Only 1 Day To Go-Free Official Webinar On Super 100 UPSC Mains: 2023 Year long Program By Senior IAS Mentor Swatantra Dantre | Register At the Earliest

Feel Free to Join the amazing Ask Me Anything open book session & consult your UPSC Mains’ trial for more satisfactory performance. 

 “To walk safely through the maze of UPSC, One needs the light of guidance of toppers’ mentors.”Civilsdaily.

Having passed from the phase of prelims, Thousands of aspirants are very much familiar with the butterflies in the stomach at this point. Knowing the unpredictability of this journey, many believe that only hard work can make them luckier. But shockingly, even after working with all their might, 90% of them remain very much clueless about their “strategy” being right or wrong. 

Being focused on clearing prelims 2023, if you avoid writing a single answer for the Mains, or can’t understand how to grow answer writing habit & skill throughout the year, this is going to be an outstanding live Webinar for you. Listen to this free live webinar to get certain value-added insights on how to write 20 superior answers in 3 hours spontaneously.

Webinar Details:

Grasp the opportunity to get exceptional tips on ‘what is the best strategy for UPSC-Mains’, and ‘how to write fantastic or above-average answers by presenting with a clear structure. This entire webinar is free. All aspirants are wholeheartedly welcome to attend.

Date: 18th May 2022 (Wednesday)

Time: 7 PM to 8 PM

Strategies & Approaches, in This Free Live Webinar by Swatantra Sir!

  • Best, authentic, minimum materials for UPSC-CSE Mains Preparation. Do’s & Dont’s, How to remake ‘Recognition of information’ into ‘recall, analyse & express’.
  • Whether your answers ought to reflect the editorial standards of The Hindu! What should be the foolproof strategy? What subject to pick up first to start your Mains Preparation!
  • How toppers prioritize speed over content, and content over structure. How to fix your answer writing structure, improve the content
  • How to create a basic conceptual framework of the answer before committing anything to paper. Implications of overstretching your imagination.
  • How to fetch maximum score in both ‘Essay’ & ‘Ethics’ papers to enhance your marks in total.
  • What is the difference between ‘Opinion-based’ & ‘Fact-based’ questions will also be discussed thoroughly in this webinar?
  • How & where to present the answer, replete with a Map/diagram/flowchart/, It will help to get extra 0.25-0.5 marks across 80 questions of GS papers.
  • If the question is in two parts, sticking to the word limit, how to address the demand of each part. What is the way to enclose also any critical analysis you should have within the subheading?
  • How to enhance writing patterns, where to take mock regularly, how many mock tests are fit, Etc. will be discussed in this live webinar.
  •  The untold secret of coverage of the Mains syllabus is that the syllabus can be covered 100%. The most brilliant of candidates will testify that even their coverage of the syllabus was not completely 100%. 

About Swatantra Sir:

Swatantra sir is a mentor with Civilsdaily for nearly 2+ years and is now working with Sukanya Rana Ma’am in the Civilsdaily Mains Guidance Program. His experience of scoring 110+ in all the 6 Prelims exams, coupled with scoring 135+ marks in ethics and essay papers and attending the interview twice, makes him an appropriate guide to address this compulsory matter.

All The Best


Super 100 Mains Program 2023 : Answer writing with personalised Mentorship || Replicating 80% Success Rate for Mains 2020 results || Batch Starts in June – 100 SEATS ONLY || Register here

Mains is the most important stage of the UPSC exam. It’s also becoming more and more unpredictable, analytical and dynamic than ever before.

Mains essential Program (MEP) 2023 is your solution to practicing Mains Answer writing. Don’t procrastinate answer writing, developing a skill does not happen magically after you clear prelims.

Super 100 Mains Program 2023 is a Mentor guided comprehensive and intensive program for GS Mains papers. The focus is on making students understand the requirement of Mains Question, its elements, using information, and imparting answer writing skills for that.

In 2020, 80% of students in our smash mains program were able to clear the mains examination.

