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[Super Sunday] 12 March 2017 | Special Essay Competition with prizes for best essays, judged by K Siddhartha Sir

Profile photo of Discuss Discuss
  • Dear Students,

    The 2nd edition of the Super Sunday Essay Competition is now live. Last week’s results have been updated here. Would request all students to make notes of the discussion and try to incorporate the feedback in this week’s essays.

    K Siddhartha Sir will provide UPSC level assessment, similar to last week:

    K Siddhartha (http://www.ksiddhartha.com) is an internationally known Earth Scientist, Advisor to Governments, Educationist, Author with 40 high quality books to his credit, and a Mentor having a hand in 1401 qualified Civil Servants including 28 top 10 rank holders. After his brief instinct of four as Government’s Academic Advisor we have brought him back to his mentor-ship.

    1. 10 Best essays to be chosen by Civilsdaily [advised by K Siddhartha Sir]
    2. The essays will be thoroughly appraised, on the lines of
    • Comprehension of the topic
    • Structure of the topic
    • Organisation
    • Content
    • Strengths
    • Weaknesses
    3. The 10 best essays and their appraisal will be recorded and put on Youtube with their links made available on this thread
    4. Those 10 students will get a report on their essay on the same lines as upsc checks them and assesses them
    5. The chosen essays will be rewarded with books written by K. Siddhartha sir [they will get special signed copies couriered at their home]
    6. The top 2 entries will further get a Rs 250 Amazon coupon
    Essay Topics

    Part A
    1. Politics, bureaucracy and business – fatal triangle
    2. Judicial activism and Indian democracy
    3. Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence

    Part B

    1. Food security for sustainable national development
    2. Can capitalism bring inclusive growth?
    3. Urbanization is a blessing in disguise

     

    General Evaluation Criteria:

    1. Topic Understanding – Essay as per the requirement of the topic. Meaning you have to spend more time discussing the central theme rather than peripheral ideas.
    2. Proper Introduction and Conclusion – Additional marks for impressive beginnings and endings.
    3. Coverage – All dimensions of the topic have been touched upon.
    4. Structure – Points are presented in appropriate paragraphs in a coherent manner.

     

    Instructions:

    1. The test is on the lines of UPSC Essay Paper. Try attempting one topic from each part.

    2. Only typed entries will be considered. Scanned entries or images will not be considered.

    3. Word limit – 1000 – 1200 words

    4. Entries can be submitted till 5 p.m. Tuesday, 14 March (please make a note).


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  • Profile photo of Pratyaksh Sharma Pratyaksh Sharma @pratyaksh-sharma

    @discuss There are a few essays which have not been evaluated. These may have been skipped inadvertently. Please do the needful to at least get them evaluated. However, if these are not worth evaluation, please mention it as well.

  • Profile photo of Pratyaksh Sharma Pratyaksh Sharma @pratyaksh-sharma

    @discuss When can we expect the results for the 12 March 2017 Special Essay Competition?

  • Profile photo of Srujan Reddy Srujan Reddy @jsrujanreddy

    Politics, bureaucracy and business – fatal triangle

    Economy of the country is decided by the policies and business of the country. Before Industrial revolution monarchy politics was on the top of bureaucracy(administration) and business. But with French revolution and industrial revolution, these three institutions were brought to same level. At times religious institutions were also involved. But the nexus between politics, bureaucracy and business has been always questioned, keenly watched and scrutinized. The view of fatal triangle can be seen in the theories of Karl Marx and many scholars also view that these three institutions have led to corruption, inequality, degradation of environment, crony capitalism, nepotism etc. It rather very important to look into such theories and views and also their counterparts to arrive at a conclusion of relation between the three institutions.

    It is important the understand the moral relation between the institutions or the type of relation expected from them. Bureaucracy and politics form an executive platform to govern the country. They make policies in keeping the well being of the society and its people. Bureaucracy is accountable and makes policies according to the wish of politicians in power. Ultimately it is politicians who are accountable to people. Businesses establish their enterprises in accordance to the policies made. But at times businesses cannot establish their enterprises based on the policies made and therefore they lobby for changes in them. Politicians who are policy directors are lobbied by the businesspeople in exchange of monetary or non-monetary favors. Bureaucracy who are accountable to political institution are forced to be made changes even though they agree with them or not. Such incidents can be seen across the globe very frequently. Especially the case of Gali Janardhan Reddy who took the help of then politicians and bureaucracy to tweak policies and make huge profits from exports of Iron ore disturbing the ecology also. In the end, all have been brought to justice and investigation is still continuing. It has turned to be a fatal triangle for society in this case.

    Policies made generally cannot satisfy each and everyone in the society. As Gandhi advised, atleast if it can bring greater good to greater number of people, those policies can termed as successful. But the measurement of such objective will be difficult to these institutions. So it is rather important not to impart societal ills. Indian Constitution adopted socialism exactly for this purpose. People and constitution makers had less confidence on business and political institutions. Even in present globalization era, most of the people feel business institutions attain undue advantage from the other two institutions rather than serving them or for greater good. This can be evidently be seen from scams occured from independence like Coal Scam, 2G scam, CWG scams, boffers scams, Adarsh Scam etc. To add fuel to those recent report by OXFAM states that 8 people in world own same wealth as the 50% of world and 1% of Indians own 57% of country’s wealth consolidating those perceptions.

    Another important factor that rises when these three institutions are brought together is corruption. Bribery and corruption have become routine part of these three institutions. Even if one is following rules, to complete the procedure people are made to pay in the name of commission. Such coercive payment can be seen in the contracts for roads, building, dams etc. This leads to low quality construction, service and bad governance in the end. Uttarakand Flood in 2013 paints how the tender process in construction of dams failed leading low quality, maintenance and heavy floods. Recent report of transparency international pegs India as the most corrupt nation in Asia-Pacific.

    When considering societal ills it is also important to see at international level. The international institutions which have established to protect the world, countries, people etc have continuously failed in order to keep up the business associated with them. Arms race of USA based companies in collusion with several political and bureaucratic institutions have led to several conflict between various regions. IMF and other institutions which have to protect the countries from debt have instead made those countries to open up their economies for the business to flourish. Environmental Institutions are still unable to control the effects of environmental damages. Instead of encouraging the healthy living, the fight of pharmacetical companies for continuous patent rights, instead of feeding the world, the companies which fight for more royalty on the genetic seeds, tax evasion of Multi National Companies with the help of other institutions give a shady picture formed due to nexus of these institutions.

    Considering at local level, most important for betterment of society is education. These educational institutions have been privatized and they are having a drastic effect on the future generations. Without stringent regulations, schools and colleges have been owned and managed by politicians themselves. Here two institutions have merged to become one. High fees without basic amenities and quality education are not just robbing people but also losing the moral and intent behind education. The fees collected here is not taxed nor spent on research, instead goes political kitty banks. No doubt India lags behind in Innovation and research across the global level.

    Viewing such incidents makes us to think where does the problem lies. Whether is it the systemic fault or the people at powerful institutions. Analyzing the incidents across the time, points us towards various structural lapses like transparency, accountability, stringent market conditions, checks and balances across the institutional communication etc. But more than those, it the greed for profit and power, necessities of the economy of countries that leads these institutions to collude to form a fatal triangle. Rectifying the structural faults in three institutions at local, national and international level is very important. Taking corrective measure only at one level doesn’t solve the problem instead it increases.

    In the era of open economies and societies, it is imperative for the political, bureaucratic and business institutions to cooperate and work together without which the society will collapse. There are many successful Public Private partnership across the world that have provided a beneficial triangle to the society without drawing fatal triangle. Policy initiatives like CSR for businesses helps them to wipe out such perception among people if used wisely. Hence, it is important for all the three institutions to instill their credibility and confidence in public and form a triangular pillar system for spread of selflessness, equality and betterment of the society and raising the values of humanity.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. Very scattered thought
      2. Difficult to decipher structure
      3. Incomplete and Incoherent correlationship.
      Merit
      1. Good Language
      2. Meso level analysis
      3. Last three paragraphs good.

  • Profile photo of dhruv gupta dhruv gupta @dhruvgupta997

    Topic :Urbanisation is a blessing in disguise

    Indus valley civilization(2500-1900 bc) has been described as one of the most advanced civilisation-majorly because of its advanced urban culture and infrastructure(international trade and superior planning).
    ‘New urban agenda’ conference defines urbansation as inhabitation with non agricultural and diversified economic activity which ultimately causes development of superior infrastructure,and responsive service delivery.It commits for sustainable urban development by including social inclusion,urban prosperity and resilience.Urban cities are land of opportunities and ensure freedom of choice since they have high economic growth rate. The close concentrated living and working together builds brotherhood and fraternity that goes beyond artificial religion or caste created segmentation. The cohesion and recognization of good work enxihit greater realization of skills and knowledge.

    ■ Cause of rapid urbanisation
    In india with increase in agricultural productivity,acreage,specialisation of skills and artforms led to cretion of surplus. The surplus created favourable conditions for trade and commerce and development of urban areas as trade hubs.

    Indian census 2011 measures the inc.in urbanisation to 31% and forecast a much rapid expansion to include additional 250mil by 2040(within next 20yrs). This will come in form of migration due to agricultural distress caused by 2consecutive drought years and expanded opportunity in urban economic ecosystem.Thus urban areas are seen as respite from orthodox social structure and economic insecurity even at cost of living in unhygienic slums. This adds pressure on urban infrastructure causing haphazard planning,urban pollution. The difference in culture causes social tension and rise in crime rate.
    Economic survey(2016-17) measure this intercountry work migration rate at 9lakh per year using big data. This shows the scale of dependence on urban ecosystem.

    ■Challenges and remedial action to ensure competitive sub federalism

    National urban development policy sets vision for globally competitive sustainable cities as engines of prosperity and centre of culture and social well being while protecting the environment.

    • Urban governance
    The 73rd amendment act, Art243 prescribes for creation for municipalities and municipal corporation for self government and specific sphere were alloted for their action. Many states have not given real powers to mayors and municipal commissioners appointed to perform exceutive action.
    Multiplicity of organizations lead to functional overlap and confusion. Lack of transparency and egovernance intiatives adds to problems.
    There is a need for unified command structure , better collaboration between different bodies and empowerment of ULBS(financially and functionally)
    • Infrastructure deficit
    Over 13% urban population lives in slums in india. The deficit in form of overcrowded public transportation, unhygienic sanitation facilities, water supply ,electricity etc.

    Smart cities and amrut programs are holistic urban rejuvenation program aiming to ensure mass transit system (metros) , basic infrastructure, it connectivity, development of green space , disaster management ,affordable housing. These along with citizen participation,egovernance will wnsure city improvement,renewal and extension.
    Eg. Ministry of urban develepment is now adopting Trust and verify mode for construction approval to remove delays.

    Hriday program for culturally important cities like varanasi,badami will allow revitalisation of heritage cities.

    ● Economic growth and development model
    World bank’s World competitive cities report 2016 prescribe for local resource and requirement based economic planning. Thus cities rather than aping west must effectively exploit their peculiar advantages. Eg. Coimbatore textile based industrialisation, port blairs tourism based development, bangalore technical hub.

    This type of economic model allows prevention of cities inhabitant historic and cultural skills and give impetus to inclusive growth. The aim is not to suppart the traditional skills and knowhow but make them a part of growth.
    EG. Ustad scheme which causes use and training of traditional skills.

    ●Focusing on cumulative urban and rural development to arrest work migration

    Migration and settling into new lands can cause host of insecurities and troubles ranging from individual emotional and psychological feeling of non belongingness to societal tension (divergent cultural practices). This makes to essential to control it by providing productive and gainful opportunity for growth and employment.
    Basic infrastructure of rural areas in form of electricity,health, sanitation, education, water etc. This when coupled with diversification of rural economy through animal husbandry, food processing,low skill industrialisation will effectively counter large scale emigration from rural areas.

    Mngrega program(2000) which provides wage employment to able bodied and willing individuals can be used for creation of required infrastructure in rural areas like small scale irrigation canals, sanitaion toilets (swachh bharat abhiyan) and at the same time provide employment.

    Rurban mission aligning growth in rural areas to their skills and knowhow can bring transformative change.

    Urban areas are engine of growth and they must be sustainable developed in form of social inclusion and building resilience(environmemt protection,disaster). A new approach of equitable disturibution of opportunity,ensuring safety and security, improving connectivity and supporting creativity to build competitive cities.These will promote competitive sub federalism for a strong nation.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Dhruv Gupta
      Limitation
      1. Conclusive flow but language lacking
      2. Not structured by Way of comprehension of the topic.
      3. Completely off track
      4. Looks like a GS answer, rather than an essay.
      5. Made it completely factual, rather than insightful and analytical.
      Merit
      1. Gives a picture of yopic being structured rather than be structured.
      2. Very poor comprehension
      3. Beginning of the essay leaves lot to be desired
      4. Otherwise very informative

    • Profile photo of dhruv gupta dhruv gupta @dhruvgupta997

      Thank you sir for your analysis. I will keep all the points in mind.

  • Profile photo of Anila D.J Anila D.J @ashamedofmyoldid

    The word Capitalism was in early use from the Latin word ‘caput’ meaning ‘head count of cattle’. But our modern concept of capitalism arrived centuries later when Karl Marx, in his famous work Das Kapital, interpreted a capitalist system as an ‘appropriation of capital by some to the exclusion of many others’. Thus, the very definition of capitalism rests upon profit extraction and exclusion, far from the aim towards inclusive growth.

    A capitalist system is one in which business and manufacturing in a society are privately owned and controlled for profit. The labour, land, resources i.e all means of production are privately owned. This system relies on firms for actual production, depends on free markets to decide levels of production and based on market sentiments rationalises prices of its commodities. A firm is strictly a profit making entity and directs all its activities to realise such gains. It cannot, though it may, extend its scope to the welfare of the people. Historically, inequalities between the wage labourers and wage owners were alarmingly encouraged under capitalism. There was strong class distinction between the owners and their labourers.
    The exploitative nature of capitalism was hard to sustain and saw many labour unions, trade unions and anti trust laws come up. Capitalism was also seen extracting resources in an unsustainable manner and like Karl Marx pointed out, excessive capitalism was going to be self destructive. The accumulation of profit by a few caused as a result, social chaos and many cyclical processes​ that ultimately would destroy capitalism itself.

    On the diametrically opposite side of capitalism is socialism, a school that encourages community ownership of production and appropriation of returns based on individual contribution. State participation in production, supply and prices determine what quantities of production are required, where to allocate the labour and what work they should do in this order therefore not relying​ on lassiez faire but community participation to determine output. This is also known as a planned economy. Some countries like the USSR, though used as a failed example of socialism or a centrally planned economy, saw one generation of people move from rags to riches from the start of the 20th century until it’s downfall in 1990. Headed by Stalin after the Bolshevik revolution, the USSR exploited resources of its vast territory without depending on other nations to support its planned economy. People were moving to bigger and better homes, free and equal access to public education and healthcare presented an overall prospecting society. But by the 70s the GDP started to shrink from its initial high of 5.6% in the 30s by 2.2% every decade. The USSR despite making foreign alliances was not able to keep up with the arms and space race it got involved in against the United States. All allies relied on the USSR to champion the cause of socialism against capitalism but eventually it exhausted its resources, couldn’t receive much from allies that were mostly dependents or lacked technology to extract more resources by the end of the 90s, causing an abyssmal defeat of socialism itself. According to Noam Chomsky, here was a second world nation that for nearly a century saw remarkable growth but became a third world nation after ten years of capitalist reforms post disintegration in the 90s.

    Ever since most countries moved towards a capitalist society and especially since the Great Depression of 1929, the government’s role was understood not to be limited to ensuring people’s civil rights. But the government became an indisputable element in driving the expenditure and consumption of the economy while also contributing to the much less attractive social sector. Hence, despite capitalist proponents seeing governments as an added inefficiency in the system, we currently live under a state-capitalist system and not a pure capitalist society; the latest alt-version being, minimum government involvement and maximum governance through regulations.

    But can this largely capitalist system be inclusive? It might seem like an oxymoron and more unintuitive. Capitalism is the breeding ground of creativity. Where there is incentive, there is productivity and novelty. Henry Ford would not have been a big successful automaker if there was no regard for his contribution. But what has given Capitalism such a bad image and why does it stand in the way of inclusive growth? A recent Oxfam report outlined the rising income in inequality and the dark shadow it casts on the global economy:

    1. Eighty-five of the richest people in the world control as much wealth as 3.5 billion people.
    2. According to the IMF, since 1980 the richest 1% increased their share of income in 24 out of 26 countries​.
    3. The income of the top 1% in the United States doubled in the 80s returning to where it was on eve of The Great Depression. (IMF)
    4. Shareof private capital in UK, France and Germany as part of national income is now at levels seen last almost a century ago. (IMF)

    The repeated crisis of capitalism such as recession, inflation, poverty, macroeconomic instability, excessive opacity, political disillusionment and unemployment lead to destroying the original value of capitalism.

    Christian Lagard, head of International Monetary Fund, is not one to accept defeat just yet and is optimistic that inclusive capitalism could itself be a response to Karl Marx conviction of failing capitalism. Laggard estimated that largely unequal societies had less durable growth of economy. And that due this inequality, many people had little or no access to quality healthcare and education around the world.

    Some of the potential measures she suggests are:
    1. Encouraging broad participation over narrow patronage: for capitalism to be inclusive, it needs to include more people for more productivity. This would require those with concentrated wealth to have the biggest voice because it could hurt their wallets most. But in the long run, with better productivity and creativity it turns into a win win situation.

    2. Better fiscal measures: some of the richest do actually pay income tax and participate in transfers of wealth. But for those that do not, fiscal policy is sort of a last resort. This is how the traditional state as an economic actor can fix capitalism. Progressive not excessive taxing, property tax, increasing access to healthcare and education through private participation, skill development and social security are some fiscal measures that have shown to reduce disparities in societies. For example, Bolsa Familia programme in Brazil where the government transfers cash straight to a family, subject to conditions such as school attendance, nutritional and health monitoring, per and post natal tests. Brazil’s poverty levels dropped by 15% in an era when Millenium Development Goals didn’t even mention cash transfers.

    To address the meta challenges a of a highly cleavaged world, businesses​ must serve the economy with creation of jobs, mobilise resources and circulate money but not aim to rule the economy. Capitalism is no longer a headcount of the top richest sheep. It must venture into creating opportunities where every individual may realise his full potential and make significant and creative contribution to the economy.

  • Profile photo of Yunish Ali Yunish Ali @yunishali

    Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence?

    2nd law of thermodynamics states that heat transfer from hot to cold. It is the behavior of nature to maintain equilibrium.
    And if we apply this to the society, then when there is a higher concentration of economic growth in an area or a section then this growth should be transmitted to those areas, or sections with lower growth.
    But the questions arise why? Why there should be distributions of profits? What’s wrong if someone is growing faster due to his/ her meritocracy than others?

    In this essay, we will try to answer these questions. But first, we need to understand what actually distributive justice means. Then with examples will understand if there is no fair and just distribution mechanism then how it will lead to discontent among the people and ultimately into violent protest.

    Distributive justice means

    There is aeroplane flying over a desert .then suddenly it get crashed .aeroplane get bifurcated into two parts .half of passengers found themselves in the middle of desert with no water .and few distance apart, other half of passengers found that there is oasis and have water. But the problem is that it will suffice only for few days for few people. Then the question arises should they share this water with other half of the people. ? Here distributive justice comes in picture to decide.

    Distributive justice is proper allocation of things like wealth, power, and reward between different people.it is an allocation of resources in just manner.it is fairness of how benefits or burdens are distributed or divided among several people or groups.
    Egalitarianism is in the heart of distributive justice. In short, distributive justices means, the fruits of production must be distributed in adjust and fair manner.

    Diversity in geography, culture, language, politics etc. can be appreciated. But diversity in economic growth is difficult to acceptable. At least not from those who are deprived of economic growth.

    We have many examples in our history to prove that if economic growth is not distributed in just manner, then it would led to violent struggle like The French Revolution which gave the value of liberty, equality and fraternity was a result of the economic deprivation that the French masses suffered under an unjust feudal system. Similarly India’s struggle for independence was because of drain of wealth by Britisher.

    Economic growth without distributive justice and violence

    It is under stable that all areas are not blessed equally by Mother Nature. Some areas have a good amount of minerals, some have fertile land for agriculture, same have good ports etc. But some are devoid of even water, some areas are not fit to have industries, some are not fit for agriculture and much more.
    So it is bound to have unequal economic growth .some area will flourish and some not. And if there is no distribution of growth then this will lead to demand for separate autonomy on their resources. This will breed the feeling of regionalism. A violent protest in Andhra Pradesh in 2010 demanding for separate state Telangana was manifestation of this discontent.

    But what if resources are available sufficiently but not distributed proportionally. Naxalite movement arises for demanding for fair distribution of land after land reforms. They are deprived of growth by rich landlords and zamindars who hold the peasants virtually as bonded labor and point their services to earn phenomenal profits.

    If we look into industrial sector, there are trade unions which protest against industrialists class .sometime it gets converted into violent protest. There,workers feel that they are exploited by those industrialists. They work in unhygienic conditions for long hours and they are not adequately compensated. Profits are kept by the industrialists.

    Similarly, when there is no percolation of benefits in the society, be there be a class divide. The upper class will continue to grow in disproportion to the lower and middle class. When people lives in slums, ghettos, which stand check by jowl with luxurious high rise apartments. This will bound to create resentment among the people at injustice. There will be increase in crime rates and incidence of violent riots.
    This will also lead to many political problems also like terrorist activists in Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir and insurgency in north-eastern states .it is mainly due to large-scale unemployment and lack of economical activities like industrial development.

    In India along with class divide we also have issue of caste divide. Powerful cast enjoys greater growth and corner most of lucrative jobs. This creates a feeling of discontent in lower caste and forces them to go for violent protest. But our founding fathers had foreseen these situations so they had ensured reservation policy for scheduled caste and tribes in education and jobs.
    Present protest of Jatts, arePatel communities, etc is also linked to issues of economic security of jobs which forward caste people thought they are losing because of reservation to backward class.

    Apart from that we see a silent protest in our home also, that is protest due to distributive injustice to women. Their contribution in home always goes unnoticed. It is always said that behind every successful man there is a woman. But that woman never gets their fair share. And when comes to inherent property rights they are discriminated again .with no property rights they become dependent on their in laws and become vulnerable to domestic violence also. Even in unorganised sector women participation is higher but they get fewer wages in comparison to their male counterpart. Women have also started coming out from their houses to protest.

    If we look into future, a ground is building for a next violent protest due to effect of climate change. It is reported that 11 islands will vanish when sea level rise .the reason for sea level rise is clearly the industrial development by developed countries. They are not even beneficiary of that development. If step are not taken in this direction then violent is bound to breed.

    However it is said by economists that distributive justice hinders the economic growths. If they invest that money in new venture or firms instead of giving to people of below poverty line, they can expand more. Thus creating more jobs for them to grow and causing no conflicts. But if it left to natural market forces of distribution, there is bound to be some injustice.
    even capitalist countries have also realised that and they are shifting to the concept where state provides social security nets for the less privileged sections of society such as aged, sick and disabled.

    Hence we conclude that if there is no proper mechanism of distribution of economic growth then violence is bound to breed. Our constitution makers had a vision of this concept thus they incorporated this in our constitution in directivities principles.

    If the heat gets concentrated only in hot area and the cold area remains devoid of heat energy. This condition will create instability in nature and can lead to the catastrophic event also.
    Similarly, there should be a continuous flow of economic growth to maintain the stability, peace, and harmony in the society.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. Language & expression
      2. Beginning of the essay
      3. 1st para should show your comprehension, but is lacking
      4. Facts and content not connected with the structure and flow
      5. Not able to substantiate own points.
      6. Incomplete Introduction
      7. Gives an Absolutist tinge.
      Merit
      1. Improvement over previous essay in structure
      2. Has been much clearer in comparison to the last
      3. Tried very hard to organise your thinking and invested a lot of thinking as well.
      4. Semi good examples.
      Well concluded

  • Profile photo of Tanay Rathi Tanay Rathi @tanayrathi7

    PART A
    JUDICIAL ACTIVISM AND INDIAN DEMOCRACY

    “Man’s capacity for justice makes democracy possible, but man’s inclination to injustice makes democracy necessary.” – Reinhold Niebuhr

    In 1608, England was ruled by the Stuart King James I who claimed absolute power. In November 1608, James entered the royal courts and claimed that he could take any case he chose, remove it from the courts, and decide it in his royal person. Chief Justice Coke answered that he could not do so but the case ought to be determined and adjudged in a court of justice according to the law and custom of England. The King was greatly offended and said that law was treason to affirm. Coke replied: “Bracton says that the King should not be under man but should be under God and law.” At that time the judges were removable by the King and had no security of tenure. Chief Justice Coke’s reply was an affirmation of the judicial power while upholding the rule of law against arbitrary decisions of the sovereign. This was judicial activism at its finest.
    When Justice PN Bhagwati started the admissions of Public Interest Litigation in India, it was heralded as rise of new era in Indian judiciary as well as Indian democracy. The “suo moto” cognizance approach adopted by courts strengthened the faith of people in judicial system and encouraged them to take up issues which not only concern themselves but to the public as a whole. This renewed faith got further boost by help of NGOs, judicial activists and other organizations.
    Article 32 was described by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the architect of Indian Constitution as ‘soul of the constitution and very heart of it’ as it provided right to constitutional remedies and empowered Supreme Court to issue various writs for enforcement of Fundamental Rights provided by Indian Constitution.
    In Keshavananda Bharti case (the fundamental rights case), for the first time a court held that a constitutional amendment duly passed by the legislature was invalid as it was damaging the basic structure of constitution. This was a gigantic innovative judicial leap unknown to any legal system. The masterstroke was that the judgment could not be annulled by any amendment to be made by Parliament because the basic structure doctrine was vague and amorphous. The basic structure could be interpreted in any way possible by Judiciary and thus it brought all legislations enacted by legislature under judicial scrutiny.
    Public Interest Litigation is a great tool when it is used to enforce the rights of the disadvantaged. But it has now been diluted to interfere with the power of the government to take decisions on a range of policy matters and some people/organizations/businesses having vested interests use it to stretch the length of matters and also to pressurize government to take decisions in their favor.
    In these type of litigations, the court’s intervention is not sought for enforcing the rights of the disadvantaged or poor sections of the society but simply for correcting the actions of the executive or public officials or departments of government.
    Sometimes the hegemonic growth of the form and procedure of democracy become so vast that they make the spirit of democracy in danger. It is very important to decide what is more important the procedure and principles of democracy like the legislative supremacy or the spirit of democracy i.e. welfare of people. The principle and procedure may be a means to an end but the end is always the spirit of democracy. So if means are abridged to attain the ends then democracy will be more successful than anything else. Judiciary under the veil of activism serves as a watch dog for preserving this basic spirit of democracy.
    Various cases have come to fore where Courts have been involved in petty issues which could have been solved easily by avoiding friction between the concerned parties and by having discussions and agreements. This behavior of admitting all kinds of cases for hearing has been leading to judicial overreach instead of judicial activism.
    There has been a consistent deadlock in Indian parliament on various issues and this has led to pendency of important legislations concerning welfare of people in any one house (mostly Rajyasabha). The executive has been in hibernation from a long time and needs to be nudged from time to time by Judiciary to perform their duties in public welfare and interest.
    The Indian judiciary has been vested with the constitutional power of review to keep the Executive and Legislature within their respective constitutional limits. The Judiciary can strike down any law that is beyond Parliament’s legislative competence or is against the basic structure of the Constitution. Similarly, it can strike down any Executive action, if there is any arbitrariness or illegality attached to it. A Supreme Court judgment becomes the law of the land. That is why it has been called as Guardian of Indian Constitution.
    This is known as separation of powers and this also evolves a system of checks and balances between these three organs so that there is no excess use of power by any organ of democracy. Article 142 hands a unique, extraordinary power to our Supreme Court to do ‘complete justice’ in any matter before it. This may lead to arbitrary judgments being delivered by Supreme Court too.
    Explaining the need for separation of powers, Montesquieu wrote: “There is no liberty where judicial power is not separated from both legislative and executive power. If judicial and legislative powers are not separated, power over the life and liberty of citizens would be arbitrary, because the judge would also be a legislator. If it were not separated from executive power, the judge would have the strength of an oppressor”.
    Indian democracy is one of the best and biggest in the world but it does not provide the power of “call back” to its citizens that is people cannot ask their representatives to resign from their posts if they are not able to deliver according to the promises/assurances they gave to electorate. This makes the legislative organ vulnerable and there are chances of misuse of their powers by legislators/elected representatives and this is where role of Judiciary becomes far more important. This loophole in our democracy is partly filled by Judiciary by keeping arbitrary decisions of Legislative/Executive in check.
    There have been various landmark judgments by Judiciary which prove this point. In Golaknath case, Supreme Court made it clear that no constitutional amendments can be made on the part III of the constitution and there by fundamental rights cannot be abridged by the legislature. This made sure that Fundamental Rights were inalienable and any attempt to tone them down would not be entertained.
    The great contribution of judicial activism in India has been to provide a safety valve in a democracy and a hope that justice is not beyond reach. There is concern among the public about lack of transparency in judicial appointments and a sense of increasing unease because of a lack of a credible mechanism to deal with serious complaints against the higher judiciary.
    Judicial activism has added much needed oxygen to a gigantic democratic experiment in India and its continued use will ensure that the tree of largest democracy in world keeps on growing and blossoming and provides fruits of welfare to each and every citizen of country, be it rich ones or poorest of the poor.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. Does not reveal structures
      2. Short conclusion
      Merit
      1. Excellent expression & English like Srishti, Arun & Apoorva
      2. Depict in depth knowledge
      3. Looks like Student of Political Science or PA.

  • Profile photo of apoorva yadav apoorva yadav @apoorvayadav16

    Can capitalism bring inclusive growth?

    Economic system of the country is one which determines its prosperity, happines and its capability to contribute in global order to make world a better place to live. Capitalism is one such economic system which is based on the law of “demand and supply” . Similar law of demand and supply can be seen in nature too Where nature provides us with resources and when demand of these resources increases,it leads to scarcity of that resource and hence increase in its value(price) .But when this demand goes out of carrying capacity of nature it regulates it by means of natural phenomenon such as climate change, ozone depletion ,erratic rainfall, flood etc. Thus Nature has its own regulating mechanism to make a balance.
    Similarly capitalism as an economic system can provide multifaceted growth including inclusive growth but it needs regulation when it reaches a point where it starts manifesting only economic growth not the economic development which can be corroborated by widespread inequity. And at that time role of “REGULATING NATURE” will be performed by “state”.
    So the question is not of whether capitalism can bring inclusive growth but question is of whether it can bring growth with or without the support of the government. This will be analyzed further .

    Where capitalism can bring inclusive growth-
    Since Industrial revolution , it is the capitalist system only which is the single largest factor that lead to innovation. When People have “profit motive” they try to innovate, research and device new technologies which in turn helps the poorer and backward sections of societies. For eg. most of the pharmaceutical companies have profit motives so they invent new medicines that cures hitherto untreated diseases such as HIV , various types of Cancer etc .These medicines reaches to poorer section of society because of reduced prices out of competition that capitalism provides.
    Similarly innovations in areas such as digital transfer of money, mobile wallets (for eg paytm) etc which were the backbone of the concept of “Demonetization” ,were all possible because of the freedom a free market(i.e. capitalism) offers.
    Also, the concept of Inclusive growth presupposes the concept of some “basic economic growth” (which as capitalistic system provides) without which any kind of growth is mere imagination. This basic economic growth provides necessary resources to the government of the day in terms of taxes and higher GDP which government utilizes to bring “inclusive growth” by providing subsidies, public facilities, infrastructure etc. Besides this corporate sector is also subjected to “corporate social responsibility (CSR)” which adds to the concept of inclusive growth by setting up social infrastructure like schools, Hospitals ( For eg TATA cancer Institute) etc.
    Thus, capitalism is an vital factor to make the concept of inclusive growth a reality however, can it go without any intervention from state, is to be seen further.

    Why capitalism needs “state” to bring inclusive growth-
    It is said that “Managers do the things right , Leaders do the right things” and this is the precise reason why we need state to bring inclusive growth along with capitalist system. Capitalist model of growth is based on “managerial-ship” which is based on the motive of profit earning and efficiency, on the other hand concept of inclusive growth requires the “leadership” which is compassionate and kind hearted towards the weaker section of society.
    In fact conceptually capitalism and inclusive growth are opposite in nature. Capitalism requires “exclusivity and competition” while inclusive growth requires “inclusion and co-operation”. Thus to bring inclusive growth we need leaders i.e. administrators not managers. Hence state regulation over capitalistic market is precondition to bring distributive justice in terms of inclusive growth.
    For eg. In our earlier example of pharmaceutical companies though they are innovating new medicines for public still sometimes they go on “ever-greening” their products just for financial gains (As observed by Supreme court in “Novartis” case) which results into sky rocketed price of life saving drugs. here state intervention is required to keep the price affordable. Similarly the concept of “Generic drugs” is nothing but the manifestation of state intervention in pharmaceuticals sector .
    Further, in Satyam software’s case though Ramalingam Raju had contributed a lot in the growth of the IT sector, it was due to state’s interventions only that irregularities in accounts of the company were exposed. This further led to the protection of the interests of various stakeholders.
    Similarly Though Corporate sector is contributing towards corporate social responsibility, it is by imposition from state ,not by choice. It is ultimately the state which has to monitor the contribution from corporate and penalize them in case if any irregularity.
    Also to look into the environmental dimension ,It was capitalist system only which led to to culture of “Consumerism” and “commodification” and degeneration of environment. But with the state governments realizing this we have greater sensitivity towards these issues which otherwise would have gone unchecked.
    Thus the need of the hour is a “regulated capitalistic system” to bring the inclusive growth. In fact almost all the countries in the world are already following this Model. India had been following this system since the LPG reforms of 1991. Countries of West like USA and UK imitate the best possible form of capitalism (not the pure capitalistic model). These countries also have state regulation (though minimalist) visible in the form of Anti-immigration laws(UK),restricted visa and protectionist policies (USA-Trump) etc.
    To sum up, to bring inclusive growth in the country we need a FACILITATOR STATE which will give us strong foundation by imparting us with education, health and basic income. it is only than we can let market forces play to bring about a greater equality and inclusivity at all levels .

