialization & Urbanization in India

    17TH JANUARY 2017
    U-6(P1)(a): Social Organization of work in different types of society
    U-C(ii)(P2)(a): Programmes of Rural Development + Community Development Programmes

    18th JANUARY 2017
    Revision + Answer writing day

    19th JANUARY 2017
    U-6(P1)(b): Formal & Informal Organization of Work.
    U-6(P1)(C): Labour & Society
    U-C(ii)(P2)(a): Cooperatives + Poverty Alleviation Schemes.

    20th JANUARY 2017
    Revision + Answer writing day

    21st JANUARY 2017
    U-C(ii)(Paper 2)(b): Green Revolution & Social Change
    U-C(ii)(Paper 2)(c): Changing modes of production in Indian Agriculture
    NCERT Revision of Ch.1: Sociology & Society

    22nd JANUARY 2017
    Revision + Answer writing day

    23rd JANUARY 2017
    U-C(ii)(Paper 2)(c): Problems of Rural Labour, Bondage, Migration
    U-C(iii)(Paper 2)(a): Evolution of Modern Industry in India
    NCERT Revision of Ch.2: Terms, Concepts & Their use in Sociology

    24th JANUARY 2017
    Revision + Answer writing day

    25th JANUARY 2016
    U-C(iii)(Paper 2)(b): Growth of Urban Settlements in India
    U-C(iii)(Paper 2)(c): Working Class
    U-C(iii)(Paper 2)(d): Informal Sector, Child Labour

    26th JANUARY 2016
    Revision + Answer writing day

    27th JANUARY 2016
    U-C(iii)(Paper 2)(e): Slums & Deprivation in urban areas
    NCERT Ch.4: Culture & Socialization

    28th & 29th January 2016
    Revision + Answer writing day
    OMG! Don’t say this… Let’s do it.
    All The Best 🙂

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Hey rahul we left a few topics in between the sequence
      P2 U-A (ii)-a b c d
      U-B (i) (iii) (v) (vi)
      U- C (i)
      So will these be included in coming topics????

    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      Actually I have divided the whole topic into sections. By Sections I mean related topics & Independent topics. In this way the whole syllabus have been divided into 8 Sections. Don’t worry those topics are put under different section according to their relatedness.
      We will cover them in due course of time. Hope it helps.

      Today we have Started Section 2. This is for your reference. 🙂

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Thnku so much… we r nt sayng OMG…
      Dont worry😆
      Will surely cover in tym…

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hey sociology Intelligentsia where u all are disappeared ,when the tym startd to discuss the contemporary social issues…
    Guys plz come forward and share ur valuable views… its required seriously ….
    It’ll be beneficial to all of us.. if u cant write then plz atleast review it will also help u to gain somethingg..
    Thnks..😊

    • Profile photo of Angel V Singh Angel V Singh @shelly-singh

      From where do you guys study Paper 2??? I have bibhash sharma+ mongra notes + harlambos! What else to buy for paper 2??

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      @shelly-singh Hey hi welcome back…..
      We eagerly wanted u…
      Personally m not using any special refernce for paper 2. Plz have alook on all the questions of papr 2. U will get static help from paper 1 part and for paper 2 these are mainly the contemporary issues …
      Kindly have a look on today’s que 2. We here all are confused about that

    • Profile photo of Niyathi Rao Niyathi Rao @niyathi-rao

      @kavi exactly. we should start contemporary issues soon.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Thnku so much…..

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Que 3

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  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Que 4

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  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Que 1

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    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      Well written. Last conclusion part is highly attractive.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Kindly review guys… sorry for the delay

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  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Questions for 15th Jan & 16th Jan, 2017
    1) How does sociology study religion? (NCERT)

    2) Explain How membership, residence pattern and even mode of interaction changes in the family with broader economic, political & cultural changes, for instance migration. (NCERT)

    3)Comment on the factors behind the changing status of women in urban India. (Mains 2016)(Contemporary)

    4) Write short note on features of Caste System.
    All the Best 🙂

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Review plz……
    Guys today in these questions i could not find suitable contemporary examples accordingly so plz suggest me.

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  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Kindly upload

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  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Kindly review…

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  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    1) What is the structural structural perspective on the caste system? Is it not an oversimplification to describe the system as a hierarchy of statuses based on the opposition of the pure and impure?

    2) NCERT Question: Identify the different roles and status that you play and are located in. Do you think roles and status change? Discuss when and how they change.