Every 3rd Ranker in Top 100 is from Civilsdaily|| MAINS MANTHAN 2021 ||  Register Now – Civilsdaily
The Hindu covers Civilsdaily Successful smash mains program

Why Early Start to Mains is Needed?

Let us answer this with a story

Guru Dronacharya had instructed the cook at the ashram to not serve his students food at night. One day, however, the dinner got delayed. While everyone was eating at night, suddenly, the lights went off. As Arjuna ate in the dark, he realized that there was automatic coordination between his hands and mouth. He did not require vision to put his hand into his mouth. This was an amazing discovery for him. This meant that he could orient himself to shoot the target even in the night, through his other senses. He immediately took up his bow and arrow to practice in the dark. And from then on, the entire month, he would practice day and night! 

Day and night- just practice.

If you want to ace your mains answer writing, then PRACTICE is your only option. Arjuna had practiced for decades before his real test in the Mahabharata war. Even you need to start your answer writing from day one and not leave it for “after the prelims” approach. 

Be Arjuna of Answer writing!

Year long Answer writing Program is helpful:

Your knowledge is tested through your answers: If you have not learned the art to articulate your thoughts on paper, then that’s a disaster waiting to happen. Studying and writing answers is a symbiotic relationship and one reinforces the other.

  • Helps you retain concepts, facts, and figures.
  • Learning the trick to formulate the structure of the answer.
  • Helps to revise things and learn new things not covered by conventional books.
  • Improves your writing speed, and handwriting.

Avoid these common mistakes with our program

  • Let me first develop enough knowledge to write answers: This is the biggest lie we tell ourselves. There is no such thing as “ENOUGH” in UPSC preparation. It is better to train ourselves from Day 1 – How to apply the knowledge that I have?
  • Not understanding the demand of the Question: Words like ‘Examine’, ‘Comment’, or ‘Discuss’ are used for a reason in the questions. Why would UPSC use different words if it wants the same structure from each question?
  • Structure a Mental Framework: If you lack the practice then, you are not able to create a mental framework. This leads to poor answers- you write points as you remember in a haphazard manner. This completely compromises your presentation.
  • Introduction, body, and conclusion: This is the ideal structure for the mains answer. One very common mistake is that students have a tendency to generalize the introduction and conclusion. Along with this, the scope of dimensions in the body is limited.
  • Low hanging fruits: Some elements in your answer like a diagram, reports/commissions, and supreme court judgments can uplift the quality of your answers. Students have a tendency to skip them.
The Hindu covers Civilsdaily Successful smash mains program


1. Personalised Mentorship to correct you at each step

We believe in personalised individual attention. A one-to-one discussion with your Mentor will not only highlight your weaknesses but will also help in tracking your improvements over the subsequent tests. It will also ensure consistency, continuity, and progressive improvement.

Individual Mentorship helps one to understand and discuss even small integrate details in answer writing. Take for example:

It is commented that Electoral bonds instead of cleansing India’s electoral system distort India’s democracy. Do you agree? Critically analyse.

Students usually get swayed by only seeing the theme of the question. Question is not about electoral bonds only. Many aspirants write everything they know about electoral bonds. You need to first mention how it will cleanse India’s electoral system. After that, link it with democracy. How it violates key features of democracy like transparency, accountability and level playing field. Writing only Pros and Cons will not fetch you marks. 

Just schedule a call with our mentor to clear all your doubts and queries.

2. Quality standards of questions in our test series

Our Test series questions have consistently proven to be similar to UPSC standards.