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitation
      1. The essay required to be slightly argumentative which is not.
      2. Basic question remain unaddressed
      3. Short conclusion
      Merit
      1. Improvements over past the links that she has forged

  • Profile photo of NITI TRIPATHI NITI TRIPATHI @nititripathi19

    PartB.CAN CAPITALISM BRING INCLUSIVE GROWTH?
    Growth is one of those defining processes that helps to advance towards the development.Evolution of mankind has gone through various stages including economic, political and social growth.As Man headed with fast paces,comes the concept of inclusive growth,for which the growth is mandatory.It originated when man viewed that in order to achieve faster economic growth,social tensions,Global crisis,in justices and inequalities also followed up on.So inclusive growth comes out to be a multidimensional initiative for various problems.Inclusive growth is the economic growth that creates opportunities for all segments of the population and distributes the dividends of the increased prosperity both in monetary and non monetary terms, fairly across the society.For example-our Indian government has launched JAM-Jandhan,Aadhar,Mobile for the Inclusive growth. Even our elected president has rightly said,”Inclusive growth should not be a mere slogan but a fundamental driving for sustainable development”.
    The world has witnessed 3 types of methods to achieve economic growth. The very first is capitalism, whose origin can be traced from Western Europe during the middle ages.As the word suggests, for capitalism to be followed ‘capital’ is needed.It all started with the industrial,agrarian revolution in which capital was extensively supplied by the enthusiastic wealthy businessmen,who later came to be known as capitalist class.Capitalism is an economic system in which the individuals own the economic resources,industry and the factors of production itself.These factors of production include capital goods,entrepreneurship,natural resources and labour.Actually, this capitalism not only controls these factors but also derive their income from their ownership.It requires a free market economy to succeed,as the laws of supply and demand along with the market forces sets the competition. Apart from free market economy,free operation of capital markets is also an important component.To achieve this,the very system has ignored the external costs,such as pollution, climate change etc.To make cheaper goods for more profits, it has depleted natural resources too.Thus,this increase in wealth has come up with an economic inequality and injustice in which the rich got richer and poor got poorer,followed by self interests without sharing responsibility towards society,i.e.1% of the world’s population owns 99% of wealth.
    Even French and Russian revolution were a result of class conflict and class struggle which Karl Marx had pointed out,arising because of capitalism. Therefore, to remove these discrepancies,the other two methods-Communism and socialism developed.Under Communism,everything is owned by every one,that is communally.Ideally,each person contributes to society as best as he is able and decisions made by that society are for the well being and benefit of all people as a whole,not any individual.Where as socialism relies on the government planning rather than market place,to distribute resources.Public services are funded by taxpayer money.Citizens are expected to work,but government provides services such as education,health care etc. at very low cost.Socialist countries have extensive social welfare systems to aid the unemployed, disabled and elderly.Most societies in the world have elements of all 3 systems. This blend of systems is called mixed economy as seen in India.
    Now the question which crops before us is that can capitalism bring inclusive growth?We cannot simply reject the capitalism on the part that it brings inequality and injustice.All the political,social and economic factors of any state determines ,which economic system has to be adopted.It is the ineffective governance,oligarchy,corruption and unaccountability that hinders the inclusive growth.Human spirit of competition and innovation followed in capitalism should be encouraged.But people lacking the skills and creativity can be made to learn and allowed to contribute in other ways to the society.For eg,MNERGA has tried to bring in unskilled workers in our economy. “Cooperation is a higher moral principle than competition”. Thus, that competition should be followed with cooperation in order to bring inclusive growth.
    Capitalism can bring inclusive growth if it is well regulated by policies measures coupled with moral responsibilities and duties on the part of the rich and capitalist class to contribute towards society from which they take.It should not be taken as altruism but as responsibility and obligation.For eg- Corporate Social Responsibility in valves initiatives that benefit our society.The natural human instinct that the more we get,the more we want comes in way of this system,due to which it breds inequality.Ensuring that the rich is adequately taxed and economic growth touches every remote corner of the society can make capitalism bring inclusive growth.
    The need for capitalism to bring inclusive growth requires moral capitalism,conscious capitalism and inclusive capitalism.Bringing equality of opportunities and welfare economics in society can lead a clear path way for capitalism to bring inclusive growth.It requires the government to take a larger role like social safety measures,than a pure market economy.Thus,this concept of welfare economy to replace a capitalist economy without actually replacing capitalism can be visualised and achieved.
    “We all do better when we work together, our differences do matter but our common humanity matters more”.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. Capitalism & Inclusion requires elaboration
      2. Some alaborations missing.
      3. Conclusion requires further elaboration.
      Merit
      1. Best comprehended essay.
      2. Very well structured
      3. Smoothest flow.

    • Profile photo of NITI TRIPATHI NITI TRIPATHI @nititripathi19

      Thank you so much Sir for your feedback.I will certainly try my best to improve further.

  • Profile photo of Aishmol Thomas Aishmol Thomas @aishmolthomas

    URBANISATION IS A BLESSING IN DISGUISE
    Urbanisation can be defined as the process of society’s transformation from predominantly rural to a predominantly urban population. It includes two things- an increase in number of people living in urban settlements and increase in percentage of population engaged in non agricultural activities living in such places.
    ****Urban in India is defined as human settlement with minimum population of 5000 persons,with 75% of male working population engaged in non agricultural activities and population density of at least 400 persons per sq.km.The urban population has increased from 27.81% in 2001 census to 31.16% in 2011 census.That is India is urbanising.
    **** Urbanisation in India is as old as the ancient Indus valley civilisation with well planned cities,’modern’ sanitation and storage facilities,giving due importance to hygiene.During the medieval period,cottage industries and marketing paved the way for urbanisation. During the 20 the century, urbanisation showed fluctuating trends which were affected by droughts, floods,famines,epidemics and partition.After independence ,well planned cities with adequate social amenities came up like Bhubaneswar,changigarh,noida.However,Indian urbanisation is predominantly subsistence type where by rural unskilled and semiskilled labourers migrate in search of jobs.
    **** “Urbanisation should not be seen as a crisis,rather it should be seen as an opportunity for everyone to grow”_These are the words of our prime minister Shri.Narendra Modi.It reflects the attitude of our policy makers towards urbanisation. Much has been talked about the side effects of urbanisation like slums,congestion, urban crime etc.But the contributions it has made to the overall development of humanity is less talked about.It actually comes as a blessing in disguise.Policy makers and society should work together to reap its benefits along with curbing its side effects.
    **** Economically, cities and towns are driving forces of economic growth, sites of economic boom.Development in all forms springs up from cities.People migrate from villages to cities for better opportunities and facilities,and cities in turn expand itself to serve the needs of incoming population. Development of service sector and industrial sector is viable only in cities and vice versa.Its a cyclical and interdependent process.People come to cities to get employment in industries,and their needs are catered by the growing service sector.There will be subsequent improvement in education and health facilities provide the policymakers are sensitive to the needs of changing urbanscapes.People who are skilled and willing to work hard will get many opportunities in cities compared to villages where agriculture is the only method for sustenance which is heavily dependant on climate and other variable factors .
    ****Civic amenities Like transportation facilities,communication, eheathcare,sanitation and education develops better in urbanisation.Large scale investment in these areas are viable only if large number of people are around to make use of it.
    The social effects of urbanisation are many and at times it overwhelms the economic benefits.The social scenario in a village is traditional ,conservative and rule bound.It is basically feudal,casteist and ridden with rituals and superstitions. A self sufficient village is rather resilient to changes outside it and may not be welcoming people who proposes to bring changes.They have predominantly joint families and people mingle only their same caste and status people.There are no opportunities for the traditionally disadvantaged to rise up the social and economic ladder,as the do not own any land and land is the one and only method to improve the economic status.They live in perpetual poverty ploughing the land of large scale land owners.The situation of women are also not good.Though they work along with their husband in the fields,their social status is low.They have no say in economic matters,and not allowed to have opinions and aspirations.There are married off early with little or no education to start a family of their own.Their early marriage and lack of education negatively affect an the children they bring up.
    *****The social scenario of urban area is drastically different.People move out from joint families and start nuclear families of their own in cities.Traditional family norms are relaxed as a result of occupational diversification. Children has to select playmates outside family and acquires a new type of personality characterised by ideas of freedom and innovation different from that of dependence in joint family.similarly caste identity diminishes in urban society.Urban dwellers participate in networks that include persons of several caste,and being csate minded can only reduce ones own opportunities. Individual achievements and modern status symbols become more important than caste identity.Caste norms are not strictly followed in marital alliances.Level of education, nature of occupation and level of income are now major indicators of ones achievements in modern setup.Urban way of life has made people think more as individuals than members of caste.Urbanisation also improves the status of women.It allows them to work in sectors that does not need physical strain and fetch them incomes comparable to males.This allows them the have opinions and make decisions in family.It also the improves the quality of next generation they bring up.Gender barriers get lowered,and improved mobility and communication facilities help women to achieve their goal and self realisation and satisfaction.
    ****In rural areas political questions are almost always around caste and religious equations.However in towns the the agenda revolves around development and civic amenities.They are more aware of their civil rightsand have ideals of equality ,fraternity.They tend to question political authority rather than blindly believing them.
    ****Religious taboos,rituals and superstitions have no role in urban society.In villages ,women are not allowed to touch anyone or ho around during menstruation.These kind of absurd superstitions are absent in urbanism.
    **** Urbanisation widens the horizons of people.it eliminates narrow thinking,orthodoxy and caste prejudices .They are exposed to outside world and gather new experiences which are alien to rural society.
    ****rural people who migrate to urban areas in search of jobs contribute largely to rural economy and society.actually the produce more rural- urban integration than any other govt schemes.They invest in rural economy and percolate their modern and uban ideas and way of life to rural society.Their economic prosperity influences more rural people to migrate to unban areas in search of a better life.
    **** Everything comes at a price,urbanisation is no different.It has its own side effects too..It is said that every week around 2000 families migrate to Mumbai in search of a better life.The cities are not well equipped to accommodate all these people.This will result in haphazard growth of cities. The appearance of slums,poor sanitation ,congestion, clogging of transport and accommodation facilities occur.Inadequate water and electricity supply,sewage disposal,lack of recreation facilities,pollution are the side effects of urbanisation. It causes huge damage to environment.Lack of necessary social amenities and unemployment gives rise to urban poverty and urban crime.Urban youth deprived of job indulge in extortion,kidnapping,prostitution,trafficking,childabuse,pickpocketing,rape,robberyetc.Material culture,growing consumerism,selfishness,stiff competition,lavishness, glaring socio economic inequalities are the main causes of these menace.Gamboling,alcoholism drug abuse,crimes against women are the by products of urbanisation.
    ****Policy makers and civil society should work together to reap the dividents of urbanisation and eliminate its side effects.Sound principles of urban planning should be followed to urban development. Urban decentralization, garden suburbs and garden cities,new and expanded towns,slum clearance,rehabilitation and traffic segregation,planning for future cities- should be given due importance.
    ****A national urbanisation policy has been devised to develop a rural urban continuum,replacing urban rural dichotomy.Its objectives are balanced urban growth,dispersed location of towns,improved infrastructure and civic amenities, improvement of slums Rather than demolition,land ceiling and restriction on building plot size,cheap and suitable mass housing,policy to check pollution, preparation of master plan for all categories of towns,cities etc.Incorporating this objectives in urban planning can drastically improve the quality of urban life.
    ****Govt is now giving due importance to urbanisation through its SMART CITIES mission,AMRUT mission,RURBAN mission,HOUSING FOR ALLetc.The URBAN PLUS approach adopted by the 6 the edition of Asia pacific ministerial conference on housing and urban development put forward the NEWDELHI DECLARATION.it talks about planning for urban, periurban and adjoining areas in an integrated manner.it acknowledges that governance is the key to sustainable development.The UN CONFERENCE ON HOUSING AND sustainable URBAN DEVELOPMENT, HABITAT 3 at ecuador sets a guiding compass for member countries for next 20 years.Its central theme was challenges of rapidly urbanising world and of providing people with equal opportunities in cities.
    *****What urban India needs is a genuine lowering of barriers of entry into cities without it becoming site of political opportunism and vote bank.It should widen its scope to accommodate people across all classes and groups- from single women to fresh graduates and new entrepreneurs. Its time our policies start reflecting India’s fluid and looped urbanism more accurately and efficiently.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. You ask the examiner to decipher
      2. Segmented flow
      3. Judgemental statements
      Merit
      1. Makes easy reading.
      2. Semi structured
      3. Content loaded
      4. Descriptive rather than insightful
      5. Doesn’t know what urbanisation is
      6. Some extremes of statement

  • Profile photo of SAGGALLA NIVEDITHA SAGGALLA NIVEDITHA @saggallaniveditha

    PART A:
    JUDICIAL ACTIVISM AND INDIAN DEMOCRACY
    The great contribution of judicial activism in India has been to provide a safety valve and hope that justice is not beyond reach.Judicial activism refers to the interference of judiciary in the legislative and excecutive fields.It mainly occurs due to the non activity of the other organs of the government.In recent years incumbents of parliament has become less representative of the will of the people,there has been a growing sense of public frustration with the democratic process.This is the reason why supreme court had to expand its jurisdiction by,at times,issuing novel directions to the legislative.
    Failure on the part of the legislative and excecutive wings of the government to provide good governance makes judicial activism imperative.Delivering justice to a population of over a billion does not sound like and never will be an easy task.It however becomes increasingly difficult in a country like India.
    Juidicial activism has risem mainly due to the failure of lesgislative and excecutive to actand also due the reason that the entire system has been plagued by ineffectiveness and inactiveness.
    Judicial activism is the practice going beyond the normal law for the jury.There are some very important cases where juidicial activism plays an important role like the Bhopal gas tragedy and The Jessical lal mudder case are among the top two.Money and muscle power tried to win over the good.But lately,it was with the help of judicial activism that the case came to atleast one decision.
    Judicial activism has to be welcomed.An activist court is surely far more effective than a legal positivist conservative court to protect the society against legislative adventurism and excecutive tyranny.In Judicial activism,the judge places his final decision with his heart and mind,which is emotionally handled.
    PART B:
    URBANIZATION IS A BLESSING IN DISGUISE
    Time has changed and changes effect favour the town over the village.Big factories and industries were established in the towns and landless labourers migrate from villages as industrial workers in the towns.
    Forces of history are causing the change over and we cannot go against the current of history.The urban population would increase at the expense of the rural one.Urbanization is a self propelled process whereby urban population increases and the population of sorrounding rural area decreases.It transfers people from agriculture to non agricultural occupations.
    Urban area is managed by the municipality or corporation,cantonment board or notified town area committee.Minimum density of the population should be four hundred persons per square kilometer.
    Urban development and Urbanization are two different things.Urbanization is the migration of the rural population to the urban area.Factories,industries and huge infrastructure does not make urbanization.Urbanization ushers to untold problems.Haphazard urban growth becomes inevitable.Urbanization is also a blessing in disguise.
    Urbanization boosts economic growth,people earn more and spend more.Market flourishes,production increases and economy becomes viable.People pick up the habit of saving also.Urbanization brings down mortality and fertility rates.Better health facilities would lead to these wonders.It also boosts transport sector.Urbanization also helps in mushrooming of entertainment and recreational places.Shops will be setup keeping in mind the purchasing power of the people.
    Consequently urbanization brings forth many boons and these boons do not become banes till urbanization remains moderate.Unlimited and unaccounted migration of people in urban area overburdens all the facilities available and make urbanization a curse,a bane,a malady.Moderate urbanization is blessing.

  • Profile photo of Kriss Raghunath Kriss Raghunath @kriss-raghunath

    part-B:Food security for sustainable national development
    Sustainable national development is the provision of access to the natural resources like land ,water,minerals,forests etc..to the future generation and can be achieved by minimal and effective usage.
    Food security is the provision of the sufficient amount of food in all conditions round the year.Also United Nations organisation stresses sustainable development goal -FOOD SECURITY to eradicate poverty and also for affordability and availability to underprivileged.

    Food security comes from agriculture in the form of food materials and animal husbandry in the form of meat ,milk eggs and value added products.

    India is an agrarian community with 70% still depends on agriculture. India during British era faced severe famines resulting in the loss of huge lives,after independence due to our visionary leaders approach resulted in GREEN REVOLUTION led to self sufficiency.In The present scenario Food security is given utmost importance by the governments by enacting national food security act ,which provides subsidised food to both rural and urban population.
    food security depends on various reasons like a good monsoon brings good yield of crops. Inspite of having great rivers still Indian is dependent on monsoons. selective type of cropping inspite of government’s provision of minimum supportive price resulted in imports of PULSES.land holdings of the farmers diminishing, credit facility provision ,input subsidies,better irrigation facilities through PMKSY,educating the farmers regarding the cropping pattern,optimal fertiliser utilisation.

    challenging factors for limiting the achievement of food security are crop failures,monsoon failures,low MINIMUM SUPPORTIVE PRICE eg: farmers of shivamogga in karnataka are traditional paddy cultivators but because of low msp they have turned to GANJA cultivators effecting the food security, debts of farmers resulting suicides,severe drought conditions eg: Maharashtra-lathur area water supplied through water tankers.lack of good quality of seeds in all parts of the country, warehouse dearth, lack effective marketing facilities results in wastage of food, lack of transport facilities from farm to market.
    Lack of affordable and sufficient food for children during the development stage results in loss of physical and mental capabilities of next generation. so ,government is taking steps in achieving food security by using various policies for farming community, accelerating irigational projects,using technologies like cloud seeding,storing varieties of seeds at seed banks to avoid adverse situation, encouraging farmers to go for organic cultivation , DD KISAN channel for farmers to educate them, provision enam for marketing facilities.
    Thus by providing Food secuirty to the nation sustainable national development is possible.

  • Profile photo of Nitish Tripathi Nitish Tripathi @niteeshtripathy

    PART A: Judicial activism and Indian democracy
    Imagine you are an undertrial in one of India’s many jails. You are being detained there even before you have been convicted as you cannot afford bail. While there, you witness the inhuman treatment meted out to the inmates which makes life humanly unbearable. You try to complain, but no one listens to you. Instead you are punished further. What do you do?

    The story is not as far from reality as it would seem to us, sitting in our drawing rooms debating civil rights and liberal values. Something similar was the story behind a Public Interest Litigation in the late 1970’s. It, along with others beckoned the era of an activist judiciary protecting the civil rights of the under-privileged.

    Judicial activism emerged in India in the late 1970’s to protect the citizenry, especially the un-empowered against arbitrary legislative and executive actions. The Keshavananda Bharati case and the Minerva Mills case firmly established the fetters of judicial review on legislative action. It was decided that the higher judiciary reserves the un-amendable right to judge the constitutionality of any legislation. Thereafter, Maneka Gandhi case established that the courts are empowered to challenge a law not only on its procedure sanctity – that procedure established by law was followed – but also on its justness, fairness and reasonableness. This was through an expansive interpretation of Act 21.

    The concept of the PIL (Public Interest Litigation) added yet another arrow in the quiver of an activist judiciary. A radical departure from other common law countries, the Supreme Court relaxed the locus standi requirement in Act 32 and Act 226. This enabled others to argue for the disempowered upon the violation of their rights. It even empowered the courts to take suo moto cognisance of news reports, letters to the judiciary etc. to open a case against said violations. The proceedings were to be of a non-adversarial nature. It sought to find a solution to the problem by sitting down with the executive.

    Is such an activism really necessary in a democracy like India? The whole point of a democracy is that people appoint their representatives to govern so that the decisions taken are in their interests. Thus, any breach if these interests, will be necessarily self-corrected by the wishes of the people in elections. This fact should also ensure that the executive never disregards popular interests, rights and issues. The doctrine of separation of power also warns of any spillage of legislative or executive power from the designated arms of the state into the judiciary. How then can judicial activism be in the long term interests of the people?

    While all the concerns raised above are valid, the strength of a democracy is in its practice. The sad truth on ground is that we have a large disempowered population which is often unheard while policy formulation and execution. For them, access to justice is impossible given the procedural hurdles and their poverty. Judicial activism provides them succour. Indeed, speaking of judicial activism through the PIL, renowned jurist, Dr. Upendra Baxi lauds the daring adjudicatory leadership of the Supreme Court in the past 25-30 years and says that the highest court has mutated the discourse of judicially unenforceable Directive Principles by incorporating them into Article 21, and so converted human needs into human rights.

    The PIL has resulted in many landmark judgements in the past, covering a wide array of topics. Examples include, succour to prison inmates in Bihar, against custodial violence against women, conversion of public transport vehicles into CNG and most famously the 2G scam case. Taking cognisance of the immense public benefits of a relaxed locus standi requirement, South Africa has incorporated the same in its jurisprudence.

    However, along with the great many benefits brought about by the PIL, debate has often shifted to focus on the cases of judicial adventurism vis-à-vis activism. For every judgement which the defenders of the PIL show has a validation of their stand, we have a few which show avoidable overreach on the part of the judiciary. Indeed, the Public Interest Litigation, a tool to empower the disempowered, is alleged to now have turned into Public Cause Litigation. In the latter, the judiciary often seeks to correct routine executive matters or interfere into matters constitutionally out of its scope.

    There are several examples of the same. The Hazratbal siege of the army where the Supreme Court ordered for delivery of food to the shrine where the militants had taken hostages is one. The interference led to a commander claiming that the operation was almost compromised by the directive. Another is the Supreme Court’s directive to the Speaker of the Jharkhand assembly – an issue which is constitutionally out of the court’s purview. The ordering of rescinding of allocated petrol pumps, or the directive to the executive to auction all public assets like coal blocks are yet others. These are clearly instances wherein there was no direct question of the human rights of the disempowered.

    Off late, it seems that such instances have increased. It is that which seems to have increased the frustration of the legislators and executive with the judiciary. The comments of senior legislators like. “Step by step, brick by brick, the edifice of India’s legislatures is being destroyed”, or talks of the need to not cross the “Lakshman Rekha” must be understood in this context.

    The issue of judicial activism and its need in Indian democracy is indeed a complex one. On the one hand, we can’t but agree with Dr. Upendra Baxi that the higher judiciary has used to convert human needs into human rights. We also must agree with eminent advocate Fali Nariman that an activist judiciary is largely occupying the legislative and executive space vacated by the people’s representatives in fulfilling the Directive Principles of State Policy as enshrined in the constitution. The instrument of Public Interest Litigation is a wonderful innovation which modifies into a form more conducive to Indian democratic conditions.

    On the other hand, we must also admit that ideally, legislative and executive functions must independently be performed by the people’s representatives. When such wide and expansively interpretive powers are provided to an unelected body, chances of overreach always remain. Ultimately, what must be admitted is that such tools of judicial activism must exist as long as the legislatures and executive do not become more responsive and ensure that democracy works for all substantively.
    ———————————————————————————-

    PART B: Urbanization is a blessing in disguise
    The debate on the need for urbanization in a predominantly rural India is an old one. The brilliant Dr. Ambedkar, clearly favoring rapid urbanization over Mahatma Gandhi’s conception of idyllic village republics, characterized villages as, “sinks of localism, dens of ignorance and narrow-mindedness”. Over seen decades after Dr. Ambedkar spoke thus, the pressing need for urbanization is again being heard in the policy circles.

    Since independence and especially post ’91 economic reforms, Indian cities have emerged as the pistons of Indian growth engine. Industry has largely agglomerated around Indian cities, driving growth, providing employment and enhanced opportunities to both local and migrant population. The levels of educational and health facilities provided is much better than the hinterland, as is the awareness of one’s rights and responsiveness of the state machinery. The infrastructure provided by the cities is much better in comparison.

    Apart from these, the social restrictions are much loosely imposed in the cities than the villages. Elements of social justice which are practically impossible to locate in villages are much readily available in cities due to relatively freer intermingling of people. All these factors have ensured that a steady stream of people have migrated year after year from the villages to the cities. A fourth of India lives in its cities. By 2030, this proportion shall increase to 40%. Naturally, this shall require unprecedented urbanization.

    It is clear that with the growth of population as well as economy, the proportion of people reliant on agriculture for employment must decrease. The resultant growth of the secondary and tertiary sectors presupposes a widely dispersed, resilient and planned network of urban centres.

    Although the cities have benefitted India in so many ways, the benefits have largely been skewed and haven’t been up to potential. Urbanization itself in India has happened organically rather than in a planned fashion. Rather than through the state, it has happened in spite of the state. This has led to several problems. Haphazard urbanization has ensured inequity in growth. The accrual of benefits hasn’t been equitable. Unplanned development has led to ad-hocism, without the corresponding growth of institutions for city planning in actual terms.

    Such an absence of institutional capacity has led to inadequate infrastructural development. The cities have grown but infrastructure has not. For example, no urban centre in the country has city-wide functional sewerage system. The patch-work of roads are excellent in some parts of the city and dilapidated in others. Inequitable development has led to insular spaces of good amenities. Even in the national capital, while most areas in the Lutyens Bungalow zone enjoy top-notch civic facilities. Merely 10 km to the west, water is supplied to a long queue of people in tankers “almost” every day. Absence of a good regulatory structure and empowered local government institutions has led to suburbanization even before urbanization has reached full potential.

    Over and above this, the problem of inequitable development of urban centres across the territory of India has contributed to the excessive migration to certain cities, often to the disgruntlement of the local population. Critics of such an urbanization have indeed labelled the growth of such insular urban clusters as symptomatic the Bharat-India divide.

    Thus the problem is two-fold. On the one hand urbanization is an inevitable necessity for the continuance of India’s growth story. On the other hand, such urbanization must be planned, sustainable, equitable and well dispersed across the country. The Smart Cities Initiative and the AMRUT Mission are the most noteworthy in this regard.

    There is no universally accepted definition of a “Smart City”. However, it is agreed that it entails the provisioning of services like energy, water, sanitation, health, transport, waste disposal etc. with the help of a technology enabled framework. The cities are to be developed as environmentally sustainable and equitable living and working spaces. The AMRUT Mission aims at ensuring that the selected cities have resilient infrastructure. Both initiatives together aim at establishing model urban centres across the territory of the country.

    While on paper these initiatives stand out, in practice, they will involve major governance reform in order to be truly successful. No city can become “smart” unless it has empowered local governance structure. The people should themselves determine what they need. The local governments must be financially empowered and not under the shackles of respective state governments. For that they need enhanced powers of taxation and revenue generation. They also need best practices in accounting and regular audits to ensure transparency. Capability and Capacity building at local levels is another requirement. As is a popularly elected mayor empowered to take executive decisions instead of bureaucrats.

    All of this and more is needed to ensure governance happens from the bottom up. This in turn ensures infrastructural development etc. is according to the peculiar needs of respective cities. Also, along with smart and sustainable city development, urban agglomerations need to be developed. For, it makes no sense for a Delhi or a Mumbai to be “smartened” without imparting requisite “smarts” to a Faridabad or a Thane. Very often this would entail governance issues across state boundaries.

    In all the talk of “smart” or “rejuvenated” cities, it is important to remember that Dr. Ambedkar’s vision of urban transformation of India remains unfulfilled unless the villages are also transformed. The Bharat-India divide needs to be tackled so that the push factors of migration are minimized. This is where the RURBAN Mission assumes significance. It will do for village clusters what Smart Cities Mission does for the cities. Making “Smart Villages” to complement urban agglomeration and support them not merely as resource providers but also as economic partners for equitable economic growth is essential.

    The Smart Cities, AMRUT and RURBAN Missions when looked at comprehensively will give a roadmap for national overhaul. Concurrently, pan India infrastructural development in the form of dedicated freight corridors, inland waterways, village roads etc. shall help mesh such centres together. Apart from economic growth, as mentioned earlier, cities also facilitate social justice with better educational and health services and more cosmopolitan living practices. Urbanization when looked at from this perspective isn’t so much about only cities per say as it is about redefining our cities, villages, as well as interactions between them. Such an urbanization, can indeed be looked at as a blessing in disguise.

  • Profile photo of Kumar Harsh Kumar Harsh @kumar-harsh

    CAN CAPITALISM BRING INCLUSIVE GROWTH?

    “End of history” was a comment by Francis Fukuyama that implied acceptance of capitalism as the final stage of economic evolution. Interestingly, the comment made in 1992, following the downfall of the communist Soviet Union, was more of a sarcasm to the Marxist position that “end of history” would be marked with Communism and not Capitalism. Capitalism is an economic system that entails private ownership of means of production. Beyond doubts, capitalism has brought with itself economic growth, but that it can bring inclusive growth too, cannot be stated with the same degree of certainty. The term inclusive growth is a broad-based concept that aims towards equitable sharing of fruits of socio-economic growth. It is different from economic growth which focuses on boosting GDP of States and incomes of individuals. Inclusive growth, rather, consists of the components like poverty alleviation, skill building and employment, access to essential goods and services, good governance and women empowerment. The role of capitalism in the provision of these components needs to be explored. For instance, while liberalization, privatization and globalization(LPG) reforms have led to more employment opportunities, they have also intensified economic inequalities. The relation between Capitalism and Inclusive growth is fraught with such paradoxes.

    Capitalism of the modern world has its roots in the rapid industrialization that began in Europe and later spread to other countries. Although, it generated a huge surplus and better standards of living, but also contributed to population explosion and creation of new social stratifications. The man was reduced to a means of production, with profit being the sole end to achieve. Urban cities became a cradle of poverty with slums becoming commonplace. Women were used as a support system for male and exploited in labour force for their high tolerance levels. The arrival of East India company, the policy of laisseiz faire that resulted in massive poverty and job losses for Indians, were an outcome of capitalist designs. Capitalism today is, however very different from what was prevalent in yesteryears. The idea of sustainability has found its place in the running of organizations, which asserts that growth with unilateral exploitation and non-inclusion of masses is neither TENABLE nor SUSTAINABLE.

    CAPITALISM AS THE HARBINGER OF INCLUSIVE GROWTH

    Capitalism can prove to be pivotal in ensuring inclusive growth in the social sphere. LPG reforms have helped reduce caste inequalities. Dalits in India have formed bodies like DICCI, former serfs have now become land owners, also employing upper castes. Similarly, women inclusion is improving. eg Today, IT industries employ people on the basis of their coding skills and not on the basis of one’s caste or gender. Privatisation of health and education sectors has led to capacity building, improved training and better productivity, meeting specialized needs of the diverse populace.

    Also in the economic sphere, capitalism not only gives a tough competition to State controlled industries, but also helps in training of skills among workers by enabling the infusion of technology. More competitive environment is believed to enhance productivity and profitability, which in turn would “trickle-down” to the lower classes. Neo-liberals argue self-reliance of State is self-denial of economic and technological advances. State Intermediaries, due to red-tapism, leakages and corruption, have resulted in inefficiencies in service delivery. Facilitating direct market linkages of farmers to private corporations enables them to sell “paneer”(processed food) rather than “milk”. Financial Inclusion by improving digital finance and bridging the digital divide cannot be possible without an active participation of private banks and telecom companies.
    However, capitalism and fully free market which is a logical corollary of it is a utopia. Even if not, it can prove to be an obstacle for inclusive growth.

    CAPITALISM’s INABILITY IN BRINGING INCLUSIVE GROWTH

    Capitalism has also intensified social stratification in ways more than one. Capitalism is not a guaranteed destroyer of discrimination. eg USA has one of the successful models of capitalism, but Afro-Asian and latin American communities still face discrimination. Inequality breeds discontent which manifests into violence(left-wing extremism). Poor status of rural health and education proves that they are at a disadvantage in this open economy of India. The situation demands State interference to subsidize admission of private individuals, for instance, in private schools.

    In the economic sector, class inequality has developed globally with latest Oxfam report confirming that 8 individuals own almost half of the world’s total wealth. The report goes on to state that one-third of global wealth is inherited and 43% is from cronyism. Private companies have strong lobbying powers, financing think tanks to mould politico-economic narratives(eg Climate Change) according to their motives. eg Alphabet, the parent company of IT giant Google, is one of the biggest lobbyist against anti-trust rules in US. Globalization due to spreading capitalism has led to squeezing of wages, worsening of assets and resource distribution. Automation has led to job loss, capitalism in agriculture led to production of more cash crops, and liberalized lending norms have led to mounting NPAs in private banks. Women labour force participation is low and they are discouraged from occupying top management roles.

    THE IMPORTANCE OF GOVERNANCE AND REGULATION

    Thus, challenges are huge for capitalism to bring inclusive growth. Other than those mentioned above are problems of defining poverty, fighting hunger and tackling the looming crisis of climate change. These challenges necessitate the role of State. Governance is needed to bridge the disconnect between individual utility and social utility. For example, MNCs and banks regulated trade when it was driven by demand for raw materials(1st phase); Institutions of IMF and World Bank when driven by markets(2nd phase) and WTO when outsourcing of manufacturing became the objective(3rd phase). In present times, the role of bilateral and multilateral treaties and organizations like RCEP, TPP, SAARC has become important to regulate capitalism and usher in growth which is inclusive.

    India has been wise to follow the route of mixed economy. Although socialism finds a mention in the Preamble, but a path towards capitalism began with LPG reforms in 1991. Both 11th and 12th Five year plans have stressed upon the need for inclusive growth. Government initiatives like Make in India, Start up India, Stand up India, Mega food parks, PM Jan Dhan Yojana are seeking integration of private industries in enabling inclusive growth. eg Corporate Social Responsibility by mining companies can enable inclusion of tribal communities. To affirm whether capitalism is a success or failure based on the jobs, skills, women empowerment and poverty alleviation it has brought hitherto, will, however, be too early an assessment.

    But, Capitalism with due regulation has huge potential to drive inclusive growth. It has the capability to treat masses as customers and not mere beneficiaries. It has the capacity to ensure dignity and justice to every individual. Trickle down might have failed us with growing insularity and discrimination, but even the bottom-up approach to inclusive growth is not possible without capitalism. Capitalism is essential to attain “equality of opportunities”(Art 16) and SDGs of inclusive growth. Hence, a tangible solution is vital for the attainment of, a causality between capitalism and inclusive growth, and of the economic factors that will enable it. Only then, INDIA and BHARAT can become one and inclusive growth can be both TENABLE and SUSTAINABLE.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. Links are still missing
      2. Could have been slightly argumentation.
      Merits
      1. Shows Very determined writing to excel. This is excelent
      2. Good Language
      3. Good Expression
      4. Good Structure
      5. Good Content
      6. Hinges on scholarly merits similar to Srishti

    • Profile photo of Kumar Harsh Kumar Harsh @kumar-harsh

      Thank you so much sir 🙂 Tried to incorporate all your previous suggestions, but couldn’t do justice to the inter-linkings. Will work hard on that.

  • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

    Part A 1. Politics, bureaucracy and business – fatal triangle

    The nexus between politics, bureaucracy and business has often been a subject of much scrutiny, especially in the post globalization era. It has been deemed responsible for several societal ills like crony capitalism, corruption, nepotism, poor governance, inequality etc. Since, these are some rather serious charges, they warrant a sincere investigation into the same. The investigation must necessarily include 3 aspects. One, the mechanism by which the so called nexus develops and operates. Two, whether such a nexus necessarily operates to the detriment of welfare principle and could be implicated in the societal ills mentioned above. Three, whether the development of a such a detrimental nexus is a given due to certain inherent systemic flaws or not. If that isn’t the case, it must also be explored whether this “fatal triangle” could, at all, be exploited in a manner that benefits the public.