    3) NCERT Question: What have you observed about the stratification system existing in your society? How are individual lives affected by stratification?
    All the Best.

  • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

    Kindly REVIEW. Thanks
    Q1. “Vertical mobility brings structural change even in a closed social system” Comment.
    ANSWER- VERTICAL MOBILITY is defined when an individual or a group of people improve their position in the social hierarchy from one stratum to another. It can be upward, which is desirable or even downward vertical mobility i.e. when one loses his position in society and is downgraded to the nadir.

    STRUCTURAL MOBILITY on the other hand is a kind of vertical mobility which is FORCED i.e. which leads to mobility of a person or group DUE TO STRUCTURAL CHANGES in the STRATIFICATION HIERARCHY itself. Thus the individual concerned has less role to play in this kind of vertical mobility. A very good Example can be when an occupation or position which was highly regarded as prestigious and decorated in the society, slowly becomes not so prestigious and coveted any more.
    VERTICAL MOBILITY BRINGS STRUCTURAL CHANGE EVEN IN THE CLOSED SYSTEM.
    This can be understood by the fact that during the East India Company Rule, The Bengal Army consisted of majority Upper Caste people i.e. Rajputs and Brahmans which were then well known for their Martial skills. But this gradually changed as the British Crown took over by structurally changing this institution of Army and introducing Regiment system – Jats, Sikhs etc which didn’t stress on Caste/Varna etc.

    Thus in this institution of Indian Army we can see that vertical mobility by enlisting into army(of not so upper castes), led to structural changes in the institution – which was a closed one earlier – itself.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Attach

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    • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

      Good point on Marx and Weber and connecting their theories with economy. You could simply have mentioned the Weber’s work i.e Calvinist Asceticism or his book Protestant Ethic and spirit of capitalism.
      Also i think too much assertion on society causing inflation. yes kind of society determines demand and type of economy like agricultural/manufacturing etc but there are other factors at play like govt policies – demonetization for instance which was not in the hand of society.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Kiny review…

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  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Again cant upload answers……😦

  • Profile photo of Niyathi Rao Niyathi Rao @niyathi-rao

    KINDLY REVIEW. Thanks in Adv

    Q2.’Soil grows castes,machines make classes’.comment.

    Ans: Caste and class are often intertwined and used in exchange of each other. However,they stem from different backgrounds.
    Indian Society can be understood as segregated on various fronts-ascrption or achieved,closed society with ritual sanctions and particularistic values.
    Caste,however, is native.i.e.it is UNIQUE to India.Most issues of the caste system are still of a class nature.i.e.economic domination v/s deprivation.
    Class is division based on economic and occupational lines. With the industrial revolution and the onset of machines,labour became important.
    working conditions,nature of labour,type of employment drove members to different castes to belong to one class-the working class.
    Example:During 1857 revolt,each regiment consisted of various castes,religions but due to working atmosphere the belonged to the same class.The unified resolve of the class to overthrow the british resulted in the great revolt of 1857.
    There exists class in caste as well. Take for instance Jat kisan sabha. Jat kisan sabha is not just an organisation based to caste,in effect,it is an organisation of peasants.
    MN Srinivas on studying Rampura found that occupational stability on secular dimensions created a dominant caste. eg.Vokkalinga caste
    Andre Beteille noted that a secular change was happening over non-brahmins and economic upliftment brought caste and class together.
    In India, caste and class are part of the same reality.History,culture,social structure of the society have an important role to play.
    In contemporary societies,rise of meritocracy diminishes the role of caste.Caste only remains the truth of our identity based on the past while achieved limits describe the position.

    • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

      Perfect !

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Nicely mentioned . 1857 revoult is good exmple. …. kindly reveiew mine

    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      Actually I was little bit confused with this question but after reading your answer all doubts have been cleared. Keep writing.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Gm everyone….
    Kindky review

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  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Questions for 11th Jan-
    1. “Vertical mobility brings structural change even in a closed social system” Comment.

    2. “The soil grows castes: the machines make classes”. Comment.

    3. Write short note: Sociology and Economics (NCERT Question)
    I will try to post my answer & try to review others as well. All the Best.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Kindly review….