Here’s the proof

Even our students have appreciated the quality of our questions

3. Check how mentorship have helped toppers and students across

One can better understand our process with the results we have produced, so here a look at how toppers have improved over the course of time with our mentorship intervention,

This is how the UPSC Toppers scored in test series before CD’s intervention —

Karishma-Nair(AIR-14)-Answers Before Feedback From CD

Pooja-Gupta(AIR-42)-Answers Before Feedback From CD

Pranav-Vijay-(AIR-65)- Answers Before Feedback From CD

Lakshay-Kumar-(AIR -132)-Answers Before Feedback From CD

Ponmani-Nehru(AIR-148)-Answers Before Feedback From CD

With right feedback’s there was tremendous change in their writing style

Karishma-Nair(AIR-14)-Answers After Feedback From CD

Pooja-Gupta (AIR-42)-Answers After Feedback From CD

Pranav-Vijay (AIR -65) – Answers After Feedback From CD

Lakshay-Kumar-(AIR -132)-Answers After Feedback From CD

Ponmani-Nehru(AIR-148)-Answers After Feedback From CD

If you wish to learn and unlearn certain reading and writing habits, join MEP 2023.

The Hindu covers Civilsdaily Successful smash mains program

Program Inclusion:

  • 12 Sectional tests: The whole syllabus will be divided into portions like history, economics, and geography. The test will be spread for a period of 8 months. This will ensure that your basic static preparation happens on a continuous basis alongside your mains answer writing program. Killing two birds with one stone!
  • 12 Full-length tests: After the prelims, it is time to go full gear.
  • Personalized discussion: You doubt why you are scoring less or how you can improve your score for the next paper. No worries! Just schedule a call with our mentor to clear all your doubts and queries.
  • Civilsdaily’s handholding: You will be provided membership to Mains 2023 club on Habitat. There you can put up your doubts and queries. Also can be used to interact with peers on strategies to improve your mains writing. You can also contact mentors like Sajal sir, Sukanya ma’am, Sudhanshu sir and Poornima Ma’am. They all have interview-level experience, so utilize their experience to your benefit.
  • Civilsdaily magazine: Your current affairs will be covered with access to our 1-year subscription.

Our Philosophy behind MEP 2023

1. Question Formulation

It happens under a team of experienced Civilsdaily’s faculty. Questions framed are from the most important UPSC relevant themes and papers are based on the latest pattern of UPSC.

Our questions specifically state:

  • Whether they are straightforward or thought-provoking/analytical.
  • Whether they have subparts.
  • Why this question – similar previous year questions, the importance of the theme, etc.

CD Innovation – Red-green highlight – to let you know about the necessary and innovative points.

2. One-to-One Discussion

We believe in personalized individual attention. This is the biggest reason why you should join our TS. Students can schedule a call within 2 days of receiving their checked copies.

A one-to-one discussion with your Mentor will not only highlight your weaknesses but will also help in tracking your improvements over the subsequent tests. It will also ensure consistency, continuity, and progressive improvement.

3. Answer Checking

Our evaluation focusses on multiple dimensions and parameters like structure, flow, presentation, contextuality, relevance to question, analytical excellence, and cross-domain inter-linkages than simply on superficial, memory-based lapses.

Evaluated answer copy – 1 (Click to download)

Evaluated answer copy – 2 (Click to download)

4. Model Answers

More than just simply providing information, our model answers cover all the aspects of a question and provide enriching points to the student. They also include:

  • For ‘thought-provoking/analytical’ type of questions, we’ll provide the best way to approach them.
  • Alternate introductions
  • Sub-headings and categorization to enhance readability and answer structure.
  • Colour coding for main arguments, reports, data, scholars, etc.
    OTB – Out of the box points for additional marks
The Hindu covers Civilsdaily Successful smash mains program

5. Civilsdaily’s Handholding

You’ll be assigned to a special group on Civilsdaily’s Habitat, there you can interact with different mentors like Sajal Sir, Sukanya ma’am, Ajay Sir, Sudhanshu sir, and others.

Civilsdaily’s Habitat – Desktop and Mobile view

6. Value-added material

Current affairs magazines – Civilsdaily’s Magazines are the best in terms of comprehensive coverage, superb design, and high readability.

Listicles and other relevant study material – Supplementary content provided will be helpful in covering multiple related questions.