    In order to understand the nature of this nexus, we must first understand the relationship between the political executive and the permanent executive. The permanent executive is internally accountable to the political executive and externally accountable to the public, at large. Ideally, there shouldn’t be any difficulty in reconciling the external accountability and the internal accountability, since, the political executive is itself also accountable to the public. However, often we may see a deviation from this rule. This is because the public in itself is not a homogenous entity. That is to say that the public may often seem to have differing often competing set of interests. This is especially true, when we talk about the private sector, which is also forms a part of the public. For instance, anti dumping duty on steel from China may be in the interest of our domestic steel manufacturers as it would help in creating a level playing field for them. But such a move would be against the interest of the real estate developers who will now not have the advantage of cheaper steel from China. Over time, it may happen that lobbies of various industrial sectors and businesses may develop and compete for special favours from the political parties in lieu of electoral support, which could be either monetary or non-monetary. The bureaucracy owing to its internal accountability to the political executive would be faced with a tough choice whether to fall in line or to go ahead with the “greatest good for the greatest number of people” principle. The latter, is hard, especially in absence of an objective criteria to decide what exactly is “greatest good” and what is “public at large”. Thus, as was mentioned in Economic Survey, 2015-16, concentrated producer interests are often given more emphasis in comparison to diffused consumer interests. For instance, relocating a factory to another destination may result in a massive loss of 1000 crore to a company but not relocating would only cause “some inconvenience” to the locals by affecting their environment, livelihood etc. Often the cost to the consumer could be intangible and in cases where it would have a monetary cost, it is absorbed quickly simply due to sheer number of people involved.

    While the genesis of crony capitalism has been aptly described above, it is equally important to address the 2nd part of the investigation, which deals with establishing if such a system leads to the social ills mentioned above. One way to do that would be by assessing the public perception regarding the same, which is heavily weighted against the private sector and the business class. The popular perception is that the business class keeps getting undue advantage from the political class and the bureaucracy. This is turn leads to interest of the business class being served over the political class resulting in perpetuating the inequality where the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. Scams like 2G scam, Coal gate scam, Singur land controversy, Augusta Westland scam also do much to consolidate such a perception.

    Furthermore, the 2nd ARC also talks about bribery turning “collusive” from “coercive”, which further signifies a maturation of the politics-bureaucracy-business nexus. It is also alleged that wrongful tender allotments significantly impact the quality of service delivery and also hurts the public exchequer by diversion of funds to non-productive sources. This potentially creates a self perpetuating cycle of poor governance and corruption that further impedes any prospects of good governance. The public sector undertakings are allowed to run despite poor performance due to “exit problems” as was highlighted in the Economic Survey 2015-16. Indices and reports like Corruption perception index by Transparency international and Crony Capitalism ranking by The Economist paint a dismal picture for India.

    When we talk about cronyism from an international perspective, we see that privatisation of the arms and defence industry in the USA had important ramifications on the world order and is said to have fuelled several conflicts across the world. Furthermore, recent landmark “Apple vs EU” judgement, increase in the instances of BEPS despite regulations and inquiries, companies like Alibaba, Xiaomi dictating the foreign policy of China, powerful lobbies like pharmaceutical industry and solar energy in the USA dictating terms to the government – all point to one thing. That crony capitalism is indeed a bitter reality.

    For us to be effectively deal with this problem, it is necessary to look at the 3rd part of the investigation that deals with assessing whether certain systemic flaws promote the development of such a detrimental nexus. Analysis of the growth in crony capitalism with time gives us a glimpse of the necessary preconditions needed for it to fester. For instance, during the era of license raj in India,
    there was widespread corruption due to the discretion given to the political and permanent executive in granting the licenses. Lack of accountability and transparency, monopolistic tendencies in absence of a regulator for ensuring a level playing field are the other conditions that magnify this problem.

    We also see that a lot of these systemic flaws are rectifiable. The 2nd ARC report recommends several reforms to deal with the problems of discretion, lack of accountability and transparency, monopolies by adding checks and balances on the discretionary powers, better disclosure standards, leaner yet more effective regulation etc. In addition to this, we also see a tremendous potential in this “Fatal triangle” if the welfare angle is kept in mind. The success of PPP model and CSR are based on the same premise. In the era of value based marketing, the profit orientation of business can go hand in hand with their positive role as a catalyst for change in the society. For the business houses, cooperating with the government on several projects like Clean Ganga, Make in India, Digital India can be a way of earning public trust.

    Political set up, bureaucracy and the private sector form 3 important pillars of a society without which the society is sure to crumble. Hence, perpetual mistrust and anti-establishment tendencies often do more harm than good. While better regulation and a better implementation of that regulation is certainly needed, there must also efforts towards instilling public confidence in the system by enhancing transparency and accountability of these pillars.Thus, what is viewed as a “fatal triangle” must be transformed into an agency of positive change for the collective betterment of the society.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. Does not Helps the examiner to reveal structure
      2. The first sentence must reveal the paragraph.
      3. Must have more amount of Optionistic end
      Merit
      1. Splendid beginning
      2. Splendid flow
      3. Superb Observational Content
      Well Structured

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      Thank you so much, Sir. Will try to incorporate all your suggestions. 🙂

    • Profile photo of Raunak Sharma Raunak Sharma @raunak-sharma

      hey, amazing write-up..congratulations 🙂
      however, you should have devoted aleast a para if not more to the new avatar of such a nexus where in, a Presidential form of governement, USA-the political, the bureaucracy and the private sector becomes one and the same- in short the trump era..
      good luck 🙂

    • Profile photo of srishti srivastava srishti srivastava @srishti-srivastava

      Hey,
      This is a nice suggestion. Thank you. 🙂
      Good luck!

  • Profile photo of Srujan Reddy Srujan Reddy @jsrujanreddy

    Urbanization is a blessing in disguise.

    Present Chinese premier quotes that “Urbanization is not simply increasing the number of people or expanding the areas. It is about a complete change from rural to urban style in terms of industry structure, employment, living environment etc.” This quote sums up the urbanization is not just the process of movement of people from villages to towns or urban centers, rather it is the advancement of human all round. As the time changes, survival species advance by adapting to changes and also advance the changes according the necessities. Pace of advancement depends on the level of the process of the urbanization.
    Urban centers or urbanizations is not new to the world. Indus valley civilizations, Mesopotamian civilization all had such centers which attracted people from the remotes areas for conducting of business. In fact Indus valley civilizations had some of the best Urban centers at that time. Rapid commercial revolution and scientific revolution (due to education) led to Industrial and Political revolution across the country. This led to rapid growth of industries and their related economics. These industrial centers led the process of urbanization to start in Europe.
    Urbanization process started around economics. Similarly urbanization boots economic growth. People living standards increase with increase in their salaries. This also helps in reducing the unproductive employment in the villages in the sectors of agriculture etc. GDP of country increases as markets rise and production increases turning urbanization into a blessing.
    As people increase their salaries and standards, awareness on health also increases. This helps in decreases death rates and increase birth rates. Life expectancy of every country across the world is on rise in the past decades. With greater awareness, population of the country also comes under check and policy are developed according to the need of the society. Programs for increase in sex ratio in Haryana, Increasing fertility rates across Kerala and Andhra Pradesh can be seen today. With better health comes more productivity.
    With rising standards of people, quest for better basic necessities also increase. In order to get such better amenities, innovation across the society takes high place so as to provide a higher efficiency from scarce resources like land, water etc. Urbanization leads to better educational facilities, from schools to colleges, leading more R&D and innovations. Such innovations help in creating new technology and increase productivity of various sectors especially agriculture thereby also improving the societies of villages. And as productive employment increases in urban center, need of skilled workers also increases leading to more and better education institutions and raising the standards of education.
    Urbanization which imparts better education, also imparts humanity and morality across the societies. It teaches them unity in diversity as the urban centers comprises various ethnic communities. It teaches them tolerance towards different views. The societal divisions present in villages based on caste, religion, languages, etc are reduced in urban centers as economy takes the center stage. Urbanization also changes family structures from joint to nuclear families. As imparts solidarity among various communities is improved, Individuality takes importance rather than family names. Urbanization also produces freedom for women compared to the villages.
    As people become more aware about the surrounding and world, and increase their awareness, they become aware of their rights and duties and participate in the politics. This can be seen as voting share of youth increased drastically in past decade in the urban centers than the villages in India. With the increase in political awareness, they realize the importance of better government and governance. They demand accountability, transparency from the government. Lokpal agitation in India has been center around mostly urban center and turnouts have been huge. As urban centers have more economy and political awareness, they also involve themselves more in Non-Governmental organizations and help charitable organizations, differentially able people and vulnerable people.
    Urbanization improves the democracy across the society. In Indian villages, many villages caste becomes primary factor in deciding the leader of panchayats. But Urban center follow democratic process and elect their leaders. Likewise urbanization also provides civic amenities in larger and better way. Urbanization produces competition among the various urban centers across the world as these are better connected due to their economic activities. With presence of competition, urban governing structures strive to give clean and hygienic amenities. Security of society also improves as people became aware and vigil by helping police.
    Urbanization helps in boosting infrastructure rapidly. Transportation with higher efficiency and productivity has to be produced for higher economic returns. Innovation and knowledge hubs helps in producing better vehicles in tandem with nature. Multi-modal transport helps people to transport to their work without any hassle thereby improving ones productivity. Similarly the connectivity between cities increases as money roams between the economic hubs. Railway and roadway connections increase across the countries with increase in revenues and necessity.
    With increasing purchasing power of the people and spread of globalization, many entertainment centers, amusement parks and recreational places like zoos, resorts etc crop up. As combination of cultures takes place it enhances international understanding. With rise of such economic activities, it leads to creation of direct and indirect employment also. With the rise of household economy, many prefer domestic help(especially women), making them financial stable in the urban cities.
    Urbanization helps in thinking big and decades ahead. It has really turned to be a blessing in disguise. This process has distributed economy among people as never before. It has increased the living standards of people, gave individual and political freedom, democratic institutions, infrastructure etc. It helped in creating new humanity, ethical values among the society there by creating new sort of boundaries. Urbanization is a never ending process. It is an evolving process. This should always be structured around for boons towards society and people not as a bane. Urbanization process impacts all the institutions of the society viz, social, political, economy, etc but direction and adaption becomes important factor to turn it into a blessing.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. Blessing as disguise not properly understood
      2. Uniperspective rather than multiperspective
      Merits
      1. Very Good beginning
      2. Blessing discussed very well but not linked.
      3. Talks of Advantages of urban growth rather than urbanisation.

  • Profile photo of sunilkumarbhramar sunilkumarbhramar @sunilkumarbhramar

    Topic: Economic Growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence.

    “No society can surely be flourishing and happy, of which the far greater part of the members are poor and miserable.” – Adam Smith

    With the advent of civilization, early man marched towards a golden future. His sheer grit and determination earned him bountiful riches and set into motion a chain of activities enabling him to lead a luxurious life. The flamboyant GDP figures that are representative of a country’s economic potential can surely create a sense of achievement. However the contrasting fact that millions still struggle amidst abject, lugubrious circumstances, trying hard to meet ends, casts a gloomy shadow on an otherwise star studded resume of a country.

    Will the economic growth without distributive justice breed violence eventually? In this essay we would examine this pertinent question through the following angles: What is the magnitude of the income disparity? How did this ‘economic divide’ evolve over time? What are the consequences of this evolution? We would also look at the Constitutional provisions and government initiatives which have tried to bridge this ever increasing gap.

    Economic Growth or divide?
    The Gross Domestic product is defined as the final, monetary value of the goods and services produced within the geographical boundaries of the country. A growth in this quantity indicates that the country is growing economically. However, this is just the tip of the iceberg! It is a quantitative concept and hence does not take into account the vast inequalities that exist in the society. Recent research by rights group Oxfam shows that India’s richest one percent hold a huge fifty eight percent of the country’s wealth, higher than the global figure of about fifty percent. It further reveals that just fifty seven billionaires in India now have same wealth as that of the bottom seventy percent.

    History repeats?
    It wouldn’t be exaggerating if we say that the genesis lies somewhere in the early Vedic period. We know of gavishti, or wars over cows, were fought as they were considered a status symbol of the pastoralists. The fabulous wealth of the Nandas has been referred to in the Sangam work Ahananuru by the poet Mamulanar. Eventually the oppressive taxation system by the Nandas was resented by the people. The foreign invaders too were attracted to the wealth that our sub-continent boasted of. Even during the struggle for freedom, we have many instances when the peasants stood up in revolt when they felt they were not in a position to sustain their livelihoods. In today’s world, barring some sectors, though there is no direct tyranny of the richer towards the less privileged, the position of the poor has seen little improvement.

    Consequences: It is natural for those deprived of basic necessities of life to rise in rebellion when they feel that the State has failed to redistribute the income from the comparatively well off. When situations like low levels of income among the poor prevail, it leads to a proportional increase in other problems like unhealthy living, malnutrition among children and incidents of theft. Unemployment further aggravates the discontent leading to many young people taking up arms and leaving the mainstream to join the Left wing extremists and other guerrilla organizations. This is a deadly cob-web as the World Development Report by the World Bank reveals that violence is the primary cause of poverty. This has profound implications on both – the poor trying to pull themselves and the rich ones trying to help. Thus, we see that economic growth without distributive justice can eventually turn violent with dire consequences for the economy.

    Constitutional provisions: Article 38 of the Constitution states that it shall be the duty of the State to promote the welfare of the people by securing a social order permeated by justice – social, economic and political – and to minimise inequalities in income, status, facilities and opportunities. Article 39 directs the State to secure the equitable distribution of material resources of the community for the common good and to prevent the concentration of wealth and means of production. Being Directive principles, they are non-justiciable in nature but still are fundamental in the governance of the country.

    Government Steps: The 12th Five year plan focuses on a faster, more inclusive and sustainable growth. The Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana launched in 2016, is an amnesty scheme that provides an opportunity to declare unaccounted wealth and black money. The revenue generated from this disclosure will be used for welfare schemes for the poor. The Housing for All scheme is a positive step towards enabling the poor with one of the essentialities of life. The Jan Dhan initiative aimed at financial inclusion, Direct benefit transfers to eliminate any leakages, availability of subsidised food grains through the Public Distribution System, Anna Antyodaya Yojana targeting the poorest of the poor families, the Swasthya Bima Yojana giving an insurance cover to the BPL families are but some commendable steps by the Government.

    Way forward: The idea of Universal Basic Income as suggested in the Economic Survey to provide unconditional transfer of income shows that the Government is inclined towards eliminating poverty and inequality as enshrined in the sustainable development goals. The state of Jammu and Kashmir has already committed so in its budget. Stricter enforcement of norms, correct identification of beneficiaries and stressing on digitization would give way to an India that is more equal and happier.

    Conclusion: We thus saw that injudicious distribution of resources among the capita may lead to civil wars and other anti-social activities due to the rising feeling of discontent among the poor. We also looked at various government initiatives and other constitutional provisions to fill in the economic divide. Focussing on just the GDP numbers might give a peripheral view of the economy which is worth appreciating, but only an inclusive and equal society can be an insignia of a nation’s true development.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. Lost the plot of the essay
      2. Looks like GS answers
      3. Disjointed flow
      4. Inconclusive
      Merits
      1. Well began
      2. Structured.

  • Profile photo of A Samyuktha A Samyuktha @samyukthaican

    Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence
    Recent economic projection on Indian economy of 7 % fostering as stable economy in the region of world unstable environment is great achievement that should be celebrated but at he same time people from different areas like jats ,kapus, are protesting for reservation creating violent situation in the society. This incident makes everyone to rethink about economic growth that should be accommodated with distributive justice to ensure all around development of the people.
    Distributive justice which mentions that fruits of economic development should be equally allocated to different sections of people and different sectors of society in order to decrease social tension and to promote well being of people.
    In this essay I am going to project how economic growth without distributive justice has lead to increasing inequalities which lead to violence across the world and India through temporal scale and also which effected different sections of the people. i would also project reasons for inequitable distribution of resources and way forward to deal with the situation.
    Throughout the age’s world has subjected to violence at different times due to increase in inequalities due to unequal distribution of economic resources from ancient slavery to modern capitalism. Spread of modernity ,increase in industrialization ,raise of capitalistic mode of production has lead to increase in inequalities between rich and poor, haves and have-nots,which lead to violence in the society in the form of revolutions like French revolution to 1917 October revolution.
    Colonialism which caused unequal distribution of resources among different colonial powers lead to race against one another in order to restore their colonies had lead to world wars which made entire human civilization to bleed in the war.
    As inequalities increases there will rise protectionism, rightwing politics increases which creates hatredness, increase discrimination and cause violence. Increasing hate crimes across the countries is an example for inequitable allocation of resources.
    In Indian scenario, unequal allocation of resources among people and exploitation of Indian economy by British which made impoverishment of Indian people ,increased inequalities caused alienation which lead to violence and independence movement against British imperialism.
    After the independence economic growth without equitable distribution of resources had caused peasant movements, naxalite movements creating bloodshed.
    At the same time economic growth without distributive justice affecting different sections and different section of the socities creating violence and social tensions. people of different regions are asking for separate states because of underdevelopment of areas, like vidarbha in Maharashtra, bodoland in assa,etc crating tension in the society thus effecting geographical boundaries which are very sensitive to deal.
    Unequal distribution of resources leading impoverishment of religious minorities effecting their education, employment, livelihood opportunities, increasing communalism and radicalization of youth. Recent web of violence in the jammu Kashmir cannot be seen only as the identity issue but also as the failure of development.
    Increasing growth on the one hand, on the another hand there are increasing tribal protest because of exploitations in the name of development by mining, displacement ,no proper developmental channels creating them to protest.
    Unequal distribution of resources causing women to depend more on men ,female subjugation ,lower participation of work force, domestic violence and harassment in the name of religion ,patriarchy, thus making civilization retrogressive. Recent incident in Nagaland naga council protesting against reservation of women in urban local government in the name of custom creating violence in the state.
    As inequalities are increasing poverty is rising which makes children as childlabour, effecting their education, make child to prone to illegal activities, increasing rapes, sexual violence in the country .
    Causes that are responsible for unequal distribution are lack of financial capacity of the state to promote all sectors of development, development is not inclusive projecting only on one sector of economy. Corruption, lack of transparency and accountability of officials, nexus between politicians and officials, issue of black money, lack of infrasture, increasing npa creating collapse of banking system,low ease of doing business, issue of exit problems for poor performance industrial units, siphoning of funds while implementing schemes, no proper public grievence mechanism etc
    Distributive justice is need of the hour since ,majority of the section of people cannot live in the poverty when only a group of people has all the wealth concentrated in their hands,hence these should be addressed-
    There should be increase in financial inclusion of the people by which they can asses to money to start business, through schemes like start up india, mahilabank ect to socially and economically vulnerable people. Increase public expenditure by increasing tax base,progressive taxation ,implementation of gst, by increasing direct tax by decreasing tax nets in the case of aviation fuel, targeting subsidies, to rich people. creating efficient msme industries by make in india program thus we can shift people from agriculture to industries thus reducing burden on agriculture and to increase livelihood standards and to decrease unemployment. Government should gender specific budget in order to empower them and increase participation in workforce, infrastructural gaps should be funded in order to increase connectivity, cooperative federalism should be promoted ignored to increase development through interstate councils etc.
    Thus economic growth should project not only in mere numbers but the fruits of development should reach to nook and corner of the country, by which development takes place and to make every person as active participant in the development rather than as passive reciepent. Distributive justice is as important as water for life which cannot be diluted.

    • Profile photo of A Samyuktha A Samyuktha @samyukthaican

      Sir please correct mine

  • Profile photo of ashim chhabra ashim chhabra @ashimchhabra19

    Judicial Activism & Indian Democracy

    Legislature, Executive & Judiciary are the three pillars of Indian Constitutional Democracy. Principle of ‘Separation of Powers’ is well delineated in the Constitution but still the 3 organs have some overlapping Jurisdiction.
    When one of the organs becomes laggard, the other embolden themselves to fill the vacuum. Judicial Activism is one such form of emboldening of organs where judiciary acts proactively. Judicial Activism has had immense impact over Indian Democracy. Right from the core of the democratic setup i.e the elections. Elections today are much fairer, with muscle power having minimal influence and candidates with criminal background being detested. This is all because of judicial pro-activeness.
    Verdicts upholding Section 8(3), 8(4) of RPA Act, 1952 to mandatory filing of returns and monetary details. Elections at grassroot level i.e Panchayat, Municipal Corporation are also being scrutinized by judiciary, making the process robust. The bane of ‘Paid news’, misuse of Government Machinery by ruling party have been dealt seriously by Judiciary.
    Once elected, legislature has resorted to unconstitutional laws which have been struck down by the judiciary in case of Reservation, limiting judicial independence etc. In some cases legislature work has witnessed loop holes or vacuum, thus forcing the judiciary to set up as in case of Vishaka guidelines, Good Samaritan guidelines and free treatment of Acid Attack victims along with compensation.
    Judiciary has not only filled up for legislative but also for administrative lapses. Whether ushering the long pending Police Reforms, being monitored by Supreme Court, to introducing the ‘Public Interest Litigation’ Concept to ensue justice for poor. Judiciary has even gone to the extent of reforming semi-government regulatory bodies like BCCI through Lodha Committee.
    The administrative loopholes have been plugged not only domestically but even internationally, like Supreme Court overlooking fencing of Indo-Bangladesh border, in order to check human trafficking, illegal immigration which is modifying demography of the border states. Thus , adversely affecting the democratic structures of the country.

    Democracy in India is vibrant with its federal structure being an epitome of that , but central government’s tyranny has made states vulnerable. Here again, judicial pro-activeness has ensured that democracy prevails. Judiciary through S.R. Bommai judgement has clearly set down guidelines for President’s rule in the states. Which was being used indiscriminately against the state governments of opposition parties. Post S.R. Bommai , the enforcement of President’s rule has seen a dramatic fall, limiting to genuine cases.
    B.P. Singhal judgement has also ensured that post of Governor does not become a tool in the hands of central government to destabilize state governments. Thus, administrative set up has been corrected by the judicial verdicts, as has been the rights of Citizen.
    It is one of the principle responsibilities of judiciary to protect the citizen from legislative & administrative abuse. Judicial activism in the country has widened the scope of rights especially the article 21, Right to life.

    Right to life’s horizon has been widened by judicial pronouncements to include privacy, access to clean Environment, water, right to sleep etc. Special endeavor has been made in case of environment, where NGT has taken many exemplary steps like Ban on Diesel SUVs in Delhi, restricting number of vehicles in Ecologically vulnerable Rohtang Pass, ban on dumping near already polluted Yamuna River. Thus, safeguarding life of millions of citizens against pollution.
    A healthy citizen not only requires clean environment but also access to quality medicines, which as ensured by judiciary through denial of Evergreening of Patents by scrupulous MNCs. Such decisions are best made by Judiciary, as governments working under various pulls & pressures look upto Judiciary for tough decisions. A government taking a call on such issue would have sent a wrong signal to foreign investor. Governments also look upto a proactive Judiciary in case of sensitive issues, like Ayodhaya Verdict or Triple Talaq. Such is the independence of Judiciary that many political steps are taken in compulsion, with parties aware and knowing that it would be quashed by judiciary.
    Judicial Activism has not been all good, as it has been absent where most required, thus somewhere denting the democratic ethos of the country. Right from scrapping of a democratic Institution of NJAC, to collegiums system emerging as a den of nepotism to absence of accountability, transparency in functioning of Judiciary. Today, Judiciary is the most opaque and unaccountable organ of the state. Thus, challenging the principles it is propagating among others. With single bench of Supreme Court at New Delhi, which is geographically distant for majority population, Judiciary has failed to be proactive. National Court of Appeals with benches across the country would have safeguard democratic values, through quick, low cost redressal. Today Judiciary is crippled by mountain of pendency, suffering from problems like poor prosecution, lengthy prosecution, culture of Reserving orders, thus…………… poor justice and making it a costly affair.
    Many legislative rights like food security , Right to Employment under MANREGA remain unfulfilled but Judiciary has failed to take any step. Police modernization still being supervised by Supreme Court has been given limited access.
    Thus, Judicial activism has made Indian Democracy more vibrant but it is not a substitute for a responsive legislature and active executive , as Judiciary is not accountable to the people. Steps taken by Judiciary are suo moto and sporadic and long periods of judicial activism are always vulnerable to judicial over reach as there is a thin line which separates the two.
    Thus, Judicial Activism in small periods and small doses is what is desirable for a vibrant democracy.

    • Profile photo of A Samyuktha A Samyuktha @samyukthaican

      Sir please review mine

  • Profile photo of A Samyuktha A Samyuktha @samyukthaican

    Attached

    Attachments:
    1. essay.docx
  • Profile photo of Nikita Shinde Nikita Shinde @nsshinde27

    PART A:

    ECONOMIC GROWTH WITHOUT DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE IS BOUND TO BREED VIOLENCE

    In a village there is a school named Balvidyamandir, there studied two friend Karan and Kabir. Both were studying in same class and were good friends of each other. Karan’s family economic condition was not good, while Kabir belongs to economically stable and good family. As years pass by, both got young and so the difference in their economic condition increased. As Karan’s economic condition was not good so he has to work and study and so didn’t studied further. On other hand, Kabir’s economic condition was good so he persuade further higher education. As Karan’s education was not complete so he has to do labor work on minimum daily wages, while Kabir did higher studies so he got good job with lump sum monthly salary.
    As time went by the difference in their economic condition took toll on their friendship. Instead to friendship, Karan started feeling jealous of Kabir and he felt pity for Karan’s economic condition. To over-come the economic gap Karan started purloining, which eventually lead end of Kabir and Karan’s friendship. Let’s see what conclusion we can derive from this story.
    A country’s economic growth is usually indicated by an increase in that country’s gross domestic product, or GDP. Generally speaking, gross domestic product is an economic model that reflects the value of a country’s output. In other words, a country’s GDP is the total monetary value of the goods and services produced by that country over a specific period of time.
    For example, let’s say that a special berry grows naturally only in the country of Utopia. Natives to Utopia have used this berry for many years, but recently, a wealthy German traveler discovered the berry and brought samples back to Germany. His German friends also loved the berry, so the traveler funded a large berry exporting business in Utopia. The new berry exporting business hired hundreds of Utopians to farm, harvest, wash, and box and ship the berries to grocers in Germany.
    In one calendar year, the berry exporting business added over one million dollars to Utopia’s GDP because that’s the total value of the goods and services produced by the new berry exporting business. Since Utopia’s GDP increased, this means that Utopia experienced economic growth.
    In the United States, our periods of large economic growth are mostly associated with new technology. The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERNET are two examples. When new developments bring an increase in output capacity, economic growth usually follows.
    Now let’s take a look at ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. A country’s economic development is usually indicated by an INCREASE IN CITIZENS QUALITY OF LIFE. ‘QUALITY OF LIFE’ is often measured using the HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX, which is an economic model that considers intrinsic personal factors not considered in economic growth, such as literacy rates, life expectancy and poverty rates.
    While economic growth often leads to economic development, it’s important to note that a country’s GDP doesn’t INCLUDE INTRINSIC DEVELOPMENT FACTORS, such as leisure time, environmental quality or freedom from oppression. Using the Human Development Index, factors like literacy rates and life expectancy generally imply a higher per capita income and therefore indicate economic development.
    The economy of India is the SEVENTH-LARGEST IN THE WORLD MEASURED BY NOMINAL GDP and the THIRD-LARGEST BY PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP). The country is classified as a newly industrialized country, and one of THE G-20 MAJOR ECONOMIES, with an average growth rate of approximately 7% over the last two decades.
    The combination of PROTECTIONIST, IMPORT-SUBSTITUTION, FABIAN SOCIALISM, SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC inspired policies governed India for some time after the end of British occupation. The economy was then characterized by extensive regulation, protectionism, and public ownership of large monopolies, pervasive corruption and slow growth. Since 1991, CONTINUING ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION has moved the country towards a MARKET-BASED ECONOMY.
    The economic growth has been driven by the expansion of services that have been growing consistently faster than other sectors. It is argued that the pattern of Indian development has been a specific one and that the country may be able to skip the intermediate industrialization-led phase in the transformation of its economic structure. Serious concerns have been raised about THE JOBLESS NATURE OF THE ECONOMIC GROWTH. The progress of economic reforms in India is followed closely. The WORLD BANK suggests that the most important priorities are:
    • PUBLIC SECTOR REFORM,
    • INFRASTRUCTURE,
    • AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT,
    • REMOVAL OF LABOR REGULATIONS,
    • REFORMS IN LAGGING STATES, and
    • HIV/AIDS.
    CORRUPTION in many forms has been one of the pervasive problems affecting India. For decades, the RED TAPE, BUREAUCRACY AND THE LICENCE RAJ that had strangled private enterprise. The economic reforms of 1991 cut some of the worst regulations that had been used in corruption.
    CHILD LABOR is a complex problem that is basically rooted in poverty. The Indian government is implementing the WORLD’S LARGEST CHILD LABOR ELIMINATION PROGRAM, with PRIMARY EDUCATION. NUMEROUS NON-GOVERNMENTAL AND VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS ARE ALSO INVOLVED. Special investigation cells have been set up in states to enforce existing laws BANNING EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN (UNDER 14) IN HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIES.
    Economic growth on its own does ensure prosperity and peace to a limited extent. But without a just distribution, con¬flicts are bound to arise sooner or later as one class of people feels exploit by the other.
    The rising crime rates and incidence of violent riots, in the metro¬politan cities like Mumbai are symptomatic of the deeper problems arising from ‘GROWTH WITHOUT DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE’ Forced to live out their lives in my hovels, in slums, which stand check by jowl with luxurious high rise apartments, the masses are bound to feel a sense of resentment at the injustice. This builds up a simmering discontent which ultimately breaks out in violent demonstrations at some slight provocation.
    Even the question of CASTE WARS in India is ultimately a question of distribu¬tive justice. It is the more powerful castes who enjoy greater economic power and benefits and it is they who corner the most lucrative jobs and other economic benefits arising out of development. When the lower castes thus begin to realize that it is economic freedom which can increase their status in society, they are bound to fight for their rights and when forcibly deprived of their rights it could lead to violence. The whole controversy over the Mandals issue was also linked to the question of economic security of jobs which the forward castes thought they would be losing out on because of the reservation for the Backward Classes.
    Way back it was the late V.K. KRISHNA MENON who had stated in Parliament that INDIA WAS NOT A POOR COUNTRY BUT A COUNTRY’ OF POOR PEOPLE. The truth of this statement is becoming more a more apparent as time passes on.
    In spite of the economic growth achieved since independence, not much dent has been made in solving the problem of poverty. Unless more efforts are made to ensure distribu¬tive justice along with growth, violence is bound to be a part of our society.

  • Profile photo of Aditya Malpure Aditya Malpure @malpureaditya

    Part A 2: Judicial activism and Indian democracy.

    Democracy is a form of government where people surrender some of their rights to a small elite body who are elected by people to rule over themselves.
    The elected government make law for the betterment of society. The loophole in our administration is that it is not very transparent and people participation is base minimum.

    The common citizens have discovered that the administration has become so apathetic,non-performing,corruption and criminality so widespread that they have no recourse except to move to the courts through PIL, enlarging the field of judicial intervention. So in such situation a vacuum is created in governance that is who shall see the validity of the law.

    True Freedom requires the rule of law and justice. The founding members of our Constitution made 3 pillars of democracy that are Executive,Judiciary and Parliament to ensure the integrity of the nation.

    The Judiciary as such and by principle cannot act unless an aggrieved party does not knock it’s door. Hence this vacuum is substantial and Judiciary need to extend its influence in the sphere. Some people argue that it is against the principle of Democracy. But there is widening gap between the principles of democracy and the essence of democracy.

    Judiciary under the veil of Activism serves as a Watch Dog for preserving this basic spirit of Democracy. Judicial Activism simply means a Pro-active judiciary which does no limit itself to the interpretation of law only but also sees if the law affects people adversely.

    Judicial Activism has flourished in India and has acquired enormous legitimacy with the Indian Public. Some glimpse from the past and a peep into the future may be rewarding.

    1) Keshavananda Bharati Case-
    This case has the highest water mark of Judicial Activism in India. For the first time a court held that a constitutional amendment duly passed by the legislature was invalid as damaging or destroying it’s Basic Structure.

    2) Supreme Court(SC) appoints Lodha Panel to review the working of The Board of Control for Cricket in India’s (BCCI):
    The SC had appointed the committee in 2015 to look into the functioning of the BCCI and suggest changes to its constitution. And after not applying the recommendations of Panel the apex court dismiss the top authorities of BCCI. This pro-active step by SC shows that it will intervene in the working of any board if it is related to the interest of common masses.

    3) SC role in restoring government in Arunachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand:
    The court quashed President’s Rule imposed in the state and all the decisions taken by Governor and order to have a floor test in both the states.

    Likewise, other example of Judicial intervention are SC orders Central Government to create a new policy to handle drought, Also ask government to constitute Bad Loans Panel to review the problem of Non Profit Assets.

    Here we can see that the Judiciary is coming in the front to ensure the Justice.
    The tussle between the Judiciary and Legislation has always further strengthened Indian democracy.

    The great contribution of Judicial Activism in India has been to provide a safety valve and a hope that justice is not beyond reach.
    Somehow, every judicial case has a foundation of activism within it, so its demerits must always be weighed to determine.

    1. When this type of judicial system is employed, it would seem that the laws do not apply, where judges can override any law that exists, which technically means there are no laws before their eyes.

    2. When judicial activism is exercised, it is often done for solely personal and selfish reasons, like one that might be political or one where a judge has received compensation for his judgment. Most likely, laws will be overruled when there is personal objection to them involved.

    In recent orders, the Supreme Court has directed the most complex engineering of interlinking rivers in India. The Court has passed orders banning the pasting of black film on automobile windows.

    All these managerial exercises by the Court are hung on the dubious jurisdictional peg of enforcing fundamental rights under Article 32 of the Constitution. In reality, no fundamental rights of individuals or any legal issues are at all involved in such cases.

    The pros and cons show that when judicial activism is properly implemented, it can check and balance existing laws properly.
    The doctrine of judicial activism which justifies easy and constant readiness to set aside decisions of other branches of Government is wholly incompatible with a faith in democracy and in so far it encourages a belief that judges should be left to correct the result of public indifference.

    To Conclude, one can say that the “Judicial activism has added much needed oxygen to a gigantic democratic experiment in India by the alchemy of Judico_photosynthesis”.

  • Profile photo of Aditya Malpure Aditya Malpure @malpureaditya

    Part A 2: Judicial activism and Indian democracy.