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    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Finallly i madee it uploaded…. 😆
      Kindly review guys…

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Anybody plz post answer on A.R Desai…

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    SOCIOLOGY TARGET FOR 9th-15th JANUARY [Mentioned topic can be covered in stipulated time period. 10th Jan has slightly more content that’s why targeted first also enough time is provided for the same. Don’t procrastinate afterwards you wont get time for sociology. DO REVIEW if you are unable to write answer]
    TOPICS-
    Paper 1: (Unit 5) Stratification and Mobility
    Paper 2: Unit B(ii) Caste System;
    Paper 2: Unit B(iv) Social class in India +
    NCERT class 11 (Introducing Sociology)- Ch.1,2,3 +
    COntemporary issue (Triple Talak/Status of women)

    PLAN-
    10th JANUARY
    P1/U5(d): Social Mobility-Open & Closed systems, types of mobility, sources & causes of mobility;
    P2/U(B)(iv) Social CLasses in India
    NCERT Class 11th: Ch.1 (Sociology & Society)

    11th JANUARY = Answer writing day

    12th JANUARY
    P2/U(B)(ii)(a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
    NCERT 11th: Ch.2 (Terms, Concepts & their use in Sociology)

    13th JANUARY = AWD

    14th JANUARY
    P2/U(B)(ii)(b) Features of Caste System & (C) Untouchability
    NCERT 11th: Ch.3 (Understanding Social Institutions)
    Contemporary Topic : Triple Talak/Status of women

    15th JANUARY = Revision + AWD
    All these units are liked so by completing this we will complete the STRATIFICATION, CASTE AND CLASS section of our syllabus. After that we will move to WORK, ECONOMIC LIFE, AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY section. We will try to cover the whole syllabus before March end with some revision.
    Do let me know if anybody wants to make any change. Enjoy learning 🙂

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Thnku so much… no need of any change i guess . U perfctly sketched the plan.
      We will definitely cover this in due tym.

  • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

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    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      Well written. mostly the IMA part was quite innovative.

  • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

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    Kindly review friends.

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    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Very well written…. keep it up.

  • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

    Hey pics are not getting uploaded. Can you help admin? Thanks

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Sanskritisation: This term was coined by MN srinivas . It is briefly defined as a process by which” low “caste or tribe or other groups take over the customs, rituals, beliefs, ideology and style of life of a “upper” and twice born caste.
    The impact of sanskritisation can be seen in language, literature, ideology, music, dance, drama , style of life and rituals.
    He argue that , the sanskritisation of a group was usually the effect of improving their status and position in local caste hierarchy through adoption of names and customs of culturally high placed groups.
    This structural functional perspective is helpful in understanding changes in contemporary Indian society in many following ways:
    1) Exaggerating social mobility: Means the scope of lower caste to move up the social ladder . Generally people start to get accumulated with the upper caste people in order to uplift their own status. Students too starts to like company of upper caste students. it leads to no structural change but only positional change of some individuals.
    2) Accepts the way of uppers caste as superior: The lower caste people thought their own way of living inferior in comparison to them. For instance in Punjab youth got addicted to Drugs by imitating the life style of rich role models(celebrity) and uppers caste people.
    3) Inequality and Exclusion: In order to escape from the atrocities done by uppers caste , they are compelled to change their religion. They wanted to get rid of inequality and Exclusion prevailed. For e.g. In Gujarat 51 dalits converted to Buddhism just for the sake of their future. They were forced to drink cow’s urine and eat cow dung.
    Similarly when any lower caste family shifts to a new place they try to hide their real caste and origin.
    4) Adopting their rights and rituals: There is a practicing of secluding girls and women , adopting dowry practice instead of bride price and practising of discrimination against other groups.
    For e.g. Formerly Purdah system was prevailed within the upper caste only but gradually its being adopted by every other caste.
    In western and northern parts of India dowry was there among upper caste but later on it was accepted by almost every other caste too. Kings used to made gifts to Brahmans but today lower caste too are involved in these rituals.
    In NE regions trials do discrimination to other group of tribes. In Manipur its being done by Nagas.
    4) Adopt high position in society: Earlier high ranks and posts were grabbed by the upper caste only. Whether in the field of education or politics or Business. Today many lower caste overcome these myths. For instance in past years only Brahmans or Vaishyas used too be the toppers in all the high level exams. But last year when Tina dabi cracked the CSE as all India topper, it come up as a ray of hope to the lower caste that they too can become the toppers. Similarly in politics there was no representation of lower caste but when Mayawati come up with her party this gave an opportunity to them too.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Review

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    • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

      @kavi That’s a pretty well structured answer. Now I think mine is kind of sloppy and haphazard 😛

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    @discuss Facing issue in uploading images. Kindly check.