About Mentor:

Sukanya Rana:

Sukanya ma’am has firsthand experience of 4 mains and 2 interviews of UPSC. In 2019, she scored 140 in ethics. She has also appeared in the State PCS interview. Before she has worked as a Probationary officer in Canara bank. Now at Civilsdaily, she heads Mains program and engaged in core team of Civilsdaily.

As per need we will also involved our Civilsdaily core mentors like Swatantra sir, Suhel sir etc.

This is what our students have to say..

Kunal Aggarwal Civilsdaily IAS UPSC Mains
IAS Mains 2020 2021 UPSC Civilsdaily Mains Test series
From Quora’s answer. (Read the full answer here)

Mains Test Series: Testimonials

The Hindu covers Civilsdaily Successful smash mains program

Live Webinar On How to clear UPSC-CSE 2023 in the very 1st Attempt by studying Only 5 hrs per day! | Free Live Webinar for Working Professionals with UPSC 2017 Ranker Megha Gupta | Direct Joining Link

Civilsdaily Team is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.

How to clear UPSC-CSE 2023 in the very 1st Attempt by studying Only 5 hrs per day! | Megha Gupta, UPSC 2017 Ranker
Date & Time: May 16, 2022 @07:00 PM (Login 06:45 PM Onwards) India

Join Zoom Meeting
Meeting ID: 894 4335 8379
Passcode: 292826

Webinar Details

Grasp the opportunity to get exceptional tips on ‘what is the best strategy for UPSC-CSE for working professionals’, and ‘how to prepare in holistic manner’. This entire webinar is free. All aspirants are wholeheartedly welcome to attend.

Date: 16th May 2022 (Monday)

Time: 7 to 8 PM

Strategies & Approaches, in This Free Live Webinar by Megha Ma’am!

1. The UPSC preparation process is divided into four stages. What should you focus on during each phase? How to manage time & control stress during every preparation phase. How to utilize holidays! will be discussed effectively.

2. Working examinees’ largest challenge is time management, which is critical for studying and taking care of one’s health while working a 9-hour shift. So, how to break down the syllabus into small chunks, and develop an effective & workable study strategy for UPSC preparation will also be discussed.

3. Our step-by-step 5-hour learning plan. How to complete syllabus, how to cover mock test series in such a short time! Other toppers’ time-management skills are also discussed.

4. Avoid errors that cost you a chance. How do you get your preparation off to a good start? What is one of the good sources for current affairs? is going to be discussed here.

5. The advantages of being a UPSC aspirant while working. What distinguishes you from the other competitors?

6. Studying judiciously. How can you save time by using the Civilsdaily App/website to acquire aggregated information?

7. Rest other untold many more essential tips that a working professional must know from our previous working topper.

About Megha Gupta Ma’am

Megha Gupta is a core mentor with CivilsDaily for a couple of years. She is a Graduate from NIT, Bhopal. She cleared UPSC-CSE 2017, with AIR 674. She is highly experienced in clearing UPSC-CSE Exam in the very 1st attempt as working as a professional.

All the best.


UPSC Prelims-2022 Special: Collect 100+ Most Probable Topics To Score 110+ | Don’t waste Time | Register At the Earliest To get the Full List

UPSC IAS prelims 2022 will be held on June 5 in pen and paper mode. The IAS preparation is the interaction of important UPSC Syllabus topics. Check out the list of important topics for the UPSC prelims below and pave the way to score 110+.

Certain topics seem to be important for the UPSC prelims exam, but they are not asked in the exam. The UPSC primarily inquires about the context of current events. Ideally, UPSC asks about four aspects of a topic in one question with multiple options, with only one correct answer. Only those perplexing questions can be answered by the candidate who has a firm grasp on the subject. Candidates should balance their preparation in static General Studies topics and current affairs topics so that they can connect the two. 

Prelims is an elimination round. Those who learn & analyze everything may get eliminated. It’s all about utilizing your subjective recognition rather than critically analyzing.