    Democracy is a form of government where people surrender some of their rights to a small elite body who are elected by people to rule over themselves.
    The elected government make law for the betterment of society. The loophole in our administration is that it is not very transparent and people participation is base minimum.

    The common citizens have discovered that the administration has become so apathetic,non-performing,corruption and criminality so widespread that they have no recourse except to move to the courts through PIL, enlarging the field of judicial intervention. So in such situation a vacuum is created in governance that is who shall see the validity of the law.

    True Freedom requires the rule of law and justice. The founding members of our Constitution made 3 pillars of democracy that are Executive,Judiciary and Parliament to ensure the integrity of the nation.

    The Judiciary as such and by principle cannot act unless an aggrieved party does not knock it’s door. Hence this vacuum is substantial and Judiciary need to extend its influence in the sphere.
    Some people argue that it is against the principle of Democracy. But there is widening gap between the principles of democracy and the essence of democracy.

    Judiciary under the veil of Activism serves as a Watch Dog for preserving this basic spirit of Democracy. Judicial Activism simply means a Pro-active judiciary which does no limit itself to the interpretation of law only but also sees if the law affects people adversely.

    Judicial Activism has flourished in India and has acquired enormous legitimacy with the Indian Public. Some glimpse from the past and a peep into the future may be rewarding.

    1) Keshavananda Bharati Case-
    This case has the highest water mark of Judicial Activism in India. For the first time a court held that a constitutional amendment duly passed by the legislature was invalid as damaging or destroying it’s Basic Structure.

    2) Supreme Court(SC) appoints Lodha Panel to review the working of The Board of Control for Cricket in India’s (BCCI):
    The SC had appointed the committee in 2015 to look into the functioning of the BCCI and suggest changes to its constitution. And after not applying the recommendations of Panel the apex court dismiss the top authorities of BCCI. This pro-active step by SC shows that it will intervene in the working of any board if it is related to the interest of common masses.

    3) SC role in restoring government in Arunachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand:
    The court quashed President’s Rule imposed in the state and all the decisions taken by Governor and order to have a floor test in both the states.

    Likewise, other example of Judicial intervention are SC orders Central Government to create a new policy to handle drought, Also ask government to constitute Bad Loans Panel to review the problem of Non Profit Assets.

    Here we can see that the Judiciary is coming in the front to ensure the Justice.
    The tussle between the Judiciary and Legislation has always further strengthened Indian democracy.

    The great contribution of Judicial Activism in India has been to provide a safety valve and a hope that justice is not beyond reach.
    Somehow, every judicial case has a foundation of activism within it, so its demerits must always be weighed to determine.

    1. When this type of judicial system is employed, it would seem that the laws do not apply, where judges can override any law that exists, which technically means there are no laws before their eyes.

    2. When judicial activism is exercised, it is often done for solely personal and selfish reasons, like one that might be political or one where a judge has received compensation for his judgment. Most likely, laws will be overruled when there is personal objection to them involved.

    In recent orders, the Supreme Court has directed the most complex engineering of interlinking rivers in India. The Court has passed orders banning the pasting of black film on automobile windows.

    All these managerial exercises by the Court are hung on the dubious jurisdictional peg of enforcing fundamental rights under Article 32 of the Constitution. In reality, no fundamental rights of individuals or any legal issues are at all involved in such cases.

    The pros and cons show that when judicial activism is properly implemented, it can check and balance existing laws properly.

    The doctrine of judicial activism which justifies easy and constant readiness to set aside decisions of other branches of Government is wholly incompatible with a faith in democracy and in so far it encourages a belief that judges should be left to correct the result of public indifference.

    To Conclude, one can say that the “Judicial activism has added much needed oxygen to a gigantic democratic experiment in India by the alchemy of Judico_photosynthesis”.

  • Profile photo of Navdeep Jakhar Navdeep Jakhar @navdeep-jakhar

    Economic Growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence

    A friend recently recounted his experience of travelling through the backwaters of India. He is an NRI and had recently returned to his hometown. He was travelling in ‘Land Rover’ SUV, a very expensive model of car, that he could afford due to his earnings as an Investment Banker in UK. A particular evening of passing through a hamlet, his car was pelted with small rocks by some children and teenagers. Afraid and quickly making his exit from that region, he stopped at a petrol station and wanted to know the reason for this behaviour. The attendant replied that whenever an expensive car passed through that village, children often pelted it. To them, the car represented everything aspirational, which in their small village without electricity, was out of reach. It was a reminder of the divide that exists unfortunately in one of the fastest growing economies of the world.

    This incident should give us pause and cause worry. It is a growing sentiment that even while we are achieving newer heights as a powerful economy, some people are feeling left behind. Economic growth could simply be characterised as a growth in nation’s ‘Gross Domestic Product’ or rise in ‘National Income’. But this simplistic definition hides many complexities of growth that a nation of 1.2 billion people deals with on a daily basis. The GINI coefficient, which reflects the inequality of incomes in a country, stands at 0.67 for India. While not as unequal as some of the worst offenders in this category, the underwhelming score should be a cause for worry. Even more so when we factor in that India also has the largest number of billionaires in Asia. This demonstrates that while the economy is growing, the fruits of this growth are not shared by all.

    Distributive Justice is touted as the antidote to the unequal nature of capitalistic economic growth. It involves some form of taxation that takes from the very rich and rich to provide basic services to the very poor and poor. Essential services like education and basic healthcare along with housing is seen as the bare minimum that every human being needs. The idea behind distributive justice is that since economic growth does not happen in vacuum but is a collaborative effort, its fruits should also be equally distributed. In today’s world where most economies are some form of Capitalism, it falls on the Government to take on the responsibility of distributive justice. Which is fair, since the Government’s primary responsibility is to ensure welfare of all citizens.

    The economic development and its unequal nature is often justified in the name of risk-taking entrepreneurs who put their capital at risk and generate profit. The argument is that since they are the ones who generate employment and build industries, the larger share of profit should accrue to them. This argument is not new and has existed in some form or other since the dawn of civilisation. The Roman empire justified its unequal nature and slave trade on the basis of economy. So did the Greeks and Egyptians. That none of these empires had a peaceful and gradual end, should alert us to the hidden resentment that inequality breeds. This then bursts open in open violence which can bring down mighty empires. The examples are not just in ancient history though. The British empire systematically impoverished India, even as it ran its own industrial engine, leading to resentment and hostility. This culminated in a flash of violent overthrow attempt in 1857 and flashes of it existed till 1947. Similarly, the deeply unequal and lopsided nature of German society, manifested in the monster of Nazism that painted Jews who controlled capital as the ultimate evil to be vanquished.

    In contemporary times, our country has struggled with Naxalism, roots of which can be traced in the unequal development post independence. The rise of Arab Spring was in part due to the resentment of average Tunisian and Libyan to their impoverished existence even as the rulers built mansions, studied abroad and selectively favoured their friends in business. The rise of nativism and cry against Globalisation post the crisis of 2008 is a global upsurge against inequalities that the left out have voiced now.

    The question that confronts us then is not whether violence is the inevitable end of economic growth without distributive justice (it is), but what can be done to ensure distributive justice without endangering economic growth. There is a growing realisation that super rich have for too long enjoyed tax benefits while the working class has struggled. And this realisation is not limited to governments but also the super rich themselves. Billionaires like Warren Buffet and Bill Gates recognise the dangers of unequal development and are pledging substantial amounts of their wealth to charity.

    In looking at viable strategies, it is instructive to look at what has been done so far. Inequality between countries, largely between western world and the post colonial states has been dealt via grants, aid and tied grants. While partly ameliorating poverty, in some cases, this has led to further resentment against countries like UK and USA due to the conditional nature of aid. The first lesson is that distributive justice should be free of ifs and buts. India’s unconditional and collaborative nature of aid to African countries could be a model for this.

    Inequality between classes within countries has been conventionally dealt via taxes and provision of public goods for all by government. However with increasing tax breaks to the very rich, there is a need for revamping the tax structure.

    Then there is inequality between communities. For instance, Sachar committee report in India highlights the poor indicators of Muslim community vis a vis other on multiple social and economic indicators. Similarly dalits and other backward classes also fare poorly. The third lesson is to reform affirmative action and reservation policies to account for changing social milieu.

    The case of Indian efforts towards mitigating inequality are also worth appreciating. It has started the world’s largest social security ID program (AADHAR), sought to ensure financial inclusion for all (PM Jan Than Yojana), created infrastructure and roads in rural areas (PM Gram Sadak Yojana) and created outreach programs in Naxal affected districts (Community Action Program). Access to healthcare via Janani yojana and insurance schemes and primary education via RTE are also steps in this regard.

    There is greater realisation today that the world would have to adapt to the changing reality and listen to the voices of those who have been traditionally disenfranchised by the economic growth. The undercurrents of disappointment with globalisation fuelled growth have come to the fore both within and between countries. In times like these, one must look to the words of Mahatma Gandhi and adopt this as part of the new vision of growth :
    “ There is enough for everyone’s need but not enough for everyone’s greed”

  • Profile photo of Pranav Pranav @pranavce15

    Part A 3 Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence.

    Violence it is said is second to human nature owing to the predatory origin of the species. It is also said that we have yet to lose our violent streak despite millennia of settled civilized living. But if we observe the world today and of the recent past we would notice that one of the major sources of violence is lack of justice and its distributiveness. Distributive justice refers to the concept that opportunity, resources, responsibility and power should get shared among the constituents of the society such that each one gets his or her due.

    Since man began as a hunter gatherer, there has been a proclivity to collect food and resources as much as possible and save for future. This has continued to this day where man still tries to collect but since resources now encompass much more than food into non-perishable things like money, opportunity, etc, this is what gets accumulated. When this goes on at the cost of others in society it is said that distributive justice in the society lacks which breeds discontent which on accumulation boils over into violence.

    Economic growth refers to increase in resources of a society or a group as a whole. This growth results in outcomes like greater incomes and purchasing power which in turn helps in increasing the standards of living.
    When such a group or society or a country thus grows due to its collective effort, it is fair to expect that the outcomes of economic growth should be experienced by all that form the said group while taking into consideration their respective efforts. This facet of distributive justice is one of equity that the outcomes stay proportional to the inputs. When results disproportionate to efforts get attributed to groups, it breeds discontent and violence as seen in the French Revolution where the aristocracy cornered fruits of labour of the peasants. This later transformed into the Reign of Terror and mass killings of the aristocrats. This was also seen in the various anti-slavery and anti-colonial struggles where the colonialists exploited locals for their material benefit.

    Another reason for various freedom struggles against colonial powers was the “lack of equality”. The subdued masses were treated as inferiors disallowing them various liberties as in the Apartheid Regime. Equality allows one to fulfil their potential and live a life of dignity and respect. It goes beyond principle of proportionality and factors in level of opportunity, taking care of respective capabilities. This is the basis of anti-racism struggles, feminism, rights of the differently abled movements, Dalit rights movements. These groups struggle for lack of equality as seen in wage gap, low labour force participation rates, general patriarchal expectation of women sacrificing for their family’s sake as well as the disabled and weaker sections not finding equal access and employment. These struggles reflect discontent and potential for violence.

    With equality also comes shouldering of “responsibilities” in proportion to capabilities. This is seen as in multilateral fora where developed countries who enriched themselves, inadvertently as it maybe by polluting the common environment, are expected to bear greater responsibility for its clean-up. This was encapsulated in the “Common but Differentiated Responsibilities” (CBDR) concept of the Kyoto Protocol and recent COP 21, Paris Summit. Another manifestation is the expectation to do more for the Refugee Crisis and world poverty and hunger. Similarly, the richer sections of the society are proportionally taxed more on their incomes as well as inheritance to enable distribution of resources in the society and not allow inequalities to get entrenched.
    We have seen in examples ranging from the French revolution, American Civil war, Rwandan Genocide, partition of India how lack of distributive justice even if perceived can lead to violence. The breakup of erstwhile Soviet Union, the BREXIT vote as well as the upheaval seen in the US Presidential elections just like bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh, reservation agitation by various castes and Left Wing Extremism can also be attributed to lack of distributive justice. Therefore, we must ensure that distributive justice prevails.

    In this regard, the Constitution of India in its Preamble elicits the cornerstones for distributive justice in the Indian society and goes to sanction them legally through various parts as in Part III and IV, etc. While legal measures abound the substantive implementation remains unsatisfactory especially in the restive North East, the mineral rich belt as well as the oft called Red corridor. This is exacerbated by the large pendency in judiciary and lack of reforms in administrative as well as law and order machinery. We must therefore expedite reforms as well as do more to ensure that our society can remain true to the norm of distributive justice. Winston Churchill and his prophecy of the breakup of India into a 100 different states has been belied in large measure due to the people’s trust in our constitution, the leaders and systems we inherited from the freedom struggle as well as the proactive higher judiciary. We must not rest on our laurels and keep improving.

    To do so, many have suggested the plank of Marxism but its failure to be implemented systematically and sustainably anywhere in the world means that we must look beyond. To come to our rescue are the teachings of Gandhiji and his Trusteeship Model where the better off remain trustees of resources and opportunities and should help in improving the outcomes of the weaker ones so that they are not denied of any opportunity or fruits of labour of collective humanity.
    Since, justice goes beyond borders and so does conflict we must also implement the same spirit of Gandhiji’s Trusteeship as well as the notion of “Vasudev Kutumbakam” in international fora especially the United Nations. A global governance coupled with respect for all human beings is the way for distributive justice if we are to prevent violence and its ability to harm which has assumed dangerous proportions in the wake of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons technologies.

  • Profile photo of Azimul Haque Azimul Haque @azimulhaque

    URBANISATION IS A BLESSING IN DISGUISE
    Mumbai flood of 2005, Kashmir flood, Uttrakhand flood and then Chennai flood of 2015. All comes in the category of Urban flood. On the one hand we are fast moving towards urbanisation, (as projected by Ministry of Urban Development that by 2050 India will have 50% urbanisation) and on the other hand we are seeing increasing disaster and other emerging issues in urban areas. These vary from social conflicts, ideological conflicts and other development related conflicts.
    Urbanisation is cosely linked to modernization, industrialization and sociological rationalization. Its domain covers not only geography, sociology, economics but also urban planning and public health. If properly planned and implemented these changes comes as blessings in the life of urban dwellers, otherwise it has many problematic faces.
    In terms sociological blessings, urbanisation is generally associated with rationalization of thought process, i.e, more modern outlook and thinking process, that is above all sort of pitty caste, racial and other sociological discrimination. However, this is not the thing everywhere and every time, unfortunately. We have several cases of racial attacks in modern urbanised area of Australia and USA. Recent attack on an Indian student in America is one such example. Apart from that communal conflicts in Muzaffarnagar, negate the concept that urbanisation presents in terms of social change.
    When it comes to economic domain of urbanisation we associate it with change in land use pattern (more number of citizen involved in non-agricultural activities), more number of industries coming up, better per capita income of household, more number of vehicles on road. However, it also comes with many side effects. One biggest disadvantage is growing level of pollution. Statistics shows all highly polluted region are some of the biggest and popular cities across the world, these include Beijing, Tokyo, Delhi, Kanpur, etc. Though there are urban places that have better management and thus low level of pollution, that is why urbanisation is blessing in disguise.
    Further industrialisation and other increasing use of detergents and chemicals pollutes water that have backchannel effect in terms of polluted vegetables and drinking water, as reported in vegetables grown along floodplains of Yamuna (in Delhi and Noida region) having polluted to an extent that may harm the population to serious extent.
    In light of these there lies a major responsibility with Urban planners. Urban planning is generally associated with change in structures i.e, concretization of roads, expansion of city region, which is associated with increasing number of people getting settled in urban area. These changes bring better life style for urban dwellers in terms better access to transport facility and creation of other recreation centres.
    However, there are associated problems. Concretization are related with increasing cases of Urban Heat Islands, this contributes to global warming which will lead to certain climatic changes which is not good for sustainable future. Along with this expansion of city region by encroaching flood plain region has serious consequences (Urban Floods). This got reflected in uttarakhand flood and Chennai flood. Also unplanned expansion thus increasing slum region has its own problem. They are the region with poor drainage and poorest living condition, thus associated with various vector borne disease and birth palces of dreaded criminals (because of unemployment).
    An urban area has benefit of most advance benefit in latest medical and public health facilities. However, at the same time studies show that majority of out of pocket expenditure is there in urban areas (this dilute the feature that higher per capita income is in urban areas). With low level of public expenditure in health care, thus increasing privatisation is not a blessing for poor living in urban area. Even certain government hospitals has such a poor condition that patient will get some other form of infection. It has been reported that some patient get effected by anti biotic resistance virus from hospitals only.
    Looking into the projected growth, as reported by U.N, developing countries will have 64% of urbanisation and developed countries will be having 86% of urbanisation by 2050. This expected rapid rate of urbanisation drags a specific attention towards way we are promoting growth of urbanisation. Considering the case of Smart city Mission and Swacch Bharat Abhiyaan, they will achieve its aim not only through the efforts of government alone but equally important is participation of citizen. Need of behavioural change is very important.
    Concept of urbanisation is associated with better management and effective utilisation of resources. Thus it depends on how policy is formulated and more importantly its effective implementation at ground level. This increases role of participatory approach in development of urban area. Responsibilty of citizen to utilise sustainable aspects, as well as promotion to increasing role of women in decision making, and at the same time transparency in government functioning is equally important to maintain edge of blessings, thus benefits, that an urban area provides.

    • Profile photo of Aditya Malpure Aditya Malpure @malpureaditya

      nice one…

    • Profile photo of Azimul Haque Azimul Haque @azimulhaque

      Thanku

  • Profile photo of Azimul Haque Azimul Haque @azimulhaque

    ECONOMIC GROWTH WITHOUT DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE IS BOUND TO BREED VIOLENCE
    Our forefathers while framing Constitution of India gave much important place to concept of distributive justice. This include not only Fundamental right (Right to equality; Freedom to do any business; etc) but also in Directive principles to state policy that specifically mentions for equitable distribution of goods and prevention of concentration of wealth. This is actually in accordance to what they (forefathers) have experienced during period of freedom struggle and also from historical facts that supports the concept that distributive justice is important for peaceful coexistence in a nation or state.
    Though the story of relation between distributive justice and violence exist from very early times but considering the space provided we can directly move on to most important phase i.e American Revolution. This revolution marks the beginning of many revolution and one major cause related to this revolution is with growth in American economy the created wealth was going into the pocket of British. This was highlighted in Drain of Wealth theory evolved by national laureate of that time. Due to this unequal distribution there rose violence against the ruling class that culminated with American war of Independence. This violence rising inspired much of the later revolution in countries suffering from such unequal distribution of justice. For e.g French revolution, Russian revolution, and last but not the least Indian Freedom struggle that was much inspired from Drain of Wealth theory of Dada Bhai Naoroji.
    In present context also Arab Spring has close relation with unequal justice with the growing economy. Actually economic growth and economic development are two important concept at present globalised society. While economic growth includes increase in produced goods and services, on the other hand, economic development includes positive change in life and living condition of people. This change can be achieved through distributive justice along with economic growth. This was not their in most of the Arab region where conflict between communities led to mass scale violence that ultimately resulted into more serious situations.
    It is to be noted that most of the countries having low value of Human Development Index (parameter that measures the condition of living, health and education in a nation) are also associated with poverty and pockets of very rich class along with majority pockets of poor sections. Research shows that rising inequality can lead to conflict , both at social and national level. But in contrast to oligarchic regimes, democracies avoid serious political turbulence so long as they ensure that the relative level of inequality between rich and poor is not excessively large. Accordingly in most of democratic world of today we find certain level of violence in certain pockets of country. Considering the case of India, Naxalism is one such example. This anti national movement has its origin to the high level of inequality and subbordinaton of peasent by rich zamidars.
    However, there are certain emerging situations which are equally threatening and much serious. This include radicalisation of youth. Rising threat of terrorism, has created sleeper cells across the world and India is not free from that. These anti-national elements radicalise youth on the pseudo basis that ruling government is not faithful to you and to your community. They target those section who have suffered from some sorts of communal conflict or certain level of injustice. Therefore it is of prime importance that growth distribution should be fare. And transparency in process along with accountability will bring in confidence among citizen towards the state and prevent them from going the path of astray.
    In India, as said by Vice President, and i quote,” 1% Indians have 60% of concentration of wealth, and 20% Indians have almost 80%. While bottom half constitute only 2% of total wealth.” This clearly shows the concentration of wealth and level of inequality. Recent move of demonetisation, which led to loss of concentrated cash from the hands of many black money holders brought a sense of relief among poor sections, which is a good sign. Along with this step to divert money collected through Investement disclosure scheme towards social and welfare programme is good step towards distributive justice.
    These mentioned steps in one or other form are their on government cards but important thing is their implementation on ground. Along with this reform in judiciary i.e easy and quick access to judicial system along with participation of every section in growth and development of nation (as said by our prime minister Sabka Saath Sabka Vikas) is needed to be gloriously represented in ground level development. Moto of policy should be food for every mouth, job in every hand, and smile on every face. There is no doubt that policy are framed for such acheivment but its success lies in implementation. Thus to achieve such change and success participation from top to bottom is required.

  • Profile photo of nishat anjum nishat anjum @nanjum148

    Food security for sustainable national development
    “A man without food for three days will quarrel, for a week will fight and for a month will die”
    This represents the true state of affairs for most of the under developed nations dealing with the dual problem of resource scarcity and population explosion. Food security has become a major issue in the 21st century not only with respect to meeting the demands of the ever expanding population size, but also to meet the challenges associated with climate change. Even in this scenario, the smaller, developing nations, including the island nations face maximum vulnerability in meeting their needs sustainably. We slowly analyse the present state of food security in our country, the challenges it faces and efforts to overcome the challenges to build a resilient and robust sustainable national path of development.
    India spends a large portion of its GDP subsidising food and alot many state agencies are involved in its procurement and distribution. Yet the annual percentage of food that goes waste, rotting in warehouses, is disturbing, especially when large population of people go without food. It shows that the targeted delivery system in the country, despite all good intentions is skewed. Food is the basic requirement of people and a nation that does not secure this right to its citizens presents a sorry picture.
    Human beings are the centre of policy making and ensuring that no citizen of the country goes to bed hungry for want of food, is the duty of the nation. Malnutrition, child and infant mortality, neo natal mortality and maternal mortality are some of the ills associated with lack of food security. The government then additionally has to shoulder the responsibility of adequate welfare funding against these issues that poses burdensome figures on exchequer, apart from the complex bureaucratic executive at implementation level. This is why ‘eradicating hunger’ forms a major target of the SDGs.
    The developing nations fight the onslaught of growing food insecurity more than the developed countries, mainly because of their large growing population. India is about to witness the highest ever youth population in the world by 2035. To ensure that the ‘demographic dividend’ does not turn into a ‘demographic curse’, India has to expand its capability of feeding so many new people. People give up agriculture and settle in cities in search of better job opportunities. This has resulted in a growing influx of people into the cities with the increasing urban sprawl putting additional pressure on the declining productivity of limited agricultural land. Labour is an important factor of production especially in a labour intensive economy like ours, hence, it is essential that the vast labour force is healthy so as to be an effective participant in the nation building process. Social indicators are an important constituent of national development and nutrition security guarantees the well being of the rising urban population.
    India, occasionally faces shortage of agricultural and related commodities. The recent hike in pulses prices being the most troublesome for the middle and lower classes. India still is a large importer of oilseeds despite being the largest consumer of oilseeds in the world. Self sufficiency and reliance in agricultural capacity should be built so that india does not have to resort to imports. Imports lead to depletion of valuable foreign exchange. The burden of higher prices is passed onto the consumers causing the problem of inflation and panic. India, which has excess capacity in the field of agriculture must develop a vibrant Agriculture and Allied sector(AAA). Second green revolution and Indradhanush will go a long way in improving its sectoral scope and play a pivotal role in establishing india as a net exporter of food products, earning valuable foreign exchange.
    India assumed the voice of all developing nations and spoke for the continuation of the public food stockholding programs in the developing nations at the WTO ministerial conference at Nairobi. The developed nations view this policy of providing a food security net as preferential and against the principles of free trade. However, india has been resilient in advocating the cause of food security. It marks the level of commitment india bears to this cause especially in the changing global scenario. India and US have also recently undertaken joint operations in Africa in training the farmers and providing agricultural know how to enable Africa to overcome the frequent famine that it faces.
    With changing global environment and climate change, it is necessary to adapt agriculture to the climatic vagaries. Sustainable agriculture should be practised not only to meet global demand and welfare but also to mitigate the effects of global warming. Agricultural scientists are working worldwide to evolve new climate resistant seeds. The ultimate foresight in achieving food security for the future is the building up of a Seed Vault, Svalbard in Norway, storing seed specimens under the ice for our future generations to discover and begin new life!
    In india. The National Action Plan on Climate Change coordinates sustainable agricultural practises to meet the rising demands of food in a sustainable way. More than 50% of agricultural land is still not irrigated and depend on the monsoons. Timely Meteorological reports and climate smart agriculture can help in timely sowing and harvesting, aswell as meeting agricultural productivity in a sustainable way. For the coastal areas that are prone to submergence, adaptive measures like underwater rice cultivation in Kerela should be encouraged, just like hydroponic cultivation in drought prone areas.
    Another measure that can be undertaken to meet future food insecurity is the introduction of GMO crops. Although environmentalists are apprehensive about their introduction, they offer a good alternative to enhance productivity in limited arable land. A huge percentage of crops are destroyed due to pest attacks leading to wastage and no income for the farmers causing acute agricultural distress. GMO variety has the ability to offer resistance against pest attacks and promise a good harvest and good returns to farmers. There should be a comprehensive study by the Department of Biotech and GEAC before reaching a consensus. Moreover, indigenous varieties of locally developed seeds should be chosen over imported ones as they would be locally adaptive.
    Hence, for the sustainable development of nations, especially the developing nations that fight to meet its food requirement, ensuring a comprehensive, targeted food program is mandatory. According to Malthus, ‘food availability will increase in arithmetic progression while population will rise exponentially’-it is a widely witnessed fact today. Food scarcity, famine, along with the bitter reality of climate change(that adds to the misery of the afflicted), make it absolutely essential to revamp our food security programs and assure to the most valuable assets of our society-human beings, the minimum worth and dignity of two square meals a day.

  • Profile photo of Kunal Aggarwal Kunal Aggarwal @kunalaggarwal

    Judicial Activism and Indian Democracy
    ————————————–
    Constitution framers had envisioned India to be democracy which would ensure rights of people and work towards their upliftment after the rule of Britishers. It becomes important to ensure welfare and provisioning of socio-economic goods to people in a democracy especially with high number of below poverty people. The three pillars of democracy i.e. Executive, Legislature and Judiciary play their independent role in ensuring a welfare and democratic country. The constitution provides for inter-dependence of the three organs on each other for the best functioning.

    Judiciary is the arm of government which ensure delivery of justice to people whereas Legislature frames laws and executive implements the laws enacted by the legislature. Justice delivery needs to be fair for which the judiciary has been given independence from other organs. The constitution empowers the Judiciary with a great degree of Independence and envisions Supreme Court to be protector of constitution.

    Judicial activism is the active participation of judiciary in rule making, new interpretation of laws and directing the other organs of democracy. Judicial review forms a part of judicial activism under which it has empowered itself to review the laws enacted by legislature, strike down unconstitutional provisions in laws.

    The constitution empowers Supreme Court to protect the Fundamental rights of people. Over decades, judiciary has played a significant role in protecting fundamental rights, striking down irrational laws and executive orders. Expansion of Right to Life under Article 21 is one of the important examples of judicial activism. It led to inclusion of dignity in livelihood, a comfortable livelihood, right to environment etc.

    However, judiciary has expanded its scope and over time came to ensure welfare of people beyond fundamental rights. The judiciary has been responsible for bringing socio-economic, political as well as cultural reforms in the country. Decriminalization of politics has been one of the major focus area which led to electoral reforms like NOTA being proposed by SC. It had directed the governments last year to declare droughts and help the farmers in distress. It went to the extent of calling it a human rights issue.

    The case was not the same always. Constitution had envisioned Judiciary to be the protector of fundamental rights. However, In Keshavnanda Bharti case and through successive cases, judiciary increased its power. It laid down the doctrine of basic feature of constitution which can not be amended even by the parliament. Emergency was a major incident which legitimized the intervention of Judiciary in upholding the constitution by checking executive actions.

    Public Interest Litigation was major change in delivery of justice to the people. It opened the doors for common man to approach the highest court of the country and increased the activism.

    The courts in several occasions have issued directions in PILs covering a wide spectrum such as women protection, child rights, road safety, pollution and labor rights. The biggest contribution of judicial activism is in ensuring a protection valve in democracy. It checks the unjust behavior of government against people. It ensures fairness, rationality and people’s interest in all works of the government.

    National Green Tribunal is the cornerstone for protection of environment. It recently banned the registration of diesel vehicle in Delhi and Kerala. NGT directed the governments of States and Union to ensure river basin protection, check air and water pollution. Judiciary had recently banned selling of fireworks during festivals and directed the government to renew the licenses.

    It is alleged that Indian Judiciary has often intervened in the domain of executive and legislature. Recent incident of Lodha Committee to reform the Board of Cricket Control of India has once again raised the issue of judicial activism and overreach. Supreme Court appointed committee proposed many reforms to improve the governance of sports in country to which the board has objected being an independent society.

    The question that arises is why the judiciary needed to intervene in administration when it was the role of the representatives of the people. It is because of a weak executive and legislature that failed to perform their constitutional duty. Criminals in politics, unstable governments due to defection, huge corruption led to deterioration of the legislatures. The vacuum created by their inaction was filed by judiciary by expanding its powers. Through this, judiciary has been able to sustain a democracy and stand firm for protecting the constitution.

    However, judicial overreach is criticized for being antithetical to democracy. It allows judiciary to supersede the elected representatives which is the base of democracy. It makes judiciary all powerful which can be misused by courts to further their interest. Potential long term threats in disturbing the balance of power between the three organs would lead to breakdown of democracy.

    The threat could be visualized in the case of judicial reforms. Judiciary has been following an opaque and unaccountable procedure for their appointments. It has been less willing to make the system transparent and unaccountable. These could be precedents to undermine of parliament and its rights to legislate for better functioning of judiciary.

    The current system can not continue forever because of its inherent threat. It is an unsustainable power balance between the organs and must be corrected. The era of a non-functioning parliament and criminalized politics is fast depleting due to awareness among people. The government and legislature are reclaiming their lost grounds which is evident from the enactment of National Judicial Appointments Commission act.

    The policy paralysis of the government is being corrected through active steps by the government. Since the time of expansion of judicial powers, parliament has added the Anti-Defection laws, legislated on women protection and juvenile justice. The government is now more transparent in its dealings and accountable to people through Right to Information and an empowered parliament.

    As Dr. Ambedkar had pointed towards cooperation between the organs rather than complete separation, the three organs must ensure cooperation and coordination for the overall benefit of democracy. Supreme Court has shown its intent of respecting the provisions by refusing many PILs in the light that legislation is the prerogative of Parliament and State Legislatures.

    However, an institutional mechanism needs to be adopted to ensure a long term check on judiciary expanding its domain. Pending Memorandum of Procedures for appointment of judiciary offers an opportunity to create a balance and generate respect among the institutions towards each other. The judiciary has played an important in filling the gap created at the time of need. There has to be cautious withdrawal by judiciary empowering citizens to question the government.

    Judiciary can not take the place of citizens to hold their representatives accountable. Long term solution to the problem lies in empowering citizens with information, transparency in the system and educating people to hold the government accountable. The courts should play a role in bringing in such reforms which will strengthen the Indian democracy.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. Does not reveal structure
      2. Structure could have been even better
      Merits
      1. Very simple
      2. Very well comprehended
      3. Smooth flow of languages and thought
      4. Very insightful and natural
      5. 1st sentence generally conveys the meaning the para intends.Thats exceptional for this entire lot.

    • Profile photo of Kunal Aggarwal Kunal Aggarwal @kunalaggarwal

      Thank you Sir. Your videos on last Sunday has helped in improving I guess. I will try to work on these limitations.

  • Profile photo of Praveen Rohankar Praveen Rohankar @praveen-rohankar

    Hi CD, Can’t see my submitted essay. Where and how do I find it. Not sure if it got posted. Please excuse me, as I have posted it thrice and still can’t see it.

    Thanks
    Praveen

    • Profile photo of Discuss Discuss @discuss

      @praveen-rohankar, the one on economic growth and distributive justice? Refresh your page, it is below your comment, I see two entries by you.

    • Profile photo of Praveen Rohankar Praveen Rohankar @praveen-rohankar

      Thanks CD. I can see it now. May I pls request you to delete one of the two essays of mine.