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Guys Questions for 8th & 9th January-
    1)What do you understand by gender? How does it shape ‘male identity’?
    2)Write short note: Ethnicity & Development
    3)Salient features of A.R. Desai’s Marxist Sociology
    4)Contemporary issue Question- Gender inequality & India. Discuss with a sociological perspective.
    @kavigautam From next week onwards we will try to add NCERT Chapters too in our preparation list. Thanks for the advice. All the Best.

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Hey gm everyone….
    I have 1 suggestion, along with the said syllabus plz try to include ncert chapters too accordingly… @rahul-pandey plz have a look…
    Thnks

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    @discuss Problm occuring in posting answers…..

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

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  • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

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    Hey friends.. kindly review my answer for 3rd question for answer writing of 4th/5th Jan. Sorry for posting late but will keep up from now on in a timely manner.

    Thanks

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    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      definition/meaning of Indology is needed. I think apart from that it’s a complete answer. keep writing.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Very well written. I missed all these in my answer. Will club from urs and one anothers’
      Keep writing….😊

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      U didnt try another questions????

    • Profile photo of Akshay B Akshay B @bahugunaakshay

      Hey thanks. Will do all questions and post together in a while now .
      😃

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Questions for 6th Jan-
    1) Explain Melvin Tumin’s critique related to the theory of social stratification. (200 words)
    2) “According to Max Weber, ‘Class’ and ‘Status’ are two different dimensions of power”. Discuss. (200 words)
    3) How far is the structural functional perspective helpful in understanding changes in contemporary Indian society. (200 words)
    We can post our answer till midnight of 7th January or further as well. One request from sociology enthusiasts – Guys kindly do participate. If more & more people will participate than we will get diverse views on contemporary topics of paper 2, which will enrich our knowledge base. Also help us to reproduce in the examination hall. Kindly motivate us by reviewing or posting your answer. All d best.

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Anyone plz tell me the core concept of que 3….
      Is this asking changing stratification???

    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      @kavigautam Question 3 talks about Structural Functionalism (M. N. Srinivas) [Paper-2 Unit-A (Introducing Indian Society) (i) Perspectives on the study of Indian society: Structural Functionalism by M.N Srinivas]

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Ohk lets tryy.thnks

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

    Plan for this week-
    3/1/2017 – Paper 1: Unit 5(a) COncept-equality, inequality, hierarchy exclusion, poverty & deprivation + Paper 2: Unit A(i)(a) Indology (GS Ghurye)
    4/1/2017 – Answer writing
    5/1/2017 – Paper 1: Unit 5(b) + Paper 2 Unit A(i)(b)
    6/1/2017 – Answer writing day
    7/1/2017 – Paper 1: Unit 5(c) + Paper 2 Unit A(i)(c)
    8/1/2017 – Answer writing day + Contemporary topic(Paper:2)- Gender Inequality (Missing Girls)

  • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

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  • Profile photo of Sooraj Pandey Sooraj Pandey @pandeysooraj369

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    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Very well written… kindly try to add more and more examples..

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Kindly review…..

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    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      Superb. Actually I thought this is going to be the difficult question because of its contemporary nature but you have managed it beautifully. I was expecting a positive conclusion as our govt is devoting more effort & time in this (issue of equality & social justice) and the question too asking to examine the same. Anyways this answer deserves 5.5/10 (This is just my personal view)

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Thnku so much …..
      If u have tried then plz upload ans 3..

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Oh am so sorry its repetitive uploading done…
    Correct sequence is 3,1,4,2.
    Plz ignore the last 4 snippets….
    Thnku..

  • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

    Kindly review

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    • Profile photo of Rahul Pandey Rahul Pandey @rahul-pandey

      Here in answer 3, I think you have just explained the contributions of GS Ghurye which is not been asked. Question is “Write a short note on Indological perspective of G.S. Ghurye”. your focus area in this question should be Indology of Ghurye, not ghurye itself.

  • Profile photo of Discuss Discuss @discuss

    This is the new socio optional thread, since the old one had grown too big. The old thread can be accessed here – http://www.civilsdaily.com/topic/official-sociology-optional-ias-mains-daily-initiative-ii (link also given at top of this post)

This topic contains 207 replies, has 17 voices, and was last updated by Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam 4 days, 6 hours ago.



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