The syllabus for the prelims exam does not go into great detail about the topics. Candidates should understand the prelims’ demand by analyzing the UPSC syllabus and question papers concurrently. Overall preparation necessitates over a year of focused preparation in the right direction with the right strategy. Important Prelims exam topics are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the syllabus. Important topics guide will guide preparation in the right direction to sit for UPSC Mains 2022.

So, our highly experienced toppers’ teachers & mentors group has prepared the most trusted list of the most important topics. 

Expect many questions in UPSC civil services Preliminary exam – 2022 (also in mains 2022). You need to prepare 4-5 points on each of these topics keeping in mind the nature of questions that were asked in Prelims 2020 & 2021. 

Must Read Topics For Prelims 2022 (Static + Current Affairs & Combination of Both)


Electronic voting machine (EVM) 

Balance of rights and duty 

Recent amendments and Bills 

One election- one nation- Amendments required 

RPA 1951 and 1950 

Office of the governor and discretionary powers 

PESA Act, 1996 



Inflation (2 questions expected- conceptual) 

Conceptual questions based on interlinking between fiscal policy, inflation, and monetary policy (2-3 questions) 

Banking in India 

Money market 

Taxation (1 question) 

GDP Estimates (1 question) 


Modern Indian Hist.

-Personality (1 question)- focus on prominent freedom fighters, social reformers, viceroys 

– Chronology- focus on the time between 1925-35 and 1939-47 

– British wars 

– NCM, CDM, quit India 

– Congress sessions 


History & Culture

 -Adi Sankaracharya 

Kakatiya Rudreshwara Temple 

Moplah Rebellion 

Sun Temple of Konark (In the news) 

Architecture (1 question on temple, 1 from medieval history) 

 Dance (classical and folk)



World Physical Geography: 

– Geomorphology- landforms and major terminologies, origin and evolution of the earth, volcanism and earthquake, plate tectonics and continental drift theory – Oceanography – warm and cold currents, and rests other chapters.


Indian Physical Map 

Rivers: Pannchnad, Himalayan rivers(Ganga, Brahmaputra, Yamuna), Peninsular rivers(Damodar, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Periyar)- Tributaries b. North to the south alignment of mountains in Eastern ghat and Western ghat c. Major Cities in India 

World Physical Map as well of various places & regions according to Current Affairs.

Government Schemes 

 Recent schemes on Agriculture, Vulnerable sections, MSMEs, Banking, ETC.

Science & Technology 

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) 

Electric Vehicles 

Dark Genome 


Assistant reproductive technique 

Emerging technologies (5G, AI, Machine learning) & ETC.

Social Issues

 Digital education issues 

New acts and amendments (1-2 question) 



India State Forest Report (ISFR) 2021 

Red sanders 

Zero Budget Natural Farming 

Heat Dome 

Net Zero Producers Forum

Glasgow summit 

National parks and wildlife sanctuaries, tiger reserves and wetlands (mapping)

Reports and indices (1 question) 

Development induced displacement 

Pollution related current affairs & Many other hot topics.

Security Issues

Reverse Engineering 

Top defense dealers and importers 

India’s missile program 

Recent amendments in NIA, UAPA acts etc. 

We have covered all these issues in both test series and current affairs. But if you can give special focus on these topics, you will definitely reap extra benefits.

All The Best.

Announcements Nikaalo Prelims

Imp: Score 100% in Polity Questions & Must Read Acts in News

Talk to our mentors for a Roadmap to 2023 Attempt. Click Here

Indian polity plays a very crucial role in the Prelims exam. If you want to ensure the cutoff marks then you can not expect a single mistake in Indian polity questions. To ensure that you follow these few pointers. We have also included some examples to ensure that you understand the points

Read the Each keyword very carefully: Polity is a game of words, even a single change will change the answer. 