  • Profile photo of Praveen Rohankar Praveen Rohankar @praveen-rohankar

    Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence
    Synopsis:
    • Introduction
    • Meaning – Economic growth, distributive justice, violence
    • How lack of distributive justice breed violence – Few examples
    • Constitutional methods for justice
    • Solution to bring about of distributive justice
    • Conclusion

    “Sarve bhavantu sukhina, sarve santu niramaya,
    sarve bhadranu pasyantu, ma kaschit dukh bhaag bhavet” – ancient India saying
    The above saying emphasizes the concept of the equality and happiness to all, which is imbibed in the idea of the distributive justice.
    In the India which cherished the socialist principles and self-sufficient village economy, in the same India, we also see “Laal Salaam” signifying the violent naxal movement whose origin stems from the India’s economic growth without distributing the benefits to the landless who suffered with poverty and hunger.
    Economic growth signifies the growth attained by the country year-on-year due to contribution of various sectors of economy. There has been a decent economic growth in India after independence and significant growth post the LPG era of 1991. The question is, has this growth been inclusive?
    The concept of distributive justice ensures that the fruits of development is distributed equitably among the society. This means the landless gets land, unemployed gets employment, poor gets labour, hungry gets food and also that the wealth is not concentrated in few hands. But imagine if this doesn’t happens? What if people are deprived and there is huge inequality in society. ?
    It may lead to unrest, hatred, distress and may also ultimately breed violence be it physical, mental or verbal. Violence is just not the bloodshed, but has several forms. While some may continue to suffer the inequalities and take it as their fate, some might take peaceful recourse to fight for the injustice while some may take up the arms. Violence is just not breed by the sufferer, but the breeding of violence by the exploiter aggravates the suffering of the vulnerable. So, who are theses vulnerable suffering due to injustice ?
    The land reforms which was one of the novel idea during the freedom struggle remained mostly on paper in most states and hence the landless continues to struggle without justice, some joined the naxal movement to shed the blood and snatch their right while some breed hatred in their heart towards the government and the zamindars.
    The classic case of women is to be told here, as they were sidelined in the economic growth story despite their huge contribution in the unorganized sector like agriculture, construction etc. to propel the economic growth, they were deprived of any social security, harassed, ill-treated and suffered violence sometimes by society sometimes by family. Her right to the distributive justice in terms of healthcare, education, nutrition was severely undermined. Despite all these happening since centuries, we see her as loving, caring and motherly figure in the society and rarely any incidence of violence in her. Her struggle had been all peaceful but gritty.
    The case of tribals is also quite saddening, who had been made the scapegoat of the economic development projects in terms of displacements and rehabilitation. They have been losing their rights over the mountains, the forests and the rivers which had been integral part of their culture and life. Despite all these sacrifice, they had been ignored in the path of the distributive justice and been at the receiving end since the colonial rule. They might breed the violence of hatred in their heart but their innocence had been harassed by the government and exploited by the naxals.
    The other vulnerable sections who have more or less the similar story to tell are the minorities, the dalits, the disabled, the poor etc. who rather than breeding violence continue to suffer violence at the hand of the state. This grim picture clearly show the wedge between the shining India and suffering Bharat.
    There are also instances when the corruption, injustice, development deficit, negligence, exploitation by state had led to the taking up of arms by the few vulnerable people making them naxals, secessionist or the terrorists, when actually they are themselves suffering from the voice of the distributive injustice.
    It’s not just in India, but in forien countries also, there are sections which are suffering due to injustice. Example the Blacks/Negros in USA face a lot of discrimination despite legal protection.
    The struggle against the injustice had also been waged by several non-state actors like NGOs, civil society, Supreme court in form of PILs, eminent citizens like Anna Hazare, Medha Patkar etc. They are employing the legal and constitutional forms of struggle to enable rights to the vulnerable and had been successful to an extent in taking up their cause.
    The problem though seems quite a deep rooted one and the superficial treatments is just not enough . We need to start from the basics and attack at the roots of the problem of casteism, gender bias, pseudo-secularism and neo-liberalism.
    It’s high time that we implement with all our sincerity the land reforms and give the landless their right and the justice. Our policies must work to encourage the Female labour force participation with equal rights and benefits. The social schemes for health and nutrition should revolve around female as the head of the family.
    We must address the huge inequality between the people as stated in our constitution’s directive principle by retorting to progressive taxation, positive discrimination, unemployment benefits, social security to the unorganized, financial inclusion for all etc.
    State must address the development deficit especially in the undeveloped areas in red corridor and ensure that the social sector schemes like PDS, MGNREGA etc. reaches the far flung areas in our country.
    Special focus on the MSME, cottage industries, village industries, MSP procurement, procuring Minor forest produce, traditional skill development, doubling farm income etc. need to be done.
    As part of the federal structure, all states must have equity in the developmental fruits and they must work towards harmony and sustainable development of the country. The implementation of the SDG’s and the novel directive principles with all the earnestness can help us to fulfill the principle of justice-social, economic, political as enshrined in our preamble.

    The 21st century India is well positioned to be a world power. It’s time we become powerful outside and strengthened inside. We are the same country which envisioned “Vasudhev kutumbakam” and hence, it’s our moral obligation to the people of India to bring about the equality of status and opportunities among citizens and fill up the gap between India and Bharat. The development for India lies in the traditional Indian concept of the “Antyodaya” and “Sarvodaya”. Its time to revive those concepts and usher sustainable and inclusive development of India. The current government is very right in its objective – “Sabka saath – sabka vikas” and this will certainly make India as “Ek Bharat-Shresth Bharat”.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. Has become general after a good beginning.
      Suggestion
      2. You will never get bad marks
      3. very balanced.
      4. Basics very well taken care of.
      Merits
      1. Very well Structured
      2. Very good Comprehension of the topic
      3. Basic understanding clear
      Shows Honesty of approach

  • Profile photo of Praveen Rohankar Praveen Rohankar @praveen-rohankar

    Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence
    Synopsis:
    • Introduction
    • Meaning – Economic growth, distributive justice, violence
    • How lack of distributive justice breed violence – Few examples
    • Constitutional methods for justice
    • Solution to bring about of distributive justice
    • Conclusion

    “Sarve bhavantu sukhina, sarve santu niramaya,
    sarve bhadranu pasyantu, ma kaschit dukh bhaag bhavet” – ancient India saying
    The above saying emphasizes the concept of the equality and happiness to all, which is imbibed in the idea of the distributive justice.
    In the India which cherished the socialist principles and self-sufficient village economy, in the same India, we also see “Laal Salaam” signifying the violent naxal movement whose origin stems from the India’s economic growth without distributing the benefits to the landless who suffered with poverty and hunger.
    Economic growth signifies the growth attained by the country year-on-year due to contribution of various sectors of economy. There has been a decent economic growth in India after independence and significant growth post the LPG era of 1991. The question is, has this growth been inclusive?
    The concept of distributive justice ensures that the fruits of development is distributed equitably among the society. This means the landless gets land, unemployed gets employment, poor gets labour, hungry gets food and also that the wealth is not concentrated in few hands. But imagine if this doesn’t happens? What if people are deprived and there is huge inequality in society. ?
    It may lead to unrest, hatred, distress and may also ultimately breed violence be it physical, mental or verbal. Violence is just not the bloodshed, but has several forms. While some may continue to suffer the inequalities and take it as their fate, some might take peaceful recourse to fight for the injustice while some may take up the arms. Violence is just not breed by the sufferer, but the breeding of violence by the exploiter aggravates the suffering of the vulnerable. So, who are theses vulnerable suffering due to injustice ?
    The land reforms which was one of the novel idea during the freedom struggle remained mostly on paper in most states and hence the landless continues to struggle without justice, some joined the naxal movement to shed the blood and snatch their right while some breed hatred in their heart towards the government and the zamindars.
    The classic case of women is to be told here, as they were sidelined in the economic growth story despite their huge contribution in the unorganized sector like agriculture, construction etc. to propel the economic growth, they were deprived of any social security, harassed, ill-treated and suffered violence sometimes by society sometimes by family. Her right to the distributive justice in terms of healthcare, education, nutrition was severely undermined. Despite all these happening since centuries, we see her as loving, caring and motherly figure in the society and rarely any incidence of violence in her. Her struggle had been all peaceful but gritty.
    The case of tribals is also quite saddening, who had been made the scapegoat of the economic development projects in terms of displacements and rehabilitation. They have been losing their rights over the mountains, the forests and the rivers which had been integral part of their culture and life. Despite all these sacrifice, they had been ignored in the path of the distributive justice and been at the receiving end since the colonial rule. They might breed the violence of hatred in their heart but their innocence had been harassed by the government and exploited by the naxals.
    The other vulnerable sections who have more or less the similar story to tell are the minorities, the dalits, the disabled, the poor etc. who rather than breeding violence continue to suffer violence at the hand of the state. This grim picture clearly show the wedge between the shining India and suffering Bharat.
    There are also instances when the corruption, injustice, development deficit, negligence, exploitation by state had led to the taking up of arms by the few vulnerable people making them naxals, secessionist or the terrorists, when actually they are themselves suffering from the voice of the distributive injustice.
    It’s not just in India, but in forien countries also, there are sections which are suffering due to injustice. Example the Blacks/Negros in USA face a lot of discrimination despite legal protection.
    The struggle against the injustice had also been waged by several non-state actors like NGOs, civil society, Supreme court in form of PILs, eminent citizens like Anna Hazare, Medha Patkar etc. They are employing the legal and constitutional forms of struggle to enable rights to the vulnerable and had been successful to an extent in taking up their cause.
    The problem though seems quite a deep rooted one and the superficial treatments is just not enough . We need to start from the basics and attack at the roots of the problem of casteism, gender bias, pseudo-secularism and neo-liberalism.
    It’s high time that we implement with all our sincerity the land reforms and give the landless their right and the justice. Our policies must work to encourage the Female labour force participation with equal rights and benefits. The social schemes for health and nutrition should revolve around female as the head of the family.
    We must address the huge inequality between the people as stated in our constitution’s directive principle by retorting to progressive taxation, positive discrimination, unemployment benefits, social security to the unorganized, financial inclusion for all etc.
    State must address the development deficit especially in the undeveloped areas in red corridor and ensure that the social sector schemes like PDS, MGNREGA etc. reaches the far flung areas in our country.
    Special focus on the MSME, cottage industries, village industries, MSP procurement, procuring Minor forest produce, traditional skill development, doubling farm income etc. need to be done.
    As part of the federal structure, all states must have equity in the developmental fruits and they must work towards harmony and sustainable development of the country. The implementation of the SDG’s and the novel directive principles with all the earnestness can help us to fulfill the principle of justice-social, economic, political as enshrined in our preamble.

    The 21st century India is well positioned to be a world power. It’s time we become powerful outside and strengthened inside. We are the same country which envisioned “Vasudhev kutumbakam” and hence, it’s our moral obligation to the people of India to bring about the equality of status and opportunities among citizens and fill up the gap between India and Bharat. The development for India lies in the traditional Indian concept of the “Antyodaya” and “Sarvodaya”. Its time to revive those concepts and usher sustainable and inclusive development of India. The current government is very right in its objective – “Sabka saath – sabka vikas” and this will certainly make India as “Ek Bharat-Shresth Bharat”.

  • Profile photo of Deepak Deepak @deepakapril8

    partb-urbanisation is a blessing in disguise.
    Though the word urbanisation came into picture in 18th century ,different parts of the world has some urban structure one or the other way.Indus valley civilisation can also be called as a urban land due to its planning,drainage system,dockyard and it’s exporting cotton made goods to Greek and Egypt. then the 1st modern development of cities in Egypt and mesopotomia in 18th century where equilibrium existed between agriculture rural context to small traders of market and manufacturing on small scale in urban areas.but we have to know that now what we are calling a urban area was once a forest or a rural part itself so it is enshrined with its blessing in disguise.
    Today the picture of urbanisation has completed changed.after the 18th century industrialisation broke the rural context to rapid urbanisation due to growth of industries,better way of living and employment opportunities.
    According to un report recent projection global growth from 2017 to 2050 will be absorbed by cities and more than 64% of developing world live in cities.this shows the rapid urbanisation and it’s impact on people.
    Now you are going to see the social,economic,political and environmental impact of urbanisation with its blessing in disguise.
    At social level , growth of people are associated with growth of health,education institutions where privatisation leads to quality transportation,communication facilities.It helps to reduce the time of people and mortality fertility rates.Growth of big markets,malls,appartments,changed the scenario of people and improved the social quality is a blessing but at the same time communicable and non communicable diseases like dengue,cancer diabetes leads to execessive problems with people health and hospital infecTed diseases with poor hygiene,drinking water making the people disguise.
    At economic level where rapid growth of industries,manufacturing sites improvEd the opportunity of getting a job,boosting in fdi,economic zones helps the country exports being a blessing ,but due to corruption,transparent and inequality where fdi or the domestic investment being concentrated only in some parts of urban areas,for example -in india more fdi is concentrated only on cities like mumbaI,delhi,banglore leading to discriminating with other areas like up,bihar.according to oxfam report where 8 men hold wealth of half of world shows the level of inequality and rich getting richer poor getting poor attitude.
    At political level urban governance plays am important role in improving democracy where most of the world has good equal opportunities in decision making and every sections of society take part in nation building is a blessing especially for women,other backward section of society for inclusive development but discriminating role of politicall leaders,parties,old traditional customs and corruption fake news for example- recent protest in nagaland against women representation has been a disguise.
    At environmental level the people getting some percentage of safety due to police,law and order,but The dense populations and environment-ravaging construction and industrialization of urbanization are not the only environmental impacts of this expansion. Urban populations, by merit of their higher incomes and more leisurely lifestyles, are more likely to consume high quantities of energy-using consumable goods such as televisions, refrigerators, and other technology. Research has indicated that this increases air, water and land pollution, and creates concentrated heat zones that influence weather patterns, generating thunderstorms, hailstorms, fog and cloudiness in greater frequency than rural areas. This not only puts the area at risk in the form of weather-related damage, it promotes trapping of pollutants within the atmosphere, contributing to long-lasting environmental damage and health risks for those in the area.
    At culturall and people attitudes
    people started forgetting there culture and starTed living like a machines invented by them only where earlier joint families which taught love,affection,empathy compassion towards the people change to nuclear families. eg-where husband takes an appointment to meet his wife has been a disguise. .
    The transformation from a rural to an urban planet offers both great blessings and heavy burdens. The transition from agrarian to urban has always been considered a positive step, part of the process of modernization. However, the rapid growth of urban populations in societies rapidly changing in other ways is fraught with enormous tension and tremendously complex problems. Urbanization would be a blessing only when urban problems would be solved through economic efficiency and vast growth of productive forces..

  • Profile photo of Atif Hussain Atif Hussain @atifhussain1894

    Judicial activism & Indian democracy-
    What is judicial activism? philosophy of judicial decision-making whereby judges allow their personal views about public policy, among other factors, to guide their decisions. Simply it’s when the judiciary gets involved in the legislative matters so much that in a way it itself starts legislating & it’s both a boon & a bane. Our founding fathers had inserted provisions in the constitution to allow the judiciary to prevent the legislature & the executive from overreach thus maintaining a balance of parliamentary supremacy & judicial activism unlike other countries like US (which has judicial superiority) & UK (which has parliamentary supremacy), the one feature we kept a balance into. The constitutional fathers sought to do this by giving parliament & state legislatures the power to legislate on any matter under their jurisdiction under the 7th schedule lists. The judiciary was given the power under Article 32 & 226 for Supreme court (SC) & high court (HC) respectively to void actions by the legislature or executive if they exceed their constitutional authority.
    What is democracy? democracy in simplest term can be said to be people’s rule where the people either rule directly or through representatives with latter being the case in India. We are the largest democracy in the world & our neighbours have had to go through periods of militarism & authoritarian rule but our country even after being diverse is still stable.
    The judiciary has played a huge role in maintaining rule of law in the state. Judiciary has been beneficial in its activism in several ways. We have cases like Kesavananda Bharti case often regarded as the case that saved democracy in India which came after the govt. overcame many judgement through constitutional amendment given in Golak Nath, bank nationalisation & privy purses case. This case prohibited govt. from changing the basic structure of the constitution (a judicial innovation) & thus saves us from going into a totalitarian state as we no one could have challenged the 39th amendment taking out judicial review even after electoral malpractice in election of president, VP, governor or 41 st amendment which gave the three offices infinite immunity from civil, criminal liabilities.
    Judiciary allowed the concept of public interest litigation (PIL) where common citizens could in the public interest file a case in the judiciary to be taken first hand by the courts. This led to various judgements regarding right to livelihood in the Olga Tellis case or the right to food in the PUCl vs UOI case. Thus judiciary extended its reach to the poor & illiterate who didn’t know what to do in case of their exploitation & couldn’t take action due to financial restraints. Now they could just send a letter which would have been enough.
    We have the case of bringing right to education under Art. 21 i.e. right to life to provide free primary education to each child in the country b/w the ages of 6-14 as a fundamental right. In the same article judiciary has added various provisions regarding to right to clean environment, etc. which benefit us.
    But this brings a question to our minds? what is the role of the elected legislature if judiciary has to do everything. The legislature does its work but gets slow sometimes due to the discussion, debates, political ideology & thus the judiciary has to step in. But what if there’s no restriction on the judiciary, it can be possible that they utilise their power in a negative manner.
    Yes that is possible as we see from judgements where judiciary is more focussed on public policy & less on advantaging the poor like the striking down of 99th amendment regarding the NJAC which sought to streamline the judges appointment whose practice in the current form were not laid in the constitutional but was judicially innovated in the second & third judges case. We have SC reforming BCCI which is a private body. We have the courts ordering for removal of black film from cars, making seatbelt mandatory, asking for national anthem to be played in the cinema halls, cleanliness in housing colonies, prevent ragging of college freshmen, control of loudspeakers & firecrackers or giving the power to appoint judges to judges themselves which no country has such provisions, interfering in state legislative assembly proceedings even though Art. 212 restricts them from. All of these our done under the cover of Article 32.

    Thus it has been both beneficial & a bane for the democracy. In the current scenario we have more of judicial activism in matters which don’t fall under Article 32 & aren’t that imp. compared to the imp. legal matters lying pending. Courts can’t just give the reason of failure of govt. to take action to justify itself as the latter could in the same tone take over judicial functions if the former fails in some aspect. High dependence on judiciary erodes the faith in democracy of the people creating an image that public legislators are of no use & the citizens need to depend on the judiciary. This is not what our founding fathers had envisaged & judiciary needs to restrain itself in using its powers where necessary & rest of the work should be done by legislators who if fail to perform will be removed by the public in the next elections. This is what democracy is, a balance which is needed in the current period where social fabric is weak & people are fragmenting in political scenario. After all the people of this country gave us the constitution & their trust is beneficial for the institutional framework

  • Profile photo of Nitin Gupta Nitin Gupta @nitingupta366

    Part A: Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence
    Inclusive growth is a prerequisite for a stable and peaceful society. History is ridden with ample evidences of revolts and revolutions in an unjust and unequal society. Income and wealth tends to concentrate among a section of people in all socio-economic systems, be it feudalism, socialism or capitalism. Hence, efforts are required to be made in order to redistribute gains to all sections of humanity. So the concept of a welfare state emerged to ensure distributive justice.

    “Poverty is the worst form of violence” was expounded by Mahatma Gandhi. Inequality spreads hidden violence in the form of day-to-day deprivation and exploitation of the less privileged. More often than not, it culminates into ‘visible violence’ through revolts and violent crimes. Hence, inequality hurts everyone. All past revolutions like French revolution, Russian revolution etc. in one way or another was a result of widespread inequality. Colonial India witnessed various peasant and tribal uprisings against unjust British policies. Upheavals and sectarian movements have also been witnessed in the less developed regions of independent India. Inequality is evident in the rich-poor divide, gender relations, caste structure as well as in the class arrangements.

    India aptly is a welfare state. Article 39(2) of the Indian constitution is particularly relevant in this context. Part of the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP), it instructs the state to strive to minimise inequalities in income and endeavour to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities. Other provisions in the constitution like equality of opportunity, equal pay for equal work, free legal aid for poor, special provisions for SCs, STs etc. all are tailored towards reducing inequality. India in the past two decades has successfully achieved economic growth. However, the struggle for distributive justice continues. High GDP growth has not been complimented by a similar improvement in social indicators. This is reflected by the low HDI rank and a below average score in the UNDP’s report. A recent report released by rights group Oxfam indicates the high level of inequality in India with the richest 1% accounting for 58% of wealth. Such figures are corroborated by other reports like that of Credit Suisse. India is home to the highest concentration of world’s poor as well as a high proportion of the world’s billionaires. An island of wealth in a sea of poverty is an unsustainable growth model. Curbing rising inequality is the only way to end extreme poverty, which is a national as well as a global goal expounded in the SDGs.

    World Economic Forum’s Global Risks Report 2016 has found “severe income disparity” to be one of the top global risks in the coming decade. There are two ways through which a country boosts economic equality: 1. Progressive taxation 2. Social spending. These imperative tools can be complimented in India through measures like inheritance tax, as in our society inequality is propounded from one generation to another through passage of wealth. It also leads to unfair advantage and more opportunities for the more privileged to deploy their resources for further gain. A vicious cycle develops. Universal Basic Income can also go a long way in this endeavour. Curbing corruption and leakages in social welfare programmes will allow much headway in dealing with inequality. Bridging the gap between policy and implementation is a major challenge. Most of the government spending and efforts is geared towards ensuring livelihood and sustainability through MNREGA, PDS etc. It has limited scope of reducing inequality. Schemes for expansion of economic and educational opportunities should be presented with more resources.

    Rising inequality leads to slower poverty reduction, undermines the sustainability of economic growth, compounds the inequalities between men and women, and drives inequalities in health, education and life chances. Diversity of India is a challenge as well an opportunity for a more progressive society. It needs to be ensured, that no region, religion, linguistic group, tribal community or caste, and women in all these sections are not left behind in the growth story. Women are particularly vulnerable especially in the backward communities which can be termed ‘double discrimination’. They are on the receiving end of domestic and sexual violence. High MMR and low sex ratio around the world in general and India in particular are indicators of their deprivation despite the economic growth. Freedom of choice and lack of opportunities for them are examples of perpetration of ‘hidden violence’. Gender inclusive societies are bound to register higher economic growth. Investing in women’s lives is an investment in sustainable development.

    Sector-divide in the economic growth of India is fairly evident. High skilled workforce in the service sector has appropriated most of the benefits while the agricultural sector has experienced low growth rate. It has resulted in the alarmingly high rate of farmer suicides. Farmer suicide is the worst manifestation of how inequality of growth has led to ‘violence’. Urban areas have been the engine of growth. Hence, the phenomenon of rural-urban migration is witnessed. It has led to proliferation of urban slums. Urban slums are a hub of diseases, criminal activities, trafficking and other such ills.

    American Founding Father Thomas Jefferson said, “There is nothing more unequal than the equal treatment of unequal people.” Hence special provisions are required for the less privileged. Policy makers around the world have incorporated this principle. Every government’s policy and political parties’ mandate have been to work for the downtrodden since independence in India. Efforts are needed in the private sphere too. Affirmative action should be expressed through philanthropic efforts, giving up privileges, social service etc.

    One of the contemporary global problems is the refugee crisis. It is the result of inequality across regions of the globe. Right-wing movements and instances of violence are bound to happen in such situations. Industrial revolution led to the emergence of “developed, developing and least developed countries”. ‘North-South’ divide is also a legacy of industrial revolution. Developed world is also responsible for global warming whose brunt is faced by more heavily by the under-developed world. Immediate action is required on the world stage and developed countries need to deliver on their promises and take the bulk of responsibilities to avoid cycles of violence.

    An ethical society and an administration working based on ethical principles will inevitably be a more inclusive society. Quick and efficient delivery of goods and services is also essential in this regard. Education and technology are potentially great levelers when it comes to reducing inequality. It needs to be ensured that under-privileged sections receive the opportunities in these fields. Political patronage and discrimination have to be avoided at all costs.

    BR Ambedkar, father of our Constitution, had expressed, “On the 26th of January 1950, we are going to enter into a life of contradictions. In politics we will have equality and in social and economic life we will have inequality.” This holds true even 67 years later and is more crucial as our lives have increasingly become economy-centric. It is our collective responsibility as citizens of the country and member of the global community to strive towards an inclusive society and progress of all.

    • Profile photo of Nitin Gupta Nitin Gupta @nitingupta366

      Part B: Can Capitalism bring inclusive growth?
      Winston Churchill had said, “The inherent vice of capitalism is the unequal sharing of blessings and the inherent virtue of socialism is the equal sharing of miseries.” That capitalism brings ‘blessings’ was expressed in what is known as the Washington Consensus. It refers to a set of broadly free market economic ideas, supported by prominent economists and international organisations, such as the IMF, the World Bank, the EU and the US. Essentially, the Washington consensus advocates, free trade, floating exchange rates, free markets and macroeconomic stability i.e. the features of capitalism. However, though it is largely established that capitalism results in growth and generation of wealth, everyone benefiting in equal degrees from the growth story is doubted.
      Wealth tends to get concentrated in every socio-economic system, be it feudalism, capitalism or socialism. People with more resources have an unfair advantage and more opportunities which results in them appropriating more wealth and higher income. A vicious cycle is created. Unimpeded, unrestricted and unregulated market forces can make this phenomenon even more prominent. Wealthy people have greater capital at their disposal so they can invest more and benefit more.
      Capitalism as an economic system developed with the beginnings of Industrial Revolution. Adam Smith in “Wealth of Nations” gave the concept of invisible hand in a free market system which tends to balance supply and demand to ensure optimum output. Western countries, especially USA, emerged as champions of capitalism. Gradually, through the advocacy of West and the apparent benefits, every country moved towards capitalist mode of production barring a few. India, though a ‘socialist’ country, as mentioned in the preamble of the constitution, has also adopted various capitalist principles. Emphasis on ‘Ease of doing Business’ indicates this gradual move.
      ‘Trickle down approach’ where it is expected that benefits of economic growth will gradually spread to all sections has not worked at such a pace to ensure an inclusive society. Capitalism relies heavily on this approach. Active policies on behalf of the government are hence required to ensure redistribution. Thus, a socio-economic system with a mix of socialist and capitalist principles is desired.
      Recent reports like Oxfam report which shows that richest 1% of people account for 58% of wealth in India reflects the glaring inequality present in our society. It is true across the world. India is home to the highest concentration of world’s poor as well as a high proportion of the world’s billionaires. An island of wealth in a sea of poverty is an unsustainable growth model. Though mainly structure of our society, which allows inheritance and concentration of wealth, is responsible for such a situation, capitalism too had a role to play in it. World Economic Forum’s Global Risks Report 2016 has found “severe income disparity” to be one of the top global risks in the coming decade.
      Capitalism can also lead to distorted growth across sectors. In the case of India, service sector has been the engine of growth whereas agricultural sector has not performed well. More than 50% of our workforce is in the agricultural sector; low growth rate has invariable led to meager incomes. Inherent feature of capitalism is cycles of high unemployment and low growth which the western economies are afflicted with. Driven by a profit motive, social and environmental costs are often ignored.
      Distorted growth has led to movements like the Left Wing Extremist or Naxalism. Refugee crisis has also emerged from inequalities across regions of the globe. Terrorism also derives strength from widespread inequality.
      A policy framework with clear objectives and agenda which balances state control and market forces will lead to a more inclusive and less distorted growth. There are sectors and areas where it is imperative for the state to have control. Public goods such as education, health, and the infrastructure to support these fields require state to deliver. Otherwise, what we are experiencing, the alarmingly high cost of health and education in the private sector, would further make these essential services out of reach of majority of less privileged population. State capacity needs to be enlarged to deliver quality education and healthcare. Government also needs to regulate production to ensure safety, pollution control, tax compliance, labour treatment and ethical behaviour. It is also important to guard workers and customers against criminal offence and exploitation in the industrial sector.
      One of the arguments in favour of capitalism is that it promotes competition and thus enhances efficiency. Monopoly of the state in business sectors has led to inefficiency. Therefore, in non-strategic and non-essential goods and services private participation should be allowed and market forces permitted to operate. Capitalism does also not allow more resources to be wasted as those companies which doesn’t earn profit shuts down. However, one of the drawbacks of this machinery is frequent loss of jobs. Private enterprises are more flexible with regard to policies which allow them to quickly adjust to the changing scenarios in the market. Planned economy with central control does not allow this flexibility. One of the innovative measures to curb inequality is the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). A part of the profit of large enterprises is spent on public welfare, which in case of India is 2%. States can also figure out carefully designed incentives for the private sector to achieve results in the sphere of social welfare.
      A large number of global, national and community problems could be solved if inequality is addressed. Mahatma Gandhi propounded the concept of trusteeship. For this socio-economic philosophy to work, it is imperative for the privileged sections to part with a part of their wealth for public welfare. However, an alternative socio-economic model may not be feasible. Regulations and improvement within the existing model is the way forward.

  • Profile photo of Nikita Shinde Nikita Shinde @nsshinde27

    PARTB:
    CAN CAPITALISM BRING INCLUSIVE GROWTH?

    There was a kingdom, which was immensely poor. The King of the kingdom installed all the industries, mills, textile, and etc. The state decides how much production should be done, what should be produce and its price and the wages of the workers. But the situation didn’t improved. The people who worked there where least enthusiastically as they got minimum wages which didn’t encourage workers to work nor to bring any improvement in the work. This lead to more worsening of economic condition of the kingdom and also corruption. The poor remain poor. To overcome from this situation the king decided to hand over industries and production to individuals. To ensure more involvement of people of kingdom in production process, created competition and motivated them to do work. This lead to ensured profits and people were getting proper wages. And so the standard of living of people also increased which ultimately lead to prosperity in the kingdom. Let’s understand conclusion of this story.
    The word comes from “CAPITAL”, meaning something of value. This can be money “FINANCIAL CAPITAL” or any other goods that can be traded. Capitalism is an economic system which is based on private ownership of the means of production and the production of goods and services for profit motive. In capitalism, people may sell or lend their property, and other people may buy or borrow it. If one person wants to buy, and another person wants to sell to them, they do not need to get permission from higher power. People can have a MARKET, buying and selling with each other without anyone else telling them to. People who own capital are sometimes called CAPITALISTS, people who support capitalism are called capitalists, too. They can hire anyone who wants to work in their factories, shops or lands for them for the pay they offer.
    There are three ways for economic development: Capitalism, Socialism and Communism. Capitalism is an economic system. The history has proved that capitalism is the winner in this trio race for economic development, by the fall of Soviet Union. But the question arises is, “Is Capitalism is good for rapid economic growth to inclusive growth?” To understand this first lets understand what INCLUSIVE GROWTH is.
    Inclusive growth refers to a growth that creates opportunity for all segments of the population and distributes the dividends of profit, monetary as well as non-monetary, fairly across the society. For Inclusive Growth, there has to be growth atleast. Thus, any model that promotes inclusive growth should have mainly 2 pre-requisites:
    • One that promotes fast growth for the country
    • Generates equitable opportunities for every section of society to be benefitted
    ADAM SMITH propounded an idea of INVISIBLE HAND. It is used as a metaphor to describe unintended social benefits resulting from individual actions. He argued for the individuals to work for their self-interest as every individual is a rational being and this would ultimately result into the overall societal development. Thus, he prescribes the IDEA OF FREE MARKET WITHOUT ANY REGULATIONS i.e. the idea of LAISSEZ FAIRE STATE.
    There are certain pre-conditions for the capitalist model to achieve the desired objectives:
    1. Man has to be rational in every decision which is not practical.
    2. There can be many instances of ‘market failure’ such as:
    • Asymmetry of information among the economic agents
    • Presence of public goods
    • Externalities in production and consumption
    • Uncertainty In this simplified analysis
    It would seem that capitalist model instead of inclusive growth would result in the deeper inequalities between the rich and poor.
    There is no doubt based on the experience across the countries of the world that capitalism has achieved a fast pace of ECONOMIC GROWTH. This has consequently resulted into unprecedented INCREASES IN INCOME (although unequally distributed) which led to HEALTHY STANDARDS OF LIVING and INCREASED PROSPERITY of an individual that also raises the life expectancy of an individual. Thus, there is OVERALL REMARKABLE PROGRESS OF MANKIND through the increased acceptance of the free market policies in both rich and poor countries. Before the industrial revolution, 80% of the world’s population lived in abject poverty. By 1980, that number has fallen to 34.8% and by 2000, less than 20% of the population lives on less than $1 a day.
    Growth would be a meaningless objective if it has not been accompanied by the improvement in income and other social indicators of the majority. MARX has always argued that income inequalities are integral to capitalist development. According to JAGDISH BHAGWATI, an eminent Indian economist who emphasized to focus only on growth highlights the importance of the state in achieving Inclusive Growth. He argues that growth may raise inequality initially but sustained growth will eventually raise enough resources for the state to redistribute and mitigate the effects of initial inequality.
    After independence, the Indian economy was in a very bad state. There was widespread poverty, unemployment and the infrastructure was in shambles. At that point, the government of India , took upon itself the task of setting up heavy industries and controlling all units of trade and commerce to overhaul the economy. Despite all efforts, the growth rate stayed trapped below 3.5%, also called as THE HINDU GROWTH RATE.
    The growth rate shoot up like never before after the LPG REFORMS OF 1991. With the loosening up of ‘LICENSE RAJ’ many private players came forward, the economy marched from socialism too capitalism. As a result, the GDP increased many fold, the quality and quantity of production improved, India became an exporter of many commodities.
    The government has taken lots of steps in this direction through schemes such as JAN DHAN YOJANA, MNREGA, SUBSIDIES, EDUCATION FOR ALL, MINIMUM WAGES , ETC. THE START-UP STAND-UP mission through which the government aims to provide equal opportunities to all for entrepreneurship is another such step in this direction . The loosening up of the business rules, financial assistance to new startups, easy entry and exit mechanisms, if implemented properly will lead to an inclusive capitalism.
    Along with this, some other potentially beneficial options should also be considered, like—making income tax more progressive, making greater use of property taxes, expanding access to education and health and relying more on active labor market programs and in work social benefits.
    Capitalism has guided world economy to unprecedented prosperity, yet it has also roved dysfunctional in many ways. If these costs can’t be controlled, support for capitalism may disappear, and with it humanity’s best hope for economic growth and prosperity.

  • Profile photo of arun reddy arun reddy @arun9493

    “ I understand democracy as something that gives the weak the same chance as the strong.”- M.K Gandhi
    Perhaps this statement aptly reflects the intentions and the goal of the Constitution, enunciated by our worthy founding fathers in its Preamble, which is to secure to the people of India “Justice — Social, Economic and Political; Liberty of Thought, Expression, Belief, Faith and Worship; Equality of Status and Opportunity.” Since the Indian state had inherited democracy since its inception , Democratic setup in India had to be engineered time and again in a way that would make it conducive to achieve these lofty objectives.
    Judicial activism is one such phenomenon which is premised on the need to achieve these objectives. The three instrumentalities of government- legislature, executive and judiciary, in Indian context, are not independent of each other .Executive is a part of legislature and is responsible to it. Judiciary , given the mandate of being the watchdog of constitution and its spirit has the power to review legislations and executive actions in order to bind them within constitutional ambit. In strict sense, there is no water-tight separation of powers. Though the exclusive jurisdictions are broadly defined, in actual working some ambiguous areas have come up .Judiciary, in India, through many of its judgements and orders has stepped into terrain which in normal course would not be construed its territory. This enthusiasm of Judiciary to step into legislative and executive domain came to be known as Judicial activism.
    Judicial activism is self initiated evolution of Judiciary .The realization that Judiciary needs to adapt to discharge its role as the protector of Constitution necessitated this evolution. To understand Judicial Activism and its evolution in Indian context, it is imperitive to understand the underlying principles of Indian Democracy.
    Context
    Indian Constitution borrowed liberally from constitutions all over the World and modified where necessary to suit Indian needs.India has adopted a model of democracy that is between British Parliamentary supremacy and American concept of separation of powers.Besides, three organs already mentioned , autonomous Institutions like CAG and EC also play a role in Indian Democracy.
    Though, laws have been enacted touching upon and regulating activities in the social, economic, educational and health spheres Executive has failed, in a large measure, to implement these laws in letter and in spirit .This is a feature of the Indian state which has been pointed out repeatedly by several social philosophers and economists over the last four decades and more. Gunnar Myrdal, Scandinavian scholar, famously called (in the 1970s) it a ‘soft state,’ precisely because it does not have the will and the requisite discipline to implement the laws made by it. The result is that several laws and schemes in the social and economic sectors have remained mere declarations of good intentions.
    Evolution
    After playing a largely “interpretative” role in the 1950s and 1960s, the Supreme Court, starting from the 1970s has been the major force standing up against legislative and executive excesses and inactions. Judicial activism was necessary to ensure that constitutional and legislative changes were not used as tools to aid an authoritarian Government. Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine to bring constitutional amendments under the judicial scanner to widening the scope of the right to life and liberty by reading into it the non-justiciable directive principles of state policy such as the duty to promote education and the duty to preserve the environment, the 1970s and 1980s saw the judiciary play a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy.
    The decision in Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, where it was held a person could be deprived of his right to life only by a law which was just, fair and reasonable; and in Bandhua Mukhti Morcha v. Union of India, where the concept of Public Interest Litigation (PIL) was introduced and the locus standi requirement was diluted, were landmark developments in the march of Indian constitutional law.
    The activist phase of the Supreme Court became discernible clearly after the Emergency was revoked in 1977. Look at the substantial contribution on this score. Prisoners’ rights: it was held that a prisoner on conviction or awaiting trial does not lose all his fundamental and legal rights but loses only the right to free movement. Safeguards against arbitrary arrest: clarification of the rights of the accused on being arrested; prohibition of long incarceration pending trial; clarification of the concept and objectives behind bail; condemnation of routine handcuffing; prohibiting quarrying and mining activities endangering natural resources and releasing persons from bonded labour are some of the instances.
    Judicial Activism- The Debate
    When directions are made to correct executive actions and inactions, it is called an instance of ‘judicial activism’ in a pejorative sense. If such directions are made at the instance of a public spirited individual or organisation — on the basis of what is called public interest litigation (PIL), a technical objection is raised that the really aggrieved person is not the complainant. The problem is that very often the really aggrieved person does not have the wherewithal to approach the court and hence someone does so on his behalf. The issue in such a case is, and should be, the truth of the complaint rather than the identity of the complainant. Maybe, the court does not have the means or machinery of its own to enforce its orders and directions and has to depend upon the very same official machinery, which is found to be lax. Even so, orders made by the courts do carry certain sanction — the power to punish for contempt — and are thus more effective. No one suggests that court can correct all ills afflicting society but the effort should be to try to do the little good that one can do rather than inventing arguments for not doing anything.
    The other type of ‘judicial activism’ is the field of interpretation of fundamental rights, in particular the right to equality (Articles 14 to 16), the several freedoms in Article 19 and the right to life and personal liberty in Article 21. While interpreting these Articles, there is scope for judges to read their personal philosophies into the provisions.
    The activist phase of the Supreme Court became discernible clearly after the Emergency was revoked in 1977. Look at the substantial contribution on this score. Prisoners’ rights: it was held that a prisoner on conviction or awaiting trial does not lose all his fundamental and legal rights but loses only the right to free movement. Safeguards against arbitrary arrest: clarification of the rights of the accused on being arrested; prohibition of long incarceration pending trial; clarification of the concept and objectives behind bail; condemnation of routine handcuffing; prohibiting quarrying and mining activities endangering natural resources and releasing persons from bonded labour are some of the instances.
    The restrictive interpretation placed on personal liberty, indeed the manner of interpretation of the fundamental rights adopted in 1950 (Gopalan) was overruled in 1979, reading Articles 14, 19 and 21 together and harmoniously (Maneka Gandhi). Article 21, to reiterate, has been the main spring from which innumerable rights have been inferred — the right to free elementary education, the right to speedy trial, the right to privacy, the right to medical aid to workers, the right to pollution-free water, elimination of water and air pollution and so on. The issue of air pollution reminds us of the Supreme Court orders mandating all public vehicles to shift to CNG with a view to protecting the health of Delhi citizens. True, there was no law providing for the same. But the question is: was it bad? Maybe, this measure did cause dislocation of and disturbance to the occupations and lives of certain members of the public but, overall, it is undeniable that the measure improved the quality of air over Delhi.
    It is quite true that on some occasions, the courts might have overstepped their limits. For example, orders directing the construction of roads or bridges, orders seeking to lay a timetable for the running of trains, orders directing beautification of a railway station and so on. But these again are mere aberrations. To repeat, one must look at the generality of the picture and not draw conclusions from a few wrong examples. Judged from this angle, judicial activism has done a great service to society.
    Way Forward
    The assumption that the Parliament and executive make policy decisions based on effective participation with the citizens a flawed one and the judiciary has a role in ensuring that there is effective participation from interest groups. The Judges should not have a final say on Policy issue. The judges can, however, promote decision making relating to policy issues without being the ultimate decision maker. The final decision itself was left to the executive but subject to judicial superintendence. It is possible for courts to monitor actions of the other limbs of democracy without actually stepping into their shoes. The judiciary should not create policies to enforce rights but must require the government to draft its own policy and submit it along with a timetable for execution. The finalisation of this plan must be only after the judiciary has heard objections from other interested parties.
    Once such a policy is framed by a legislature/ executive, it is to be interfered with by the judiciary in a very restrictive manner, using the principle of deference. According to this principle, the judiciary, while evaluating executive/ legislative action (or inaction), should modify the policy framed only when the reasons provided are not reasonable.
    A court should merely see whether the reasons provided by the executive justify its decision, not whether the court would have reached the same decision. This standard should be applied not only when a policy is tested before the courts but also by courts to see if executive / legislative inaction is justified.
    Conclusion
    In an ideal world, there would not be any need for Judicial activism.But in an environment where justice is constantly being subverted, it is arguable that the courts are left with no choice but to step beyond their traditional domain and prod the executive into discharging its constitutional responsibilities. Judicial activism is imperitive to deal with “legislative adventurism and executive excesses.”
    While there is the danger of judicial activism being misused by unscrupulous elements and the Supreme Court has come down heavily on such misuse, the solution is not to throw away the baby with the bathwater.
    The mere risk of judicial over-activism cannot be an argument against judicial activism. Judicial activism, keeping in view the ideals of democracy, is, in fact, necessary to ensure that unheard voices are not buried by more influential and vocal voices. Indeed, on most occasions, timely interventions of the judiciary in India — the home of judicial activism — has helped democracy flourish in our country despite repeated failures of the other organs.
    The great contribution of judicial activism in India has been to provide a safety valve in a democracy and a hope that justice is not beyond reach. Differing opinions can be and are held by equally learned people with equal passion and conviction. But that is true of any social or legal issue. Even so, like any issue touching the public interest, this issue too needs to be debated in depth.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Merits
      1. “Best” essay of this week.
      2. Touched maximum dimension of the topic \
      3. Shows multiple relations
      4. Very well structured
      5. Has Deep comprehension of the topics
      6. Full of context/wisdom (only)
      7. Good language
      8. Fuller and satisfying reading.
      9. Sets the standards to addict the examiner

  • Profile photo of Prasanta Pandey Prasanta Pandey @prasantapandey2014

    Part B-3

    Introduction
    Urbanization is a process whereby people of urban area increases many fold as compared with people surrounding rural area.
    In India the definition of urban area adopted is as follows.
    (i) All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment broad notified town area committee etc.
    (ii) All places which satisfy the following criteria.
    (a) A minimum population of 5,000 (b) at least 75 percent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits and (c) a density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. kms.
    Main Characteristics
    Urbanization has characteristics which are as follows:
    (i) Urbanization involves an increase in the number of points of population concentration
    (ii) (ii) Urbanization involves a growth in the size of these points and
    (iii) (iii) Urbanization involves a transfer of people from agricultural to non-agricultural occupations.
    Urbanization as a Blessing in Disguise
    Urbanization contributes to economic development in three different ways:
    Firstly, cities and urban areas act as engine for growth in terms of production and market or service centers for their influence areas leading to an all-round economic development of the area.
    Secondly, urbanization and industrialization go hand in hand and are positively correlated with each other. It is an established fact that urbanization is always accompanied with industrialization or vice versa.
    In urban area there are huge concentration of industries and other related activities which act as pulling forces for people from rural area thus proving as blessing in disguise.
    Thirdly the urban way of life has a significant impact on fertility rates. Urbanization helps to bring down both mortality and fertility rates.
    This is evidenced from the experience of the North European countries which experienced a significant decline in fertility rates following urbanization and industrialization. But this example is not applied with the developing countries like in India where urbanization has led to multifarious problems.
    Urban population living in towns and cities has steadily increased in India over last 90 years. In 1901 about 26 million persons where enumerated as urban residents and in 1991 the urban figure shot up to 217 million forming about 25.72 per cent of the total population.
    India ranks fourth among the countries in the world in terms of absolute size of urban population, the first three being China, Russia and U.S.A. The urban population in the year 2000 is projected to go up to about 315 million indicating a share of 32 percent in the total population.
    Out of 3696 urban agglomeration/towns in the country according to the 1991 census in 300 the population exceeds one lakh each. These 300 classes’ centers account for 64.89 percent of the urban population of the country. Out of these 26.64 percent of the population in class centers is concentrated in four metropolitan cities each with a population of more than 5 million.
    The other 24.93 per cent inhabit 19 cities each with a population of one million or more. These 23 cities contain 50.57 per cent of the population in class I cities. A little over 35 per cent of the total urban populations are accounted for by medium and small towns, which hardly offer any productive employment but are at the most centers of trade and administration.
    Rural migrants heading for urban work would not find it there and would go in search for it in the big cities. Moreover in this anything to the maintenance of that infrastructure, therefore the infrastructure of the big cities is often overburdened.
    The urbanization has proved blessing in disguise for various reasons. Industrialization
    It refers to the growth of industries in urban area to the large scale providing the opportunity of employment and acting as magnet for the attraction of people from rural area and other small town.
    Thus industrialization is the blessing for the people of these sector but problems are that all the people who come to cities do not get gainful employment and they become burden on cities in terms of slum dwellers and low paid workers.
    Improvement in Transportation
    Urban centers are known for containing good means of transports on which whole economy of the cities is dependent. These also act as means of attraction for rural people and thus proving as blessing for them. But their unlimited arrival in the cities overburden the transport system leading to contestation.
    Improved Communication
    Means of communication have played a vital role in the cutis’s economic development and which in turn have proved as blessing in attracting people from rural areas as well as for those people living in the cities. But again over- utilization of these facilities by these groups of people have aggravated the situation whereby instead of proving as blessing it has proved as a curse.
    Higher Educational Facilities
    These are the most important reasons for the urban centers to prove as blessing. It is the established fact that governments have established all the higher educational centers in the big and small urban areas which have acted as source for attraction to all kinds of people seeking the facilities for higher education.
    Conclusions
    Over viewing urbanization as a blessing in disguise it has been seen that this process has proved blessing of course leading to general development of economy through industrialization and related activities, but at the same time unlimited and unaccounted migration of people in urban area have overburden all the facilities available.
    The fact that urbanization has been caused by push factor has given rise to a number of problems like overcrowding in urban areas and sheer inadequacy of infrastructure and various civic services.
    Thus urbanization has proved blessing at the one hand and on the other hand has created multifarious problems for city dwellers in the forms of overcrowding.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. Consider the topic as problem.
      2. Slang like tinge in places
      3. Tackled it as problem, rather than perspective
      4. Information based rather than analysis based
      Suggestions
      1. Extend the points of Action
      2. Make it perspective based rather than problem based.
      Merits
      1. Structured
      2. Well thought of, i.e. Investment of thinking
      Knowledge based topic

    • Profile photo of Prasanta Pandey Prasanta Pandey @prasantapandey2014

      Thank you Sir…for your detailed analysis. I’ll definitely work on the same!

  • Profile photo of alok verma alok verma @alokumrao2012

    JUDICIAL ACTIVISM AND INDIAN DEMOCRACY
    IN context of India, democracy commences when preamble of the Constitution begins with “We the people of India…” Then all other terms, in their widest sense, mentioned in the preamble become in the ambit of rights and liabilities of the people of India. The responsibility to facilitate the benefit of these promises included in the preamble lies on the Legislature, Executive and on the Judiciary. Everything goes smoothly when Legislature and executive do their job appropriately. In such situation, judiciary does its routine business i.e. imparting justice and resolving disputes. But when legislature and executive lag in their duty to take care of democratic values of the people then it is the judiciary who comes into the circuit. And when judiciary starts giving decisions and directions relating to the very subject-matters of legislature and executive for maintaining and nurturing the democratic interests of the people, It is called judicial activism then.
    In democracy, government takes authority from the people to serve the people, protect their fundamental rights and to provide such conducive environment where everybody gets free and fair chance to grow and progress. But in the journey of achieving these goals government face many challenges like poor economic condition, extreme poverty and illiteracy. To tackle with them government adopts such policies and measures which become hurdles for the people. In addition to that lack of effective determination of government and prevalent corruption in its implementing machinery makes the situation worst. It is noteworthy vision fullness of our constitution framers that they equipped our judiciary with such power that it could interfere actively when it finds people’s rights and privileges are in constraint. Art- 32 (power of the Supreme Court to issue writs) and Art- 144(all authorities, civil and judicial, to act in aid of the Supreme Court) are among few of those. Justice Bhagwati’s endeavor to introduce PIL brought a revolutionary change in this behalf.
    In protecting the democratic values and fundamental rights of the people, the Supreme Court has been instrumental in keeping a guard-eye on the government. Let it be the evolution of the basic structure theory in Keshvanand Bharti case in 1973 for protecting the very essence of the Constitution from 24th, 42nd amendment of the Constitution or explaining and elaborating the definition of the various fundamental rights mentioned in the Constitution in such a way so that people enjoy widest scope of them. From time to time the Supreme Court has been issuing directions and guidelines through its decisions which indicate active involvement of the judiciary in flourishing the democracy in the country.
    In D.C. Wadhwa v. State of Bihar 1987, the petitioner challenged the practice of promulgating ordinance repeatedly without getting approval of the legislature. Supreme Court held that the every citizen has the right to insist be governed by the laws made in accordance with the Constitution and not laws made by the executive in violation of the constitutional institutions. This indicates the standard of activism of the judiciary in upholding the democratic ethos.
    Welfare State is an inherent outcome of a democracy. This concept has been mentioned in the Directive Principles of State Policy (Art-38) in our Constitution. Government’s role in promoting a welfare State cannot be ruled out but Supreme Court has been parallely contributing enormously through its decisions in various cases indifferent fields of welfare. In case of Hussainara Khatoon v. State of Bihar 1979, Supreme Court held that speedy trail is essential and integral part of right to life and liberty enshrined in Art-21 and ordered to release the under-trials kept in jail for many years.
    Supreme Court has been lone saviour of fundamental rights of the people whenever the government tried to curtail them through Legislature for the sake of economic development. Of course Supreme Court has got power from the Constitution through articles like Art-13 and Art-32 but, more than that, Supreme Court has been performing its duty pro-actively to ensure that sufficient evolution of the fundamental rights carried on with keeping the pace with changing socio-economic scenario
    Here, a question is obvious that judiciary’s contribution is more focused upon protecting and flourishing the fundamental rights than that of in upholding democracy or promoting democratic values. But, it is the basic purpose of democracy that government of the people, which is elected by the people, works for the welfare and betterment of the people. And we see that all the essential parameters of a welfare State which are mentioned in the preamble of our Constitution like Justice, social, economic and political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all; Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual….(preamble of the Constitution) are enshrined in the Part-IV of our Constitution under the heading of “Fundamental Rights” . So, to promote democracy, fundamental rights need to be protected promptly.
    Judicial activism is considered a concept of judiciary of USA and UK. In these countries judiciary performs the role of guardian of people’s rights and of democratic values. In India , our Constitution gives judiciary power basically to perform judicial functions but at the same time higher judiciary has been entrusted with some special powers to check the Legislature but it is limited to the matters related to fundamental rights mainly . This is also a reason why judicial activism in India revolves around matters of fundamental rights only. But it is the activist role of the judiciary that it has brought most of the aspects of Legislaturein the ambit of its purview.
    Democracy demands Legislature to be done by elected legislative members, not by other agencies like judiciary by way of activism. Recent developments of judicial activism show the trends of excessive activist role of the judiciary. For example- issuing direction for making the playing of National Anthem in cinema halls mandatory. Such directions from the judiciary which appear to be unnecessary hindrance for the freedom of the people indicate that there should be line which separates judicial activism from excessive activism.
    The role of judicial activist approach in upholding and promoting democratic values and enforcing the fundamental rights is phenomenal in the context of India. This shows that judicial activism can also strengthen the democracy without hampering the rhythm of the Legislature.

  • Profile photo of Prasanta Pandey Prasanta Pandey @prasantapandey2014

    Part A- 2.

    INTRODUCTION:
    Judicial activism is one step ahead of judicial review. It is possible and available only in the presence of judicial review. That is the reason why we say that- “Judicial activism is an extension of the power of judicial review”. While a PIL has to be registered, judicial activism is one step ahead. In this, the court on the basis of a written complaint, a newspaper clipping or a report over the television can register a case and begin legal proceedings.
    REACH:
    The constitution of India divides the powers of the government into three branches; legislature, executive and judiciary. It is when the judiciary steps into the shoes of the executive and the legislature and embarks on the work of lawmaking rather than interpreting laws, it is deemed to be judicial activism.
    The courts are being force to step into the shoes of the legislature and the executive because of the constantly deteriorating nodal and political conditions of the country. If the other two branches had been responsible and responsive, the need for activism of the judiciary would not have been felt. The administration today is considered as least sensitive to the needs of the public, the legislatures are a symbol of disorder and there have been scams involving millions of rupees in which the needle of suspicion points to the highest level of politicians and the bureaucracy. The individual finds himself alone in this hopeless situation and it is the judiciary that steps in to fill that vacuum and assure him that all is not lost. The judiciary had to adopt this activist approach because the other two organs appear apathetic and often fail to discharge their obligations and the law enforcing authorities show carelessness in the implementation of the law. Hence the need for activism by the judiciary is necessary. Besides, the Supreme Court (SC) has been made the guardian of fundamental rights by the constitution. The courts therefore can adopt an activist approach and issue directions to the governmental organs and agencies at all levels with a view to enforcing the fundamental rights of the citizens. Currently there are a large number of groups in India that are being subjected to exploitation, violence and injustice. In such an environment the judges cannot content themselves by invoking the doctrine of self-restraint and passive interpretation. The judiciary, by being active, can remedy the abuses and misuse of power and also help in containing exploitation and injustice.
    ACTIONS:
    The Indian SC has started issuing guidelines and directives to the government. Judicial activism has touched almost all the facets that public administration deals with. Some of the areas in which the court has issued guidelines are: bonded labor, rehabilitation of freed bonded labor, payment of minimum wages, protection of pavement and slum dwellers, child labor, juvenile offenders, illegal detentions, torture, maltreatment of women in police lock-ups, environmental problems, closure of factories emitting poisonous gases, amendment of prison laws etc.
    a) The court has punished the wrong doers in matters relating to the unfair allotment of official flats and arbitrary allotment of petrol pumps and gas dealerships. It has asked the officers of the CBI to complete investigations in a particular matter by a fixed date.
    b) It has looked into the telecom policy and asked the union or state government to construct dam up to a certain height and to release the bonded laborers.
    c) Following the Mumbai terrorists attack of November 2008, a former Attorney General of India filed a petition before the SC seeking to better equip the Indian Police.
    d) In 2009, the SC issued a notice to the union government seeking an explanation of steps taken by it to improve the plight of Indian students in Australia who have been facing racially motivated attacks.
    e) In 2009, it sent a notice to the Uttar Pradesh government questioning the proliferation of Mayawati statues allegedly worth crores of rupees. Thus we see that the SC is displaying zeal not only in entertaining petitions for the protection of fundamental rights but also questioning the government and issuing directives to the government.
    HASSLE:
    Detractors often charge that judicial activism is undemocratic Legislation is primarily the concern of the elected representatives of the people. They further argue that an unelected judicial branch has no legitimate grounds to overrule the policies made by the elected representatives. When it issues guidelines for the administration, it becomes the virtual lawmaker and has been accused of being the Star Chamber’ or the ‘third branch of the legislature.’
    It is judicial tyranny in the sense that it is virtually tantamount to rebuking an emu government. Critics also say that the SC should spend its time in solving cases which have been pending for ages rather than interfering with the other two organs.
    WHEN DEFENDER BECOMES OFFENDER:
    Though the judiciary is quick enough to bring the administration to book, there have been instances when the conduct of the judges themselves has brought embarrassment to it and cast doubts on the dignity and neutrality of judges.
    – In 1992, when a committee set up by the SC found V Ramaswamy, a judge of the SC guilty of misconduct and sent a proposal to the Parliament to impeach him, and the motion was put up before the LS for voting, despite of 108 MPs of the opposition voted for his removal, All MPs of the ruling party abstained from voting and Ramaswamy was saved.
    – Also in 2008, the Ghaziabad PF Scam came to light. 36 judges at various levels of the judiciary were charged with embezzlement of 23 crore out of the PF of class III and IV employees of the Ghaziabad High Court. The SC handed over the investigation of the case to the CBI. Though the case does not pertain to the SC, it did tarnish the image of the judiciary as a whole.
    – In September 2008, the CJI of the SC, Justice Balakrishnan, advised the government to initiate impeachment proceedings against a judge of the Calcutta High Court Soumitra Sen. He has been charged with the misappropriation of several lakh rupees. He resigned in September, 2011. Although it was the case related to a High Court judge but it is the judiciary as a whole that suffers.
    REMEDIES:
    Administrative Tribunals is on the rise. In 1976, the 42nd Amendment Act was passed. It authorized the Parliament and state legislatures to constitute administrative tribunals, ad determine their work procedures. Such tribunals have been set up in areas such as the civil service, railways, income tax, public corporations, land reforms, food and civil supplies, industry and labour. Since justice is dispensed faster in these courts the citizens take recourse to these courts rather than approaching the regular courts. No doubt they reduce the burden of work on the regular courts but at the same time they reduce the jurisdiction of the courts. Appeals against their decision can however be made to the SC.
    To conclude, just as the ministers, bureaucrats and legislators are not above criticism, similarly, the judges of the High Court and the Supreme Court can¬not be presumed to be beyond the pole of scrutiny. Judicial activism should not become judicial fundamentalism.
    It is also necessary that the effort lot re-democratize India is not left to judges alone. It is the duty of every thinking citizen of this country to help the judiciary in this effort. The media, too, has a role in educating the public and crusading for a clean and efficient administration.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. Consider the topic as problem.
      2. Slang like tinge in places
      3. Tackled it as problem, rather than perspective
      4. Information based rather than analysis based
      Suggestions
      1. Extend the points of Action
      2. Make it perspective based rather than problem based.
      Merits
      1. Structured
      2. Well thought of, i.e. Investment of thinking
      Knowledge based topic

  • Profile photo of Pratyaksh Sharma Pratyaksh Sharma @pratyaksh-sharma

    Part A.1. Politics, Bureaucracy and Business- Fatal Triangle.

    Politics is a medium through which the Governments are formed, criticised or appreciated. It paves the way for “election” of political executives to run the government with the help of Bureaucracy which is a hierarchy of “selected” administrators. The government acts as provider of social goods and services on one hand and facilitator/ regulator for functioning of the market/business on the other hand. The Business/ Private Sector play a vital role in economic development of the state/ country. When the politics, bureaucracy and business act as per the respective responsibilities/functions as mentioned above, improve the living standards of the people. But, when there is a nexus with some mala fide intentions, they make a fatal triangle, poisonous for the development of society.

    In recent past, this fatal triangle has been seen in the form of scams like 2G Scam and Coal scam. According to CAG reports, the coal blocks and 2G spectrum were not allocated based on merit resulting in huge losses to public exchequer. Besides this, a bridge in West Bengal collapsed, resulting in casualties due to ignorance on part of the authorities. And this was only possible due to the fatal triangle mentioned above. The rise in Non Performing Assets (NPAs) in Public Sector Banks (PSBs) is also attributed to this nexus to a large extent. The widespread implications of this fatal triangle on the polity, economy, environment and society are analysed as under.

    The fatal triangle manifests in corrupt practices like nepotism, crony capitalism, and use of black money in elections, a vicious cycle that continues forever. Business entities get unduly favour from bureaucracy under the directions of political executive, who in turn favour the political executives by providing black money to win them the elections again. It is a clear violation of right to equality under article 14 of the Constitution, resulting in keeping the needy and deserving away from his rights. Besides, it results in huge losses to public exchequer as per the CAG reports regarding coal block and 2G spectrum allocations. NPAs in PSBSs also show the losses incurred to economy.

    When bureaucracy under the directions of political executives acts in favour of particular business entity, many a times, it results into unsustainable development detrimental for the environment and ecology. Development near rivers in Uttarakhand which resulted in floods and huge casualties in the recent past, arbitrary allocation of coal blocks and illegal mining of sand in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand are some of the examples.

    The people’s trust in public institutions breaks and the image of the country worsens internationally due to this fatal triangle. According to Transparency International, India ranks 79 in the Corruption Perception Index. To overcome this and build credibility, the Government is taking initiatives such as :-
    i. e-governance to improve transparency in governance,
    ii. Implementation of Goods and Services Tax (GST) to reduce red tape and attracting more foreign investment.
    iii. Bankruptcy law to improve business environment in the country.
    iv. Allocation of coal blocks and 2G blocks based on auction.
    v. Startup India/ Standup India to encourage entrepreneurship by different sections of the society (SC/ST, women, youth).
    vi. Imposing Corporate Social Responsibility on the Business entities to make them responsible towards society besides only profit motives.

    Way Forward:-
    To overcome this fatal triangle, Election Commission of India (ECI) recommended to reduce the limit on cash donation to political parties to 2000 from 20000 per transaction. ECI has also recommended for public funding of elections to break away from the vicious cycle of black money. Political parties should also come under the the purview of RTI Act to improve transparency in their functioning.
    Bureaucracy should be given more independence form political executives so that it follows non-partisanship in its functioning. Business entities, besides being profit oriented, should also focus on sustainable development and responsibilities towards environment and society.
    However, besides the structural reforms being taken up by the government and suggestions of the institutions like ECI, change of heart and attitude is the need of the hour to avoid this menace of fatal triangle of Politics, Bureaucracy and Business.

    • Profile photo of Pratyaksh Sharma Pratyaksh Sharma @pratyaksh-sharma

      Part B.2. Can Capitalism bring Inclusive Growth?

      Introduction:-

      The growth of any country depends on its underlying economic system to a large extent. Capitalism is one such economic model of development where liberty is given priority (Laissez Faire). When every section of society be it the poor or rich, child, youth or old, men or women, SC/ST or general, is equally benefitted from the overall development, it is called inclusive growth. It may be compared with the concept of “Sarvodaya” given by Mahatma Gandhi. Therefore capitalism may bring in economic development but it can not guarantee equality (inclusive growth).

      Historical Background:-

      In view of the above, after independence, India followed excessive state control over market to bring in equitable development. But this system failed to usher in the the desired levels of economic development. To overcome this, came LPG reforms and post 1991, India started to reap the benefits of capitalist system (hight GDP growth rates). But, in due course, it resulted in inequitable growth.The poor entrapped in a vicious cycle of poverty, became more poor and the affluents became more rich. In this way, trickle down theory failed considerably.

      Capitalism (Liberty) v/s Socialism (Equality):-

      Given the “liberty”, capitalists work towards maximising their profits and minimising costs. So there is no incentive for private sector to go for social welfare. For instance, Private Sector Banks are usually unwilling to open branches in remote and rural areas. Similarly, educational and Healthcare institutions are reluctant to address the needs of different sections of society. Further, “Jobless growth” often highlighted in the recent past, is a manifestation of growth which is not inclusive because Service sector followed by industry are the driver of growth whereas about 60% of the population is dependent on agriculture, contributing even less than 4% to the GDP. In this way the capitalist system becomes handicapped in fostering equitable distribution of growth.

      On the other hand, it is State’s responsibility to look after the needs of every section of society. In providing social goods and services, the State gives priority to “equality” with positive discrimination. The following initiatives substantiate the above argument:-
      i. Progressive taxation policy according to which the affluents are taxed more than the poor.
      ii. Legislations like National Food Security Act to provide food to every citizen.
      iii. Schemes like MGNREGA for employment and Public distribution System (PDS).
      iv. Maternity Benefits Act to encourage women at workplace by increasing the number of paid leaves to 26 weeks.

      Banking:-

      Private sector banks, being driven by profit motives, are least interested in opening branches in remote rural areas. In such cases, the State steps in with the initiatives like Post offices Payment Banks, JAM (Jan Dhan, AADHAR, Mobile) trinity and Primary Sector Lending (PSL) targets for financial inclusion.

      Education:-

      The unattractive returns from investing and non-availability of qualified faculty in remote rural areas makes it unviable for the private intstitutionts. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Mid-day Meal schemes are run by the state to fill the gap of rural urban divide in literacy rates.

      Healthcare:-

      Similarly, Private health care institutes show reluctance in catering the needs of rural and far flung areas due to less returns and unwillingness of medical professional to practice there. To bridge this divide, the government has taken the initiatives like Primary Healthcare Centres and ASHA.

      Infrastructure:-

      The government plays a vital role in infrastructure development like electrification of villages, construction of roads, highways and dams, investment in railways. The private sector due to obvious reason of profit motives takes least interest. The government has taken the initiatives like UDAY for reviving the DISCOMs in several states.

      Agriculture:-

      As about 60% of the population is dependent on agriculture, it is the responsibility of the government to cater its needs. In view of this, the government has been taking several initiatives like Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana, and subsidies on inputs like electricity, seeds and fertilisers.

      Environment and ecology:-

      Inclusive growth is possible only when it takes care of the environment and underlying ecology (sustainable). But in capitalism, exploitation of resources is only a means to an end, thus making environment secondary. In view of this, role of the government becomes inevitable. Therefore the countries all around the globe are coming together to prevent and mitigate the effect of GHG emissions with the measures like Montreal Protocol and Kyoto Protocol. India has also taken up the initiatives like International Solar Alliance to increase the use of renewable energy resources (Solar energy).

      Representation of Different Sections of society:-

      To foster inclusive growth, different deprived sections of the society (SC/ST, Women, Youth, Unemployed) should be adequately represented. Therefore, from time to time the government has to step in with the initiatives like Start Up India, Stand Up India, and reservation policy for socially backward sections of society.

      Black Money:-

      Capitalism many a times leads to generation of black money which is accumulated by the corrupt practices like tax evasion. So the government has to intervene for the larger good of society by initiatives like Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana, Income Disclosure Scheme and steps like demonetization.

      Conclusion:-

      From the above analysis, it is evident that, capitalism is based on liberty at the cost of equality whereas State gives priority to equality with reasonable restrictions on liberty. But as observed in post independence era pre-1991, economic development hampered due to curbing of liberty to industries (License Raj), leaving nothing for the government to spend on social welfare to foster equitable distribution. Therefore, as synthesis of liberty and equality results in the highest virtue of justice, Inclusive growth is possible by synthesis of state functioning as a regulator/ facilitator and market/ capitalist functioning with the desired level of independence.

  • Profile photo of Mahendra Mahendra @mahendra007s

    Part A.1 : Politics, Bureaucracy and Business – fatal triangle

    The triangle between Politics, Bureaucracy and Business is inevitable and is one of basic foundation for providing public services as well as strengthening nation’s economy. Without sufficient coordination between politics and bureaucracy we can not think of implementation of government policies, subsidies, public services, taxation etc. Similarly bureaucracy and business, business and politics should have an mutual understanding so that they can create a competitive market that will be beneficial for both citizens and economy of the nation. We can analyse this complete triangle if we understand the relationship between each of 3 pairs namely Politics with Bureaucracy, Bureaucracy with Business and Business with Politics. We will see how immoral way of interaction between them creates a world of problem and what measures should be taken to control it.

    Politics and Bureaucracy :

    A healthy relation and strong co-ordination is an important ingredient for functioning of a government in any democratic country. Bureaucrats bridge the gap between citizens and policies formulated by the Government. It is important to have proper support from Government to their sub-ordinate departments for policy implementation. The government of union or any state should utilise their resources fully, be it human resources in form of bureaucrats and public servants or be it funds for implementation of projects approved for welfare of citizens. It is obvious to understand that if Bureaucrats and Politicians lack moral and ethical thoughts and way of work then it will lead to rampant corruption in every public service department. This situation of evil corruption resembles much to current scenario which has been present since years after independence and undoubtedly it was even there in British era too. Both Politicians and Bureaucrats know that if they can play in favour of each other than they can never be caught by activist or any vigilance. It is the need of hour to make this link transparent as much as possible.

    Bureaucracy and Business :

    Since after independence, apart from existing corporations many new business companies tried to establish themselves in India given the availability of resources and high need of consumption. Indian government up to 1991-92 kept most of services and manufacturing sectors in their hand according to much needed socialist policy. During this period of time a race between business entities to win maximum number of tenders and contracts to maximise profits in their pockets lead to a system that was called “License Raj” i.e. establishing or making a profitable business was not just dependent on feasibility of business idea or availability of raw material and man power, but businesses have to keep their inspecting authority or departments headed by bureaucrats happy at every point of time to get required favour in return. This lead to difficulties in setting up and doing business. Any certification/authorization that has to be passed from a government department used to take long time. Also, the time taken was used to depend on relations with bureaucrats heading respective department as there was no legal methods or framework to get details about its progress. This situation also led to corruption and evasion from corporate taxes. Changes and promulgation of new legal acts for setting up and running businesses was the need of hour which has been solved to some extent with liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation reforms adopted by Indian government in beginning of 1990s. Though this situation has improved much for businesses for past two decades but we still don’t have proper implementation of laws which can promote ease of doing business environment.

    Business and Politics:

    Due to the foul environment created by problems like License Raj, tax evasion etc. businesses tried to bypass bureaucrats by getting favours directly from politicians and their party. This led to a situation where business companies had to spend for their supporting party rallies, fundings and election campaigning. There is no questioning to the amount of fundings a political party and their representatives received from these corporations in the name of donations. This led to providing land and vast natural resources by government to companies which affected economy and transparency in the country. Political parties spend thousands of crores in election campaigns without maintaing proper balance sheets of fundings received by them. It is assumed that such huge money for parties are funded by corporations who expect favour in terms of land acquisition or lenient labour and taxation for their business. This way such unethical and immoral ways of business operation are promoting black money accumulation, corruption and biased behaviour which creates problem in formation of competitive market for private businesses.

    Problems created by fatal triangle of Politics, Bureaucrats and Business:

    A lot of problem which our country is facing currently is product of lack of transparency in working of Politics, Bureaucrats and Business with each other. Whenever they have adopted unethical and immoral ways of operation then it has led to limitless corruption, rise in criminal activities, tax evasion, leniency towards labour rights. This ultimately has affected nation’s economy and overall functioning of government policies in worst manner.

    Resolving problems of fatal triangle:

    We can not prevent these three entities to be mutually exclusive and have no link and interaction between them, it is in-fact necessary and required to have proper coordination between each of them but that interaction should be transparent and should be under the purview of law. Thus, it is important to keep check on relationships between politics, bureaucrats and business, and to achieve this people of India and judiciary should step in to make laws required for proper transparency and monitoring of policy implementation, competitive markets for business, tax assessment etc.

    In past few years we have seen how Right to Information (RTI) Act worked as helping hand for activists and people to track their pending application and factual data that were not easy to get previously. Similarly with increasing use of technology, initiatives like direct benefit transfer to beneficiary using Jan-dhan banking, Aadhar, Mobile (JAM) trinity will make sure that there is no implementation in government sponsored subsidies for poor and needy. Digitalisation of government department is leading to easy access of important information in public domain which will make citizens aware of their rights. It will also lead to expansion of tax net as currently only 7 out of 100 people are paying individual income taxa and this ratio should grow as our economy keeps developing.

    Government and judiciary should track progress of reforming administrative process. They should also provide legal framework to attract business by giving them arena where doing business is much easier with lesser formalities required. Initiatives like start-up India stand-up India, exemption in corporate tax and excise duty for MSME in early years, strict labour laws will help in creating businesses with better growth and profitability. Likewise there should be laws pertaining to political parties to keep a check on their funding, on similar lines Election Commission of India has imposed a upper limit on total worth of election campaigns.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Limitations
      1. Expression
      Merits
      1. Good language
      2. Structured very well

  • Profile photo of Siddhant Dhawan Siddhant Dhawan @siddhant-dhawan

    Can Capitalism bring inclusive growth?
    The recent Oxfam report, 2016 has once again brought forth the debate on global inequality in light of its finding that the richest 1 percent of the world’s population now own more than the rest of us combined. This debate on inequality globally in contemporary times also raises a question mark on the ability of capitalism- the economic system predominantly being followed all over the world, barring a few exceptions to deliver inclusive growth. Capitalism is an economic system believed to have been born in the aftermath of the industrial revolution, in the eighteen century Europe.
    It is based on private enterprise and private ownership of means of production like land, labour, capital etc as compared to the economic system of socialism, on the other land of spectrum, which encourages public or state ownership of means of production. The producers belonging to the elite capitalist class are driven by the sole motive of profit. However, the system of capitalism has been criticised since its inception due to exploitation of working class under horrible working conditions and low wages and for the very fact its divides societies in classes oh ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’. Its proponents have pointed towards ills of the economic system and freedom of choice to encourage a laissez-faire system. However, in light if the growing global economic inequality and poor standard of living among section of citizens in first world countries that have been following capitalism in spirit and law for centuries, certainly does raise a question or capitalism’s flaws and its ability to deliver inclusive growth.
    The concept of inclusive growth focuses on equitable growth for all sections of society. This involves ensuring that fruits of growth and development reach the poor and marginalised sections as well. Capitalism, with profit as sole motive, at times fails to reach areas that require prioritization of social welfare that is working on a non-profit basis. For example, running of schools and hospitals in rural and underdeveloped areas, building of public infrastructure like roads, rails etc in rural areas. This leads to concentration of development works and industrialization led growth only in urban areas and hence creates regional inequality. Such regional inequality slowly turns in socio- economic inequality as well due to lack of meaningful employment opportunities in areas left out of the capitalist development model and strikes at the very root of inclusive growth. Moreover this increases urban migration leading to overcrowding and straining of public resources which in turn results in people living in miserable conditions.
    In a race for delivering higher profits to owners, capitalist producers of goods and services compromise on payment of adequate wages and proper working conditions. For example, news reports of lack of payment of even minimum wages to labourers in certain sectors of economy like construction, textile etc. is not uncommon in India. Private firms are loyal only to the share holders don’t feel inclined to share wealth with their employees. Resentment even among middle class employees regarding their long working hours and inadequate compensation is also quite prevalent. For example, in view of the sixth and seventh pay commissions.
    Reports, many educated youths are contemplating switching to government jobs even if they be deemed over qualified for such jobs and even if it entails forgoing the corporate sector perks. Such tendency of the corporate capitalist class to squeeze out the proverbial last dollar leads only to enrichment of the already rich sections of society and the cost of the poor and middle class whose labour is undervalued.
    Capitalism also attaches great importance to the idea of free and efficient markets to achieve growth and development. But, time and again, it has been seen that the markets fail to allocate resources and fruits of growth efficiently and are rather skewed due to monopolistic or anti competition practices and their short lived views on growth. For example, the Bombay stock exchange lost a number of points the day the Indian government announced to scheme for public food security. The markets hence failed to take a long term view on growth by not recognizing that only a well fed population can lead to holistic and sustainable growth for all. Instead the free market proponents chose to pressurize government to take back its social-welfare program. The markets moreover driven with the sole aim of profit have frequently led the world into economic crisis accompanied by fall in employment rates and growth rates affecting the marginalized sections of developing and least developed economics the worst due to their greater vulnerability. This further serves only to widen the global inequality and the gap between the ‘haves’ and ‘haves-nots’. For example, the 2007-08 subprime crisis, though originated in USA due to uninhibited greed an unethical practices of investment of banks, soon, engulfed the entire world economy leading to fall in growth rates across the globe. But the bailout package of developed world economies ensured that the capitalist class largely remained ensured that even though the middle class and marginalized sections suffered due to economic slowdown.
    Therefore Capitalism has a number of shortcomings in its implementation and is not necessarily serving the purpose of inclusive growth. But, can the system be regulated and tweaked so as to promote greater inclusion and equitable growth? Capitalists themselves have come to realize that sustained growth leading to wealth generation for all are possible only when there is greater purchasing power in hands of the consumer. Companies have come to realise that a happy employee means a better bottom line. This has meant gradually paying higher wages and improving working conditions for workers. Along with stricter government regulations on labour laws, this has brought in drastic improvement in workers’ conditions when compared to the days of industrial revolution.
    The focus on private enterprise for the sole motive of profit may be responsible for a number of ills as discussed but it can also lead to greater efficiency. The heightened efficiency and enterprise in turn boosts economic production, employment, opportunities wealth generation and GDP growth rates leading to better living standards and pulling millions out of poverty. For example, before the economic liberalization of the 90’s, Indian economy was a closed one with the public sector controlling most of the economy.
    The lackadaisical work culture that is promoted coupled with regressive economic and policies of the then governments almost led Indian economy to the verge of bankruptcy. However, since economic liberalization That opened up Indian economy for private sector to only certain areas., Indian economy has grown at a rapid pace is today not only the fastest growing economy n the world but also the world third largest economy by purchasing power parity. Though it has created a class of super rich Indians, it has also pulled millions out of poverty. Between 2004 and 2012, India has reduced its poverty levels by approximately 12 percentage points, in the process pulling a staggering 20 million Indians out of poverty per year.
    However this success story of Indian economy wouldn’t have been possible without effective government control via regulations that ensured that the wealth so generated reached all sections of society either directly via the ‘trickle-down’ effect or via its numerous social welfare programs. Therefore the malaise of wealth in only a few hands in capitalism can be corrected by the government stepping in to have a system of taxation that promotes economic equality, encouraging entrepreneurship and setting up venture capital funds to support entrepreneurs from the lower socio- economic strata; running social welfare programs that ensure substantiative equality of opportunity by providing affordable quality of opportunity by providing affordable quality education and health services. For example, government of India recognizes this responsibility and hence to encourage entrepreneurship among marginalized sections of society and enhance socio-economic equality, it has started ‘start-up India’. Enhancing equality or opportunity in order to counter the capitalism induced inequality also requires the government to ensure access to quality infrastructure necessary for running business- both public infrastructure as well as digital infrastructure which is increasingly becoming life line of today’s economy.
    Therefore, capitalism as an economic system has a number of problems that have resulted in growing global socio-economic inequality. Issue like low wages, poor working conditions, regionally concentrated development, enrichment of only a particular class and blind faith in efficiency of markets result in a skewd growth model that goes against the concept of inclusive growth. This leads to rising social unrest and raises question mark on the very concept of capitalism delivering inclusive growth. However while the system of capitalism has its flaws, regulated by a government that works on social welfare model, capitalism can lead to improved efficiency in enterprise, enhance private investments and can boost economic production while at the same time raising the capital necessary for a government to run its social schemes for the betterment of the poor and the marginalized. For example, the Scandinavian countries have followed the capitalist model with a strong regulatory regime and social welfare which led to praise worthy results. Inequality adjusted HDI regularly rank Scandinavian countries like Norway, Finland, Denmark and Sweden in the top ten countries. This shows that the model of capitalism can be made to deliver inclusive growth provided the governments and civil societies across the world know how to tame the beast.

  • Profile photo of Adarsh Agrawal Adarsh Agrawal @knowmedancer

    Part A -3.Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence

    Economics Is basically the study of how people produce and consume the goods and services,how they add value to people and how people add value to them.
    Economic growth is essentially the measure of increase in net economic activities of country.
    Global Economic growth has been dynamic, robust and unpredictable. But one trend that we have witnessed in this era of economic growth is centralisation of money/resources with very few individual.60 richest people in world are having as much resources as half the global population which by estimate is around 3.6 billion.
    That disproportion causes a sense of anger,a unique helplessness which may either cause us to work hard and reach the top or disrupt the existing framework to build our chances.
    Analysis of the current distribution with regard to economic growth-
    1.It cannot be ignored that many of current billionaires have worked hard and innovated to build a revolution at some scale to reach where they are.This means that people who have unique visions and scalability of ideas can reach to the top.Thus making a case for there share being entirely justified and qualified.This ensures that people need to qualify in terms of there ability to add value to society to get a share in economic growth which definitely is a justified argument our society has to offer for cynicism that 60 : 3.6 billion statistics cause.
    2.Although we by now know that for our share to face economic growth we need to have an ability.But if the factors on which ability depends are disproportionate then distributive justice is not just impossible but it shall be made prime goal.Such factors involve Education,Availability of capital,Freedom to implement new ideas and acceptability of society. It is evident that we especially in India are doing our best to provide education to all,Loans to small business and entrepreneurs,Encouraging new thinkers but our efforts have not meet out goals.UNtill we ensure that people are given same level to test there ability we cannot say that distribution of resources is fair.
    If we do not provide basic food to starving kids in africa,they will die and that’s a reality, we are not only depriving them of basic necessity but also a platform for snatching the economic share they deserve.
    3.Another argument that support current setup is that historically resources have never been truly spread in proportion.Temples of somnath may be rich but people of somnath weren’t,British emperor was rich but not all british subjects ;so basically it is a tendency of resources that they attract more resources thus rich gets richer and poor gets poorer.So it is impractical to ask for true distributive justice because people are different and the ability to grow or reduce their resources basically depends on them and thus we cannot expect everyone to participate in growth While ignoring everyone has different perspective and traits.
    4.Is the personality and trait solely deciding the participation in economic growth? Only to a certain extent but not in entirety. The distribution of economic growth is also based on political factors Like policies of state and adoption of idealogies like socialism or capitalism.And with each of the idealogy comes a set of pros and cons which further sends us to conundrum where we find ourselves struggling to adopt measures to improve the distribution of economic growth.
    Conclusion-
    We need to ensure that distribution of economic growth is not only justified but qualified by providing people with ability more than those with a lack of them whereby ensuring they are given a solid and equal platform (Education/Acceptablity/Seed capital etc),we need to find a moderate idealogy, an innovative mix of capitalism and socialism to support homogenous growth and ensure that if rich gets richer then poor with ability also gets richer.
    Way ahead-
    Providing subisidy on essential goods to ensure basic necessities including education and easy access to capital loans is not only in policy but also on ground level.So basically a better implementation of all the policies we have undertaken regarding these coupled with awareness campaigns to motivate individuals to actually pack bags and work hard and innovate(add value to society)will definitely ensure a giant leap towards distributive justice.
    Since,violence is inevitable if we give too much to too few and hence it was essential to discuss distribution of resource rather than violence.Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence.We have discussed economic growth on personal level and since national economic growth or global economic growth is possible only by personal economic growth we can scale our ideas and they will hold relevant.

  • Profile photo of Deepak Deepak @deepakapril8

    Parta-Judicial activism and Indian democracy
    Democracy is the essence of public opinion and legislative,executive, judiciary are the three pillars of indian democracy. judiciary is enshrined with principle of delivering justice to all the sections of society .indian constitution has the clear separation of powers between them but the intervension of judiciary in the role of executive for upholding public opinion and safety has been the concern now and if the street dogs,casttles attacking attacking child,rampant corruption in the independent bodies,flow ol illegal liquor and executive weakness in solving these problems. why can’t court intervene?
    if court can intervene then let’s see about indian democracy and judiciary activism
    India opted for parliamentary form of democracy and he rule of law is the bedrock of democracy, judiciary has primary responsibility for implementation of the rule of law. judicial review and activismy has the clear separation where former which review the action of executive and legelative example- in kesavananda bharthi case where judiciary limit the power of parliament to amend the basic structure of indian constitution and later where judiciary ordering centre to plan policy for drought.
    During 80′,90’so court has broken the shackles and moved ahead from bringing more legal institution and active role in sociol economic political ramifications public interest litigation where in menaka gandhi case sc bring the constitution provisions to enforce human rights. pil which gives the manifestation of judicial activism and due to high corruption, where people find it has the last root of justice.manifestation of judicial activism, has introduced a new dimension regarding judiciary’s involvement in public administration. The sanctity of locus standi and the procedural complexities are totally side-tracked in the causes brought before the courts through pil. In the beginning, the application of pil was confined only to improving the lot of the disadvantaged sections of the society who by reason of their poverty and ignorance were not in a position to seek justice from the courts and, therefore, any member of the public was permitted to maintain an application for appropriate direction.
    In recent judicial intevension like banning liqour on highways for safety of public,incresing the tax on diesel vehicles to upholding the dpsp of providins safe environment bcci appointings to combat corruption, introduction of neet. it all links of bringing trannsparency and accountability
    But it may be diesel,draught court doesn’t has expertise to make decisions,with large number of pendency of cases and denying justice which is a fundamental right of victims. president pranab mukharjee statement of judges against the perils of “judicial activism”. judiciary should focus more on those and upholding the values of separation of powers is needed ,judicial activism should not disservice to governance and affect the economics prospects.
    The people of india & representative should explore ways of addressing judicial activism in the country and each organ of democracy should function in its own sphere with judiciary, executive having self imposed discipline will solve the problem hampering india.
    THE IS HIGHER COURTS THAN ALL THE OTHER COURTS,IT IS THE COURT OF CONSCIENCE. …__ GANDHI

  • Profile photo of Sridhar Nukala Sridhar Nukala @sridhar-nukala

    PART B: URBANIZATION IS BLESSING IN DISGUISE.

    According to Census 2011,the population living in Urban areas in India is 31.1%,up from 27.8% in 2001 Census and it is estimated that about 50% of population in India will living in Urban areas by 2050.Given the magnitude of the case,hence,it is pertinent to discuss the merits and demerits of Urbanization.

    Urbanization is a process in which people start moving from rural areas to Urban areas.i.e gradual increase in people living in Urban areas.Census 2011 defines urban area as any area which have (1).minimum population of 5000,(2).Population density of minimum 400 sq.km and (3).75% of people are working in non-agricultural activities.

    Urbanization is not new to India,in fact,Indus Civilization witnessed one of the most advanced Urban development,we find major cities like Mohenjadero,Harappa and their construction of vast building holds testimony to this.All through the ancient and medieval periods,temples,mosques had acted as major center for religious-economic affairs engulfing people around them.Even during the British period,Center like Madras,Calcutta,Bombay became major urban centers and eventually Britisher started de-industrialization,for the benefit of English Merchant and to provide market for their goods in India,which resulted in de-urbanization and people started to moving to Village in search of jobs in Agriculture for their sustenance.But,after Independence,India followed a policy of rapid Industrialization from second five year plan and again the process of Urbanization started with increasing economic opportunities in cities.Government also enacted 74th Constitutional Amendment act to give constitutional status Urban local bodies for effective administration of Urban areas.

    Urbanization has certain merits in terms of Social,economic and Political.

    Socially,People in Urban areas,unlike in Rural areas,faces least Caste discrimination,as a result people are free to do what they want.They can take up any profession they want and live a satisfied live.In addition,there will have improved access to Health and Education.Their children can go to school,get educated,can employed in better remunerative jobs.As results of these country social capital will also improves.

    Economically,For a country to move on study economic growth,Factors of production is very important,one among them is labor.Migrant from rural areas provide cheap labor,by which Industries can prosper.In fact one of the major reason for Urbanization is in search of employment opportunities in Urban areas.with increased economic status,their standard of living will also get better.As a result,saving will increase,which in turn increases investment in the country and this will again increases economic opportunities,its a kind of cyclic process.

    Politically,People will become more conscious about their rights and duties,this will help Indian democracy to transform Participative democracy to Deliberative democracy.

    However,there are some pitfalls with increased Urbanization.with increase in population in Urban areas,there is shortage of space to accommodate all people.Hence,people starts to live in Slums,People in these places lack access to health,education,access to clean drinking water,poor waste management and is breeding grounds for all kinds of vector borne diseases.Moreover,Individuals also leaving their old parents in the village,so as to reduce the burden of rent for larger house,such acts lead to increase in nuclear families and destroying our value systems.In additions,slums also destroy the scenic beauty of the cities.There is also widespread economic disparity among the people Urban areas,as result the richer are getting richer but the poor are remaining poor.

    From above analysis,it is clear that Urbanization is blessing in disguise,when there is enough space to accommodate all the people and provide opportunity to all the people in the society.Moreover,it should also take into account absorptive capacity of environment,otherwise it can lead to serious environmental challenges.

    In order to avoid such situation and make Urban areas sustainable.Indian government have took serious of programs to develop urban areas like Smart Cities,AMRUT,Swatch Bharath Mission,HRIDAY,Improving Urban transportation etc…Recognizing Smart Cities cannot be sustained without smart villages,government also started RURBAN scheme to transform villages into smart villages.Government must also implement these schemes in letter and spirit and get the desired results.Finally,it doesn’t matter whether Urbanization is good or bad,what matter is improved standard of living of all people living in the country and each and everyone feeling he/she is part of the country and contributing in their own way.

  • Profile photo of Akash Agarwal Akash Agarwal @akashagarwal2009

    If possible allow scanned images..typing takes double the time then it should take to do this activity.

  • Profile photo of nishat anjum nishat anjum @nanjum148

    Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence
    People in modern developed world should be looked upon as valuable resources rather than a burdensome number of dependents. There are instances in the past(and even in the present amongst the LDCs) where men are viewed as ‘ means’ to achieve the’end’ of greater wealth and economic growth. Their inherent worth and value is discounted to fulfil growth objectives. Dissatisfaction amongst the working class, abject poverty and lack of ownership rights result in violence and upheaval-the most prominent example from recent history being the Russian Revolution and the overthrow of the Tsarist regime.
    Distributive justice refers to a sense of equality in the ownership of societal goods and a just allocation of resources among communities, to avoid glaring inequalities and deprivation. As an economy progresses and grows, it is imperative that the fruits of growth percolate down to all sections of society otherwise it causes hostility and breeds sectarianism. Despite provision for distributive justice in the DPSPs of our constitution( eg. prevention of concentration of wealth in a few hands, equal pay for equal work, opportunities for healthy development of children and above all, promotion of social, political and economic justice), India still faces shocking instances of hunger, gender bias, lack of resources and utter deprivation. It is said that the district of kalahandi and koraput in Orissa are so poor that people there eat rocks. It presents a rather shameful picture in the Indian growth scenario.
    Distributive justice can be broadly viewed along social, gender, economical and historical lines. We analyse each of them and what have been the repercussions in the absence of justice. Then we go on to suggest ways in which distributive justice can help enlarge capability and choices of people as a whole.
    India’s social order presents a complex picture. Rigid caste lines, till date lead to the oppression of the scheduled castes and the dalits. Reservation in education and jobs solve only half their issues as most of them continue to battle narrow sectarian mindsets. Social exclusion, lack of ownership and land rights (which deprives them of a livelihood) and rising crime rates amongst the dalits leads to their marginalisation. The recent death of rohit vemula and the violent protests that ensued depicts what follows when social wrongs are incumbent upon the marginalised and oppressed sections. However, a complex situation has now emerged whereby the patidars, jats and Marathas have started to demand reservations because they have been economically weakened post globalisation, even though they place higher on the social ladder. Termed as a section ‘too proud to beg’, economic growth that brought respite to the economy failed to percolate to the lower rungs of jobs they occupied. Eventually, simmering discontent led to protests, agitation and occasional violence.
    In the gender front, India presents a dismal picture. The Global Wage Report, 2016-17 says that women in india occupy 60% of the lowest paid labour. According to one report, the female labour participation rate has declined in the past decade. This presents a regressive picture of the society for the fastest growing economy in the world. In many sectors like the construction sector, women work as hard as men if not harder and receive lower wages. Paternalistic notions persist when it comes to female headed poor households whereby skewed distribution of women in property and land ownership is stark. Lack of resources, notions about stepping out to work and discrimination at workplace inhibits contribution of women as growth drivers in the economy. If the chauvinists were as protective about women stepping out for defecation than they are about employment, we would have atleast fought the greater of the two evils.
    Historically, the indigenous people have also been subjected to alot of stress. Their lands taken away under the garb of ‘industries’ and ‘cluster hubs’, they are not properly rehabilitated and face vulnerability. With their traditional rights over forests gone, they now hold no resources to base their livelihood upon. Poor districts of chattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand and West Bengal face utter distress and poverty as maximum land has been used to set up mining projects in these regions. Consequently, these are the naxal infested regions in the country whereby guerrillas emerge, breeding violence and warfare against the administration ,who they hold responsible for historical wrongs committed upon them. Forced into violence because of hunger, crime, destitution and radicalisation, there has been no fruits of india’s brilliant growth trajectory for them. 70 years of democracy has failed to mainstream them with the contributing workforce and they continue to face isolation and discrimination on various fronts.
    However, to prevent distributive justice from becoming inhibitors to growth and the private sector, it is important to attach certain principles to the concept.
    Distributive justice should not be a regulator to growth, taking us back to pre reforms era where the private sector was penalised at the cost of a ‘socialistic’ society. It should provide a floor level equality, a basic set of amenities for all so that human resource does not wither due to lack of health, education and other essential services. Equal access to opportunity in order to enhance capabilities should be ensured. This is what is iterated by amartya sen in his article ‘development as freedom’.
    There should be a sense of proportionality to ensure people reap what they get and no one gets in excesses or deficits of what they deserve. It is necessary that people toil for their share and engage in gainful activity. A socialistic pattern of growth where the state assumes the role of a ‘dole giver’ is as precarious for the country as widespread unemployment. It reflects the lack of confidence in the capacity of the masses and was strongly advocated by gandhiji when he referred to the instance of ‘wiping tear from every eye’.
    Placing people at the centre of development and evolving policies to tap their vast potential is something that is needed to be done. Unless people feel they are a part of the productive process of the economy, they will continue to face alienation and this will lead to sectarianism and strengthening of communalism. Economically deprived, the needy and the poor are the first to fall prey to anti social activities. A bottom up approach with enlarging the scope and operation of people’s activities is the need of the hour. Getting the masses in an adequate footing(if not an equal) is necessary for the inclusive development and overall public welfare.

  • Profile photo of Shiva harsha Shiva harsha @shivaharshabodas

    PART B
    Food security for Sustainable National Development

    Sustainable National Development implies that the future generations have the equal access to natural resources like land, food, water etc. as we have today. It is particularly important for a nation to survive in the marathon of achieving socio-economic progress. Food security refers to the availability of food grains for all people at all times. In the present scenario of increasing inequalities, the access to food is one of the most vital parameter to gauge the social progress. Sustainable development is not only about environment but also includes social, economic, technological aspects. India, as one of the fastest growing economies, its vital to focus on the overall development and not just the GDP figures. A multi faceted growth is the order of today’s world and in case of India the first step in that direction is to ensure that all her population have both access and affordability to consume food all round the year. Realising the importance of food security, the Indian govt. passed the NFSAct which ensures that 65% of population, have access to food, round the year.

    India traditionally being an agricultural society, food is the focus area of major population. The village societies were self sustained in terms of labour, income, food etc. and there the tradition of Jajamani system ensured that food and other supplies are equally distributed. In case of calamities like droughts or floods the Jajamans alleviated the suffering of peasants and artisans. However under the colonial rule, the system collapsed due to urbanization. The emergence of cities led to rural-urban migration and thus self contained nature of Indian villages collapsed. Further, land fragmentation led to increase in marginal farmers who could not sustain the vagaries of nature. Food scarcity became endemic to India owing to uncertain monsoon. The Green revolution in the late 1960’s along with land reforms to a major extent have reduced our food scarcity issue. But the challenge now is to make food security universal and see not just from an social point of view, but to make it integral in sustaining the overall economic development.

    From social point of view, food security is very vital to ensure a healthy workforce. India, being the 2nd populous country on the plant, the must talked about demographic dividend will be of no utility if we cannot ensure a healthy growth of working population. The WHO research shows that 80% of the cognitive development occurs within 6 years of child birth. In the BPL and low income group families, food scarcity is a grave problem. It indirectly affects the health growth of the baby and in long run the family as well. In case of a physically and mentally unhealthy generation, the nations have very remote chances of economic development. In addition, the gender bias is very rampant in remote villages, where girls consume what is left over, after male child eats. So, food security is also necessary to reducing the gender gap and achieving women empowerment.

    From economy perspective, if we observe the expenditure of marginal and BPL families, the maximum amount is spent on food material. So, if sustainable development is to be achieved then it is important to ensure that food is both accessible and affordable. Also 90% of Indian workforce is employed in informal sector of whom major chuck belong to BPL and low income group. So, it is vital to ensure that food security is taken care of, to improve the socio-economic condition of such groups. The fiscal deficit is a major problem which is long standing problem in India. But, the expenditure on ensuring food security is the most important investment in the HR capital, to achieve the goal of lifting poor out of poverty. Also, the food procurement by the govt. will make agriculture profitable in long run. Corporate farming, is emerging as a mew model to achieve both economic growth, at the same time, reducing the import burden of pulses and oil seeds, resulting in reducing the Fiscal deficit. It is a win-win situation.
    From ecological point of view, ensuring food security is a difficult task which needs to be critically balanced. From using copious amounts of pesticides, fertilizers, replacing the traditional breeds with hybrid varieties in the Green revolution period resulted in unsustainable agriculture. All this was done to ensure food supply to ever growing population, but the present agriculture had become so fragile that a new pest will destroy the whole crop across states. For instance, the outbreak of Whitefly in the states of Punjab, Haryana resulted in heavy loss to farmers who became dependent on GM Cotton. So, our agriculture practices have to be go organic and more ecologically sustainable in long run to ensure food security.
    To sum up, food security is the most vital component that needs to be ensured for a country’s sustainable development. In that view, not only the availability of food, but also equitability of the food resources must be taken care of, to ensure a robust social change. In addition, use of technology can be a solution to ensure food for all, instead of more subsidies and draining of public money.Connecting all the market yards in the country under National Agriculture Market(NAM), providing the scientific knowledge of best agri. practices etc. will ensure that it is sustainable.By the ‘Economies of scale’ principle, large production of any commodity will reduce the per capital costs.Also, the international pressures like WTO restrictions have to countered to continue the food security laws, in the interest of developing countries. So, a balance has to be achieved to ensure a regular food supply and exploiting the natural resources and foreign policy, international trade.

  • Profile photo of Mohit Taluja Mohit Taluja @mohittaluja0190

    PART B : Can Capitalism bring Inclusive Growth?

    There are some stories which have legends, likewise the story of economic development has also three important legends : Capitalism, Socialism and Communism. Since historic years, there have been continuous clashes between these legends and the supporters of them with ease of it have been remembered by many in particular times. But ultimately after the decline of Soviet Union and increasing globalization, capitalism has proved its superiority and can be appropriately declared as the winner. Now the questioning over the success of capitalism has taken a turn from rapid economic growth to inclusive growth. There are continuous allegations on capitalism that it’s growth is not trickled down to everyone. Thus it’s important to argue that whether the capitalism would result into inclusive growth?

    Capitalism is an economic system which is based on private ownership of the means of the production and the production of goods and services for profit motive. Inclusive Growth on other hand is the concept that advances equitable opportunities for economic participants during economic growth with benefits incurred by every section of society. It is supposed to be inherently sustainable as distinct from income distribution schemes.

    ADAM SMITH’S IDEA OF INVISIBLE HAND: In his book on the ‘Wealth of the Nations ‘, Adam Smith propounded an idea of Invisible Hand. It is used as a metaphor to describe unintended social benefits resulting from individual actions. He argued for the individuals to work for their self-interest as every individual is a rational being and this would ultimately result into the overall societal development. Thus, he prescribes the idea of free market without any regulations that is the idea of Laissez-faire state. But there are certain pre-conditions for the capitalist model to achieve the desired objectives :
    * Man has to be rational in every decision which is not practical.
    * There can be many instances of ‘market failure ‘ such as:
    • Asymmetry of information among the economic agents.
    • Presence of public goods.
    • Externalities in production and consumption.
    • Uncertainty.

    In this simplified analysis it would seem that capitalist model instead of inclusive growth would result in the deeper inequalities between the rich and poor. But let’s argue this much in detail below :

    CAPITALISM AND GROWTH: IS IT INCLUSIVE OR NOT? One point that needs to mention here is : For Inclusive Growth, there has to be growth at least. Thus, any model that promotes inclusive growth should have mainly 2 pre-requisites :
    (1) One that promotes fast growth for the country.
    (2) Generates equitable opportunities for every section of society to be benefited.

    There is no doubt based on the experience across the countries of the world that capitalism has achieved a fast pace of economic growth. This has consequently resulted into unprecedented increases in income ( although unequally distributed) which led to healthy standards of living and increased prosperity of an individual that also raises the life expectancy of an individual. Thus, there is overall remarkable progress of mankind through the increased acceptance of free market policies in both rich and poor countries. Before the industrial revolution, 80% of worlds population lived in abject poverty. By 1980, that number has fallen to 34.8% and by 2000, less than 20% of the population lives on less than $1 a day.

    Although it has resulted into wide income disparities, it was assumed that this is for a short while and the benefits of economic growth would trickle down to the bottom that is marginalized sections of society. This came to be known as Trickle Down theory. But now it has been widely recognized that the benefits of the economic growth do not trickle down automatically.

    While we have seen how capitalism has guided the World economy to unprecedented prosperity, it has led to increased inequality between the rich and poor that extends far beyond income. It would affect the access to employment, good health and educational opportunities. Growth would be a meaningless objective if it has not been accompanied by the improvement in income and other social indicators of the majority. Marx has always argued that income inequalities are integral to capitalist development.

    *Illustrating some facts of disparities :
    • The 1.2 billion poorest people on the planet account for just 1% of global consumption, while the billion richest are responsible for 72%.
    • 85 richest people in the world have accumulated the same wealth as the bottom 3.5 billion. For the first time, the wealth of the richest 1% of the world’s population will overtake that of the remaining 99% in few years as per study.
    • One in eight people goes to bed hungry every night, while 1.4 billion adults are overweight.

    Even Jagdish Bhagwati, an eminent Indian economist who emphasized to focus only on growth highlights the importance of the state in achieving Inclusive Growth. He argues that growth may raise inequality initially but restrained growth will eventually raise enough resources for the state to redistribute and mitigate the effects of initial inequality.

    On the other hand, Amartya Sen argues for the investment in social infrastructure ( such as health, education, sanitation etc.) which would improve the human capabilities of people, consequently their productivity and ultimately raising growth. And such growth will be much more inclusive as it now provides equitable opportunities with having around same human capabilities to reap the benefits of economic growth. But such approach demands a proactive role of the state.

    From the discussion of the above two economists, one thing that has been emphasized is the active role of the state in achieving Inclusive Growth. It has now been widely recognized that capitalism unchecked would only result into the exploitation of the marginalized and the increasing income inequality. Thus, today nowhere is the country where there is fully capitalist model. There has been a shift from ‘ State Vs Market’ to ‘State with Market’ for the economic development of any country. Let’s take all the above arguments with respect to a single country and based on my knowledge and experience, I have chosen India.

    * INDIAN PERSPECTIVE : Indian economy since independence has four major objectives that is Economic Growth, Self-Reliance, Modernization and Equity. To achieve all these objectives India has adopted a Mixed Economy Model which combines the features of both capitalist market economies and socialist command economies. But the role of public and private sector has been continuously changing and the private sector started gaining prominence after The LPG reforms of 1991.

    Thus the Indian economy, whose growth rate was criticized as Hindu Rate of Growth and that never peaked to 5% before the reforms, started moving on a path of high growth. Today, India has been recognized as the fastest growing economy of the World. Despite the high growth over the past two decades, concerns have been raised over the growth not being equally distributed. Thus, the policy makers have argued for Inclusive Growth in 11th and 12th Five Year Plans( FYP). To achieve Inclusive Growth, many of the flagship schemes such as MGNREGA, National Health Mission, Right to Education, Janani Suraksha Yojana etc have been launched.

    In India, state is playing an active role along with the civil society organisations to ensure that the fruits of economic growth are reaped by all section of society. At the same time, businesses also started acting in responsible manner and contributing to the society through Corporate Social Responsibility obligation.

    * WAY FORWARD: Capitalism is a necessary evil but such ‘evil’ has to be removed by the state and other factors in governance process and have to evolve new models of capitalism such as Conscious Capitalism, Moral Capitalism and Inclusive Capitalism. What matters is not the growth but the nature of growth and, more importantly, the beneficiaries of the growth.

  • Profile photo of Mohit Taluja Mohit Taluja @mohittaluja0190

    PART B : Can Capitalism bring Inclusive Growth?

    There are some stories which have legends, likewise the story of economic development has also three important legends : Capitalism, Socialism and Communism. Since historic years, there have been continuous clashes between these legends and the supporters of them with ease of it have been remembered by many in particular times. But ultimately after the decline of Soviet Union and increasing globalization, capitalism has proved its superiority and can be appropriately declared as the winner. Now the questioning over the success of capitalism has taken a turn from rapid economic growth to inclusive growth. There are continuous allegations on capitalism that it’s growth is not trickled down to everyone. Thus it’s important to argue that whether the capitalism would result into inclusive growth?

    Capitalist is an economic system which is based on private ownership of the means of the production and the production of goods and services for profit motive. Inclusive Growth on other hand is the concept that advances equitable opportunities for economic participants during economic growth with benefits incurred by every section of society. It is supposed to be inherently sustainable as distinct from income distribution schemes.

    ADAM SMITH’S IDEA OF INVISIBLE HAND: In his book on the ‘Wealth of the Nations ‘, Adam Smith propounded an idea of Invisible Hand. It is used as a metaphor to describe unintended social benefits resulting from individual actions. He argued for the individuals to work for their self-interest as every individual is a rational being and this would ultimately result into the overall societal development. Thus, he prescribes the idea of free market without any regulations that is the idea of Laissez-faire state. But there are certain pre-conditions for the capitalist model to achieve the desired objectives :
    * Man has to be rational in every decision which is not practical.
    * There can be many instances of ‘market failure ‘ such as:
    • Asymmetry of information among the economic agents.
    • Presence of public goods.
    • Externalities in production and consumption.
    • Uncertainty.

    In this simplified analysis it would seem that capitalist model instead of inclusive growth would result in the deeper inequalities between the rich and poor. But let’s argue this much in detail below :

    CAPITALISM AND GROWTH: IS IT INCLUSIVE OR NOT? One point that needs to mention here is : For Inclusive Growth, there has to be growth at least. Thus, any model that promotes inclusive growth should have mainly 2 pre-requisites :
    (1) One that promotes fast growth for the country.
    (2) Generates equitable opportunities for every section of society to be benefited.

    There is no doubt based on the experience across the countries of the world that capitalism has achieved a fast pace of economic growth. This has consequently resulted into unprecedented increases in income ( although unequally distributed) which led to healthy standards of living and increased prosperity of an individual that also raises the life expectancy of an individual. Thus, there is overall remarkable progress of mankind through the increased acceptance of free market policies in both rich and poor countries. Before the industrial revolution, 80% of worlds population lived in abject poverty. By 1980, that number has fallen to 34.8% and by 2000, less than 20% of the population lives on less than $1 a day.

    Although it has resulted into wide income disparities, it was assumed that this is for a short while and the benefits of economic growth would trickle down to the bottom that is marginalized sections of society. This came to be known as Trickle Down theory. But now it has been widely recognized that the benefits of the economic growth do not trickle down automatically.

    While we have seen how capitalism has guided the World economy to unprecedented prosperity, it has led to increased inequality between the rich and poor that extends far beyond income. It would affect the access to employment, good health and educational opportunities. Growth would be a meaningless objective if it has not been accompanied by the improvement in income and other social indicators of the majority. Marx has always argued that income inequalities are integral to capitalist development.

    *Illustrating some facts of disparities :
    • The 1.2 billion poorest people on the planet account for just 1% of global consumption, while the billion richest are responsible for 72%.
    • 85 richest people in the world have accumulated the same wealth as the bottom 3.5 billion. For the first time, the wealth of the richest 1% of the world’s population will overtake that of the remaining 99% in few years as per study.
    • One in eight people goes to bed hungry every night, while 1.4 billion adults are overweight.

    Even Jagdish Bhagwati, an eminent Indian economist who emphasized to focus only on growth highlights the importance of the state in achieving Inclusive Growth. He argues that growth may raise inequality initially but restrained growth will eventually raise enough resources for the state to redistribute and mitigate the effects of initial inequality.

    On the other hand, Amartya Sen argues for the investment in social infrastructure ( such as health, education, sanitation etc.) which would improve the human capabilities of people, consequently their productivity and ultimately raising growth. And such growth will be much more inclusive as it now provides equitable opportunities with having around same human capabilities to reap the benefits of economic growth. But such approach demands a proactive role of the state.

    From the discussion of the above two economists, one thing that has been emphasized is the active role of the state in achieving Inclusive Growth. It has now been widely recognized that capitalism unchecked would only result into the exploitation of the marginalized and the increasing income inequality. Thus, today nowhere is the country where there is fully capitalist model. There has been a shift from ‘ State Vs Market’ to ‘State with Market’ for the economic development of any country. Let’s take all the above arguments with respect to a single country and based on my knowledge and experience, I have chosen India.

    * INDIAN PERSPECTIVE : Indian economy since independence has four major objectives that is Economic Growth, Self-Reliance, Modernization and Equity. To achieve all these objectives India has adopted a Mixed Economy Model which combines the features of both capitalist market economies and socialist command economies. But the role of public and private sector has been continuously changing and the private sector started gaining prominence after The LPG reforms of 1991.

    Thus the Indian economy, whose growth rate was criticized as Hindu Rate of Growth and that never peaked to 5% before the reforms, started moving on a path of high growth. Today, India has been recognized as the fastest growing economy of the World. Despite the high growth over the past two decades, concerns have been raised over the growth not being equally distributed. Thus, the policy makers have argued for Inclusive Growth in 11th and 12th Five Year Plans( FYP). To achieve Inclusive Growth, many of the flagship schemes such as MGNREGA, National Health Mission, Right to Education, Janani Suraksha Yojana etc have been launched.

    In India, state is playing an active role along with the civil society organisations to ensure that the fruits of economic growth are reaped by all section of society. At the same time, businesses also started acting in responsible manner and contributing to the society through Corporate Social Responsibility obligation.

    * WAY FORWARD: Capitalism is a necessary evil but such ‘evil’ has to be removed by the state and other factors in governance process and have to evolve new models of capitalism such as Conscious Capitalism, Moral Capitalism and Inclusive Capitalism. What matters is not the growth but the nature of growth and, more importantly, the beneficiaries of the growth.

  • Profile photo of roshan kumar roshan kumar @roshanleo6

    PART A ->JUDICIAL ACTIVISM AND INDIAN DEMOCRACY

    when constitution was framed our constitution makers already envisaged the need and importance of judicial system in our country which is full of diversity and ethinicity.To protect each and every section of the society and allow them to live in the most dignified way with access to justice and personal liberty,judiciary was separated from the government to work independently for the welfare of the people.

    since the time when the constitution came in force,Indian judiciary has got enormous powers to interprete the constitution and deliver justice,but sometimes it leads to a bone of contention between the working process of government and the judiciary.But there is no specific information in the constitution about what are the all matters where judiciary can interfere.This has lead to the emergence of “judicial activism” in the contemporary India.judicial activism is not something to get a tag of good or bad,it is about the process on which the entire democracy is based.

    judicial activism doesn’t mean that the working nature of judiciary is wrong,it only implies that judiciary is working on those matters for which it is not obliged to do so.This leads to tension between judiciary and central or state government,which affects the normal procedure of all the related stakeholders.in the view of judiciary it is only sprawling its limited area to deliver justice but its overreach may act as a hurdle in the process of development.

    judicial activism is very prominent in the recent times as depicted in the banning of sales of alcohols and tobacco in the proximity to the temple in Uttrakhand or intruding in the uttrakhand floor testing or the matters related to speaker in the arunachal’s state legislature or the verdict on the jalikattu issue.sometimes the justiciable nature brings distress in one section of the society regardless of other like in the case of sabrimala temple and the issue of haji ali dargah,where court ordered the entry of women and empowering women,this lead to unrest among the temple and dargah associations.

    but if judiciary misuses its power then this judicial activism may become a cause of great concern for the people of India.recently the lodha panel recommended changes in the structure of BCCI(board of cricket council in India) which may not be justifiable.In India people choose their representative who work for them in all possible way but if judiciary intrude in the process of development then it is the people who will have to suffer which is against the nature of the constitution.in the case of adhaar information government wants to use this platform to give people certain benefits but judiciary says that sharing of this information is against the right to privacy of an individual,which may hamper the development process.

    In a democracy everything is for the welfare of the people,but it should not come at the cost of others right,if judicial activism is providing any good then it should not be taken as something wrong on the other hand it should also not act as a blockade for the government to use their share of power.they both should work together in hand in hand and then only the dream of establishing a democracy with positive judicial activism will be true.

  • Profile photo of Mohit Taluja Mohit Taluja @mohittaluja0190

    PART A : Judicial activism and Indian democracy

    The great contribution of judicial activism in India has been to provide a safety valve and a hope that justice is not beyond reach.

    LIVELY CRITICISM of judicial activism encroaching on the powers of the legislature and the executive has been voiced by many including Lok Sabha Speaker Somnath Chaterjee. Such controversies are the lifeblood of democracy and must be welcomed. On March 12 , 2007, marshals were summoned in the Lok Sabha as Communist Party of India ( Marxist) members stormed the well menacingly advancing towards Shipping Minister T. R. Baalu. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam members formed a human wall to protect him. On March 19, 2007, another scuffle took place in the Rajya Sabha when Bharatiya Janata Party member S. S. Ahluwalia and other Opposition members rushed threateningly towards Finance Minister P. Chidambaram who was protected by a cordon of congressmen.

    The Indian Citizens perception of the political class is overwhelmingly coloured by the above images. It is in this context that judicial activism has flourished in India and has acquired enormous legitimacy with the Indian public. Some glimpses from the past and a peep into the future may be rewarding.

    In 1608, England was ruled by the Stuart King James 1 who claimed absolute power. On November 13, 1608, James entered the royal court and claimed that he could take any case he chose, remove it from the courts, and decide it in his royal person. Chief Justice Coke answered that he could not do so but the case ought to be determined and adjudged in a court of justice according to the law and custom of England. The King was greatly offended and replied :” This means that I shall be under law which is treason to affirm.” Coke replied: ” Braxton says that the King should not be under man but should be under God and Law.” At that time the judges were removable by the King and had no security of tenure. Chief Justice Coke’s reply was an affirmation of the judicial power while upholding the rule of law against arbitrary decisions of the sovereign. This was judicial activism at its finest.

    In 1801, Chief Justice John Marshall highlighted and reaffirmed the power of the American Supreme Court to invalidate Congressional statutes in the celebrated case of Marbury v. Madison. John Marshall was Secretary of State in the administration of President John Adams who in the last days of his Presidency appointed as judges and Magistrates more than 50 people belonging to his party. Meanwhile, Marshall was appointed Chief Justice and overlooked delivering some commissions. The incoming President Thomas Jefferson ordered his Secretary of State James Madison not to deliver these commissions. Marbury, an appointee, moved the Supreme Court for a direction against Secretary of State Madison praying that the commission be delivered to him. Chief Justice Marshall knew that if a direction was given it was unlikely to be obeyed by President Jefferson. By an Act of judicial statesmanship Marshall ruled that Section 13 of the Judiciary Act under which Marbury had petitioned the Court was unconstitutional and invalid and therefore the court had no original jurisdiction to grant relief. He avoided a direct conflict with the administration while highlighting and reaffirming the judicial review power to invalidate an Act of Congress.

    Chief Justice Earl Warren of the US was one of the great activist judges who has profoundly influenced the Indian Supreme Court. By his decisions he legitimized affirmative action by the courts and removed racial discrimination in schools by desegregation, reapportioned absolete electoral districts, and enhanced the rights of poor accused and defendants. Warren and the judges supporting him came in conflict with their colleagues who championed judicial restraint. Bernard Schwartz recounts a public display of acrimony between Warren and Frankfurter, the latter a champion of judicial restraint. In Stewart v. United States, a pare majority reversed a murder conviction because of improper questioning by the prosecution. After the majority opinion was read, Frankfurter in open court characterised it as ” an indefensible example of judicial nit-picking” and ” excessively finicky appellate review. ” Chief Justice Warren visibly angered, said : “As I understand it the purpose of reporting an opinion in the courtroom is to inform the public and is not for the purpose of degrading this court.” This enhance was front-page copy for the national press.

    President Eisenhower a conservative Republican, was distressed by the liberal views of his appointee Chief Justice Warren. When Eisenhower was asked what his biggest mistake was, he angrily replied ” the appointment of…. Earl Warren. ”

    HIGH – WATER MARK: What was the one case that was the high – water mark of judicial activism in India? No doubt it was the judgement of the majority in the Keshavanada Baharati case (the fundamental rights case). For the first time a court held that a constitutional amendment duly passed by the legislature was invalid as damaging or destroying its basic structure. This was a gigantic innovative judicial leap unknown to any legal system. The masterstroke was that the judgement could not be annulled by any amendment to be made by Parliament because the basic structure doctrine was vague and amorphous. The judgement was severely and passionately criticised by the executive and many eminent lawyers. The immediate response of the executive was the supercession of three senior-most judges( Justice Shelat, Hedge, and Grover) while the fourth judge Justice A.N. Ray who had decided all major cases in favour of these government was appointed Chief Justice. However, the critics were soon silenced. The excess of the Internal Emergency of 1975 completely legitimized this judgement and one of its severest critics the great jurist H. M. Seervai changed his views.

    Judicial activism earned a human face in India by liberalising access to justice and giving relief to disadvantaged groups and the have-nots under the leadership of Justine V. P. Krishna Iyer and P. N. Bhagwati. The Supreme Court gained in stature and legitimacy. Later, when the independence of the judiciary was threatened by punitive transfers, the court entered the arena of Judicial appointments and transfers. With the increasing criminalisation and misgovernance and the complete apathy of the executive the court ( under the leadership of Chief Justice Verma and Justices Bharucha and Sen) took up the case of terrorist funding linked to political corruption through the ‘hawala’ route in the Vineet Narain case ( Jain hawala case). A cover up by the Central Bureau of Investigation to protect its political masters was exposed and the court monitored the investigation upholding the principle ” Be you ever so high the law is above you. ”

    During the hearing there were reports that Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao was interfering with the investigation and the court passed an interim order on March 1, 1996. It directed ” that the CBI would not take any instructions from, report to or furnish any particulars thereof to any authority personally interesed in or likely to be affected by the outcome of the investigation into any accusation. This direction applied even in relation to any authority which exercises administrative control over the CBI by virtue of the office be holds, without any exception.” In substance Prime Minister Rao was forbidden from exercising control over the CBI in relation to that case. It was a bold and courageous order and carried judicial activism to hitherto unscaled heights. The fallout of the case was resignations following initiations of prosecution against high profile political personalities including three Cabinet Ministers, two Governors, and the Leader of the Opposition. In the next general election the ruling Congress lost power.

    The courts on several occasions have issued directions in Public Interest Litigation(PIL) covering a wide spectrum such as road safety, pollution, illegal structures in VIP zones, monkey menace, dog menace, unpaid dues by former and serving legislatures, nursery admissions, and admissions in institutions of higher learning. There is no doubt that sometimes these orders are triggered by righteous indignation and emotional responses.

    The common citizens have discovered that the administration has become so apathetic and non -performing and corruption and criminality so widespread that they have no recourse except to move the courts through PIL, enlarging the field for judicial intervention. If a citizen’s child is attacked by a stray dog or cattle roam the streets or hospitals suffer from monkey menace and nothing is done should not the court intervene?

    The great contribution of judicial activism in India has been to provide a safety valve in a democracy and a hope that justice is not beyond reach. Judicial activism has come to stay in India and will prosper as long as the judiciary is respected and is not undermined by negative perceptions, which have overtaken the executive and the legislature. There is concern among the public about lack of transparency in judicial appointments and a sense of increasing unease because of a lack of a credible mechanism to deal with serious complaints against the higher judiciary.

    The plants slowly nurtured by judicial craftsmanship have grown into sturdy trees and have blossomed with colourful and fragrant flowers. Judicial activism has added much needed oxygen to a gigantic democratic experiments in India by the alchemy of Judico-photosynthesis.

    • Profile photo of K Siddhartha K Siddhartha @ksiddhartha

      Merits
      1. Has a GS answer
      2. Fact filled, rather than insightful
      3. Well structured
      4. Expressive
      5. Narrow perspective.
      6. State role missing, govt role missing.

  • Profile photo of The Leiter The Leiter @leiter-the-leader

    PART B: URBANIZATION IS BLESSING IN DISGUISE.

    According to Census 2011,the population living in Urban areas in India is 31.1%,up from 27.8% in 2001 Census and it is estimated that about 50% of population in India will living in Urban areas by 2050.Given the magnitude of the case,hence,it is pertinent to discuss the merits and demerits of Urbanization.

    Urbanization is a process in which people start moving from rural areas to Urban areas.i.e gradual increase in people living in Urban areas.Census 2011 defines urban area as any area which have (1).minimum population of 5000,(2).Population density of minimum 400 sq.km and (3).75% of people are working in non-agricultural activities.

    Urbanization is not new to India,in fact,Indus Civilization witnessed one of the most advanced Urban development,we find major cities like Mohenjadero,Harappa and their construction of vast building holds testimony to this.All through the ancient and medieval periods,temples,mosques had acted as major center for religious-economic affairs engulfing people around them.Even during the British period,Center like Madras,Calcutta,Bombay became major urban centers and eventually Britisher started de-industrialization,for the benefit of English Merchant and to provide market for their goods in India,which resulted in de-urbanization and people started to moving to Village in search of jobs in Agriculture for their sustenance.But,after Independence,India followed a policy of rapid Industrialization from second five year plan and again the process of Urbanization started with increasing economic opportunities in cities.Government also enacted 74th Constitutional Amendment act to give constitutional status Urban local bodies for effective administration of Urban areas.

    Urbanization has certain merits in terms of Social,economic and Political.

    Socially,People in Urban areas,unlike in Rural areas,faces least Caste discrimination,as a result people are free to do what they want.They can take up any profession they want and live a satisfied live.In addition,there will have improved access to Health and Education.Their children can go to school,get educated,can employed in better remunerative jobs.As results of these country social capital will also improves.

    Economically,For a country to move on study economic growth,Factors of production is very important,one among them is labor.Migrant from rural areas provide cheap labor,by which Industries can prosper.In fact one of the major reason for Urbanization is in search of employment opportunities in Urban areas.with increased economic status,their standard of living will also get better.As a result,saving will increase,which in turn increases investment in the country and this will again increases economic opportunities,its a kind of cyclic process.

    Politically,People will become more conscious about their rights and duties,this will help Indian democracy to transform Participative democracy to Deliberative democracy.

    However,there are some pitfalls with increased Urbanization.with increase in population in Urban areas,there is shortage of space to accommodate all people.Hence,people starts to live in Slums,People in these places lack access to health,education,access to clean drinking water,poor waste management and is breeding grounds for all kinds of vector borne diseases.Moreover,Individuals also leaving their old parents in the village,so as to reduce the burden of rent for larger house,such acts lead to increase in nuclear families and destroying our value systems.In additions,slums also destroy the scenic beauty of the cities.There is also widespread economic disparity among the people Urban areas,as result the richer are getting richer but the poor are remaining poor.

    From above analysis,it is clear that Urbanization is blessing in disguise,when there is enough space to accommodate all the people and provide opportunity to all the people in the society.Moreover,it should also take into account absorptive capacity of environment,otherwise it can lead to serious environmental challenges.

    In order to avoid such situation and make Urban areas sustainable.Indian government have took serious of programs to develop urban areas like Smart Cities,AMRUT,Swatch Bharath Mission,HRIDAY,Improving Urban transportation etc…Recognizing Smart Cities cannot be sustained without smart villages,government also started RURBAN scheme to transform villages into smart villages.Government must also implement these schemes in letter and spirit and get the desired results.Finally,it doesn’t matter whether Urbanization is good or bad,what matter is improved standard of living of all people living in the country and each and everyone feeling he/she is part of the country and contributing in their own way.

  • Profile photo of The Leiter The Leiter @leiter-the-leader

    PART B: URBANIZATION IS BLESSING IN DISGUISE.

    According to Census 2011,the population living in Urban areas in India is 31.1%,up from 27.8% in 2001 Census and it is estimated that about 50% of population in India will living in Urban areas by 2050.Given the magnitude of the case,hence,it is pertinent to discuss the merits and demerits of Urbanization.

    Urbanization is a process in which people start moving from rural areas to Urban areas.i.e gradual increase in people living in Urban areas.Census 2011 defines urban area as any area which have (1).minimum population of 5000,(2).Population density of minimum 400 sq.km and (3).75% of people are working in non-agricultural activities.

    Urbanization is not new to India,in fact,Indus Civilization witnessed one of the most advanced Urban development,we find major cities like Mohenjadero,Harappa and their construction of vast building holds testimony to this.All through the ancient and medieval periods,temples,mosques had acted as major center for religious-economic affairs engulfing people around them.Even during the British period,Center like Madras,Calcutta,Bombay became major urban centers and eventually Britisher started de-industrialization,for the benefit of English Merchant and to provide market for their goods in India,which resulted in de-urbanization and people started to moving to Village in search of jobs in Agriculture for their sustenance.But,after Independence,India followed a policy of rapid Industrialization from second five year plan and again the process of Urbanization started with increasing economic opportunities in cities.Government also enacted 74th Constitutional Amendment act to give constitutional status Urban local bodies for effective administration of Urban areas.

    Urbanization has certain merits in terms of Social,economic and Political.

    Socially,People in Urban areas,unlike in Rural areas,faces least Caste discrimination,as a result people are free to do what they want.They can take up any profession they want and live a satisfied live.In addition,there will have improved access to Health and Education.Their children can go to school,get educated,can employed in better remunerative jobs.As results of these country social capital will also improves.

    Economically,For a country to move on study economic growth,Factors of production is very important,one among them is labor.Migrant from rural areas provide cheap labor,by which Industries can prosper.In fact one of the major reason for Urbanization is in search of employment opportunities in Urban areas.with increased economic status,their standard of living will also get better.As a result,saving will increase,which in turn increases investment in the country and this will again increases economic opportunities,its a kind of cyclic process.

    Politically,People will become more conscious about their rights and duties,this will help Indian democracy to transform Participative democracy to Deliberative democracy.

    However,there are some pitfalls with increased Urbanization.with increase in population in Urban areas,there is shortage of space to accommodate all people.Hence,people starts to live in Slums,People in these places lack access to health,education,access to clean drinking water,poor waste management and is breeding grounds for all kinds of vector borne diseases.Moreover,Individuals also leaving their old parents in the village,so as to reduce the burden of rent for larger house,such acts lead to increase in nuclear families and destroying our value systems.In additions,slums also destroy the scenic beauty of the cities.There is also widespread economic disparity among the people Urban areas,as result the richer are getting richer but the poor are remaining poor.

    From above analysis,it is clear that Urbanization is blessing in disguise,when there is enough space to accommodate all the people and provide opportunity to all the people in the society.Moreover,it should also take into account absorptive capacity of environment,otherwise it can lead to serious environmental challenges.

    In order to avoid such situation and make Urban areas sustainable.Indian government have took serious of programs to develop urban areas like Smart Cities,AMRUT,Swatch Bharath Mission,HRIDAY,Improving Urban transportation etc…Recognizing Smart Cities cannot be sustained without smart villages,government also started RURBAN scheme to transform villages into smart villages.Government must also implement these schemes in letter and spirit and get the desired results.Finally,it doesn’t matter whether Urbanization is good or bad,what matter is improved standard of living of all people living in the country and each and everyone feeling he/she is part of the country and contributing in their own way.

  • Profile photo of sachin patro sachin patro @sachinsitu11

    Part A. 2
    Judicial Activism and Indian Democracy
    Democracy is a form of government where people surrender some of their rights to a small elite body who are elected by the people to rule over themselves. After that the elected body remain in power for a specified period and make laws and regulations for the betterment of people. The assumed principle is that the elected body would make laws that would benefit the people. But because of few loopholes in our administration, it is not very transparent and may not show popular representation. The check method on administration sometimes becomes ineffective. So in such a situation a vacuum is created in governance i.e. who shall see the validity of law. The judiciary as such cannot act unless an aggrieved party does not knock its door. Hence this vacuum is substantial.
    In this situation to fill the power vacuum Judicial activism comes into play to extent its influence and to check the power of the Executive.
    Many argue that it is against the principle of democracy. But it is also important to decide which is more important or needed for the democracy, The principle of democracy or the spirit of democracy.
    By extending its hand over the Government judiciary keeps alive the spirit of democracy. Hence judiciary in the name of activism preserve the true spirit of democracy.

    Meaning of Judicial activism
    There is a clear line between judicial activism and judicial review. In judicial review, the judiciary comes into picture after a law is enacted and some party knocks at the door of judiciary to review the promulgated law.
    However Judicial activism is pro- active Judiciary, which does not limit itself on the interpretation of the law but also sees if the law affects adversely to the people.

    Our constitution and Judiciary
    According to Indian constitution there are three arms of the state – parliament, executive and judiciary. they are the keeper of the ideals of the nations as enriched in the constitution.
    In past several months it seemed because of an ineffective executive, the judiciary is interfering much on the executive and parliament.
    The Indian Judiciary has been constitutionally vested the power of review to keep the executive and legislature within constitutional boundaries. the judiciary can strike down any law that is beyond the legislative power of the parliament or violates the constitution. Similarly, it can take down any executive action if there is any illegality or arbitration to it.
    There are two theories propounded in explaining the Judicial activism. One, when there is a vacuum created because of the lack of action taken by the other two organs. the judiciary comes into action to fill the vacuum. second when there is a social need, wanted by people but neither provided by the executive or legislature. So judiciary becomes proactive in these cases and is referred as judicial activism.

    Indian context
    Talking about India, following supreme court judgements comes into picture.
    1. Keshavand Bharati Vs State of Kerala
    In a landmark judgement given by the Honourable Supreme court, court first kicked a new name as basic structure of the constitution which cannot be violated by the parliament
    2. Sunil Batra vs Delhi Government –in this case supreme court ruled that Habeas Corpus is as not only producing a person in the court but also preventing a person jailed from the inhuman treatment given in the prison
    3. With the increase of crimination and terror funding in politics and the apathy of the executive to deal with the menace, the court took up the case. to cover up by the Central Bureau of investigation to protect its political master was exposed and the court monitored the investigation. During which there was reports that Prime Minister P.V.Narshima Rao , interfering in the work of CBI. To which CBI was directed not to take any instruction or give any report to the government, who were related in that case. Ultimately The fallout of the case led to the resignation of high profile politicians including cabinet ministers and two governors
    4. The recent case Between The BCCI and the Lodha committee appointed by judiciary is another case of Judicial activism where court is monitoring the affair of a private body

    The common citizens have discovered that the administration has become so apathetic and non performing and corruption and criminality has spread that there is no recourse except move the court through PIL, enlarging the field of judicial activism.
    The great contribution of judicial activism in India has been to provide a safety valve in a democracy and hope that justice is not beyond the reach. There is concern among people about the lack of transparency in appointment of judges and a sense of increase unease because of lack of credible mechanism to deal with this issue.
    Judicial activism has added much needed oxygen to a gigantic democratic experiment in India by the alchemy of judico-Photosynthesis

  • Profile photo of Discuss Discuss @discuss

    Dear students, today’s essay competition has been uploaded. Instructions are similar to last time, but the final date has been changed to 5 pm Tuesday, 14 March. Best of luck!

    • Profile photo of arun reddy arun reddy @arun9493

      “ I understand democracy as something that gives the weak the same chance as the strong.”- M.K Gandhi
      Perhaps this statement aptly reflects the intentions and the goal of the Constitution, enunciated by our worthy founding fathers in its Preamble, which is to secure to the people of India “Justice — Social, Economic and Political; Liberty of Thought, Expression, Belief, Faith and Worship; Equality of Status and Opportunity.” Since the Indian state had inherited democracy since its inception , Democratic setup in India had to be engineered time and again in a way that would make it conducive to achieve these lofty objectives.

      Judicial activism is one such phenomenon which is premised on the need to achieve these objectives. The three instrumentalities of government- legislature, executive and judiciary, in Indian context, are not independent of each other .Executive is a part of legislature and is responsible to it. Judiciary , given the mandate of being the watchdog of constitution and its spirit has the power to review legislations and executive actions in order to bind them within constitutional ambit. In strict sense, there is no water-tight separation of powers. Though the exclusive jurisdictions are broadly defined, in actual working some ambiguous areas have come up .Judiciary, in India, through many of its judgements and orders has stepped into terrain which in normal course would not be construed its territory. This enthusiasm of Judiciary to step into legislative and executive domain came to be known as Judicial activism.

      Judicial activism is self initiated evolution of Judiciary .The realization that Judiciary needs to adapt to discharge its role as the protector of Constitution necessitated this evolution. To understand Judicial Activism and its evolution in Indian context, it is imperitive to understand the underlying principles of Indian Democracy.

      Context
      Indian Constitution borrowed liberally from constitutions all over the World and modified where necessary to suit Indian needs.India has adopted a model of democracy that is between British Parliamentary supremacy and American concept of separation of powers.Besides, three organs already mentioned , autonomous Institutions like CAG and EC also play a role in Indian Democracy.
      Though, laws have been enacted touching upon and regulating activities in the social, economic, educational and health spheres Executive has failed, in a large measure, to implement these laws in letter and in spirit .This is a feature of the Indian state which has been pointed out repeatedly by several social philosophers and economists over the last four decades and more. Gunnar Myrdal, Scandinavian scholar, famously called (in the 1970s) it a ‘soft state,’ precisely because it does not have the will and the requisite discipline to implement the laws made by it. The result is that several laws and schemes in the social and economic sectors have remained mere declarations of good intentions.

      Evolution

      After playing a largely “interpretative” role in the 1950s and 1960s, the Supreme Court, starting from the 1970s has been the major force standing up against legislative and executive excesses and inactions. Judicial activism was necessary to ensure that constitutional and legislative changes were not used as tools to aid an authoritarian Government. Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine to bring constitutional amendments under the judicial scanner to widening the scope of the right to life and liberty by reading into it the non-justiciable directive principles of state policy such as the duty to promote education and the duty to preserve the environment, the 1970s and 1980s saw the judiciary play a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy.

      The decision in Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, where it was held a person could be deprived of his right to life only by a law which was just, fair and reasonable; and in Bandhua Mukhti Morcha v. Union of India, where the concept of Public Interest Litigation (PIL) was introduced and the locus standi requirement was diluted, were landmark developments in the march of Indian constitutional law.

      The activist phase of the Supreme Court became discernible clearly after the Emergency was revoked in 1977. Look at the substantial contribution on this score. Prisoners’ rights: it was held that a prisoner on conviction or awaiting trial does not lose all his fundamental and legal rights but loses only the right to free movement. Safeguards against arbitrary arrest: clarification of the rights of the accused on being arrested; prohibition of long incarceration pending trial; clarification of the concept and objectives behind bail; condemnation of routine handcuffing; prohibiting quarrying and mining activities endangering natural resources and releasing persons from bonded labour are some of the instances.

      Judicial Activism- The Debate

      When directions are made to correct executive actions and inactions, it is called an instance of ‘judicial activism’ in a pejorative sense. If such directions are made at the instance of a public spirited individual or organisation — on the basis of what is called public interest litigation (PIL), a technical objection is raised that the really aggrieved person is not the complainant. The problem is that very often the really aggrieved person does not have the wherewithal to approach the court and hence someone does so on his behalf. The issue in such a case is, and should be, the truth of the complaint rather than the identity of the complainant. Maybe, the court does not have the means or machinery of its own to enforce its orders and directions and has to depend upon the very same official machinery, which is found to be lax. Even so, orders made by the courts do carry certain sanction — the power to punish for contempt — and are thus more effective. No one suggests that court can correct all ills afflicting society but the effort should be to try to do the little good that one can do rather than inventing arguments for not doing anything.

      The other type of ‘judicial activism’ is the field of interpretation of fundamental rights, in particular the right to equality (Articles 14 to 16), the several freedoms in Article 19 and the right to life and personal liberty in Article 21. While interpreting these Articles, there is scope for judges to read their personal philosophies into the provisions.
      The activist phase of the Supreme Court became discernible clearly after the Emergency was revoked in 1977. Look at the substantial contribution on this score. Prisoners’ rights: it was held that a prisoner on conviction or awaiting trial does not lose all his fundamental and legal rights but loses only the right to free movement. Safeguards against arbitrary arrest: clarification of the rights of the accused on being arrested; prohibition of long incarceration pending trial; clarification of the concept and objectives behind bail; condemnation of routine handcuffing; prohibiting quarrying and mining activities endangering natural resources and releasing persons from bonded labour are some of the instances.

      The restrictive interpretation placed on personal liberty, indeed the manner of interpretation of the fundamental rights adopted in 1950 (Gopalan) was overruled in 1979, reading Articles 14, 19 and 21 together and harmoniously (Maneka Gandhi). Article 21, to reiterate, has been the main spring from which innumerable rights have been inferred — the right to free elementary education, the right to speedy trial, the right to privacy, the right to medical aid to workers, the right to pollution-free water, elimination of water and air pollution and so on. The issue of air pollution reminds us of the Supreme Court orders mandating all public vehicles to shift to CNG with a view to protecting the health of Delhi citizens. True, there was no law providing for the same. But the question is: was it bad? Maybe, this measure did cause dislocation of and disturbance to the occupations and lives of certain members of the public but, overall, it is undeniable that the measure improved the quality of air over Delhi.

      It is quite true that on some occasions, the courts might have overstepped their limits. For example, orders directing the construction of roads or bridges, orders seeking to lay a timetable for the running of trains, orders directing beautification of a railway station and so on. But these again are mere aberrations. To repeat, one must look at the generality of the picture and not draw conclusions from a few wrong examples. Judged from this angle, judicial activism has done a great service to society.

      Way Forward

      The assumption that the Parliament and executive make policy decisions based on effective participation with the citizens a flawed one and the judiciary has a role in ensuring that there is effective participation from interest groups. The Judges should not have a final say on Policy issue. The judges can, however, promote decision making relating to policy issues without being the ultimate decision maker. The final decision itself was left to the executive but subject to judicial superintendence. It is possible for courts to monitor actions of the other limbs of democracy without actually stepping into their shoes. The judiciary should not create policies to enforce rights but must require the government to draft its own policy and submit it along with a timetable for execution. The finalisation of this plan must be only after the judiciary has heard objections from other interested parties.

      Once such a policy is framed by a legislature/ executive, it is to be interfered with by the judiciary in a very restrictive manner, using the principle of deference. According to this principle, the judiciary, while evaluating executive/ legislative action (or inaction), should modify the policy framed only when the reasons provided are not reasonable.

      A court should merely see whether the reasons provided by the executive justify its decision, not whether the court would have reached the same decision. This standard should be applied not only when a policy is tested before the courts but also by courts to see if executive / legislative inaction is justified.

      Conclusion

      In an ideal world, there would not be any need for Judicial activism.But in an environment where justice is constantly being subverted, it is arguable that the courts are left with no choice but to step beyond their traditional domain and prod the executive into discharging its constitutional responsibilities. Judicial activism is imperitive to deal with “legislative adventurism and executive excesses.”

      While there is the danger of judicial activism being misused by unscrupulous elements and the Supreme Court has come down heavily on such misuse, the solution is not to throw away the baby with the bathwater.

      The mere risk of judicial over-activism cannot be an argument against judicial activism. Judicial activism, keeping in view the ideals of democracy, is, in fact, necessary to ensure that unheard voices are not buried by more influential and vocal voices. Indeed, on most occasions, timely interventions of the judiciary in India — the home of judicial activism — has helped democracy flourish in our country despite repeated failures of the other organs.

      The great contribution of judicial activism in India has been to provide a safety valve in a democracy and a hope that justice is not beyond reach. Differing opinions can be and are held by equally learned people with equal passion and conviction. But that is true of any social or legal issue. Even so, like any issue touching the public interest, this issue too needs to be debated in depth.

This topic contains 93 replies, has 46 voices, and was last updated by Profile photo of srishti srivastava srishti srivastava 5 days, 5 hours ago.



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