Consider the following statements:

  1. According to the Constitution of India a person who is eligible to vote
    can be made a minister in a State for six months even if he/she is not a member of the Legislature of that State
  2. According to the Representation of People Act, 1951, a person
    convicted of a criminal offence and sentenced to imprisonment for five years is permanently disqualified from contesting an election
    even after his release from prison
    Which of the statements given above is are correct?
    (a) 1 only
    (b) 2 only
    (c) Both 1 and 2
    (d) Neither 1 nor 2

    In above question, At first S1 seems correct but when we look carefully it says any eligible voter but the criteria is above 25 years. Similarly S2 says Permanently, but it is temporary

Read all the options very carefully: Even if you know that the first option is the correct answer, look for other options as well. There are chances that according to the question it is not the most appropriate one.

The Preamble to the Constitution of India, is
(a) part of the Constitution but has no legal effect
(b) not a part of the Constitution and has no legal effect either
(c) a part of the Constitution and has the same legal effect as any other part
(d) a part of the Constitution but has no legal effect independently of other parts.

In the above question A looks correct but when we read all options then D looks more appropriate.

Go through the PYQs properly: Understanding PYQs will not help in Polity but in the entire paper. For example take a question from 2017

Which one of the following is not a feature to Indian federalism?

(a) There is an independent judiciary in India. 

(b) Powers have been clearly divided between the Centre and the States.

 (c) The federating units have been given unequal representation in the Rajya Sabha. 

(d) It is the result of an agreement among the federating units

Above question indicates that Independent Judiciary is a feature, Now look at 2021 question

Which one of the following in Indian polity is an essential
feature that indicates that it is federal in character?
(a) The independence of judiciary is safeguarded.
(b) The Union Legislature has elected representatives from
constituent units.
(c) The Union Cabinet can have elected representatives
from regional parties.
(d) The Fundamental Rights are enforceable by Courts of

Understand NCERTs carefully: Nowadays UPSC has a tendency to ask questions from NCERTs, especially from 11th ncert. 

Avoid using elimination rules: UPSC expects you to remember Indian Polity therefore the scope is very narrow to use Tikdam rules.

Revision: Most of the questions in Polity are from very spefic chapers or source. They are 11th ncerts, Historical Background, Preamble, Fundamental Rights, DPSPs, Parliament, State Legislature, President, Governor, Supreme Court and High Courts. Make sure that you have the best command on the above topics.

Important Acts in News

  1. The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Amendment) Bill, 2021)
  • The Act provides for the bifurcation of the state of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) into the Union Territory of J&K and Union Territory of Ladakh. 
  • The Act provides that Article 239A of the Constitution, which is applicable to the union territory of Puducherry, shall also apply to the union territory of J&K.  Article 239A provides for the constitution of a union territory of Puducherry with: (i) a legislature, which may be elected, or partly nominated and partly elected, or (ii) a Council of Ministers. 
  • In addition to Article 239A, any other provision of the Constitution which refers to elected members of a legislative assembly of a state and is also applicable to the union territory of Puducherry, will apply to the union territory of J&K.
  •  The Act specifies that the members of the Indian Administrative Service, the Indian Police Service and the Indian Forest Service serving in the state of J&K would continue to serve in the two union territories, based on allocation decided by the central government.
  1. The Inland Vessels Bill, 2021
  • The Bill seeks to introduce a uniform regulatory framework for inland vessel navigation across the country.
  • The central government will prescribe the: (i) classification, (ii) standards of design, construction, and crew accommodation, and (iii) type and periodicity of surveys, for these vessels.  Construction or modification of such vessels will require prior approval of a designated authority, as prescribed by the central government.
  • To operate in inland waters, all such vessels must have a certificate of survey, and a certificate of registration. The certificate of survey will be granted by state governments, in a form as prescribed by the central government.
  • The central government will prescribe the minimum number of people that vessels must have, for various roles.
  • Vessels will discharge or dispose of sewage, as per the standards specified by the central government.  The central government will notify the list of pollutants which will be prohibited for discharge or disposal.  State governments will grant vessels a certificate of prevention of pollution.
  • The Bill provides for a development fund.
  • The Bill empowers state governments to delegate certain functions related to non-mechanically propelled inland vessels to their local governments. 
  1. The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2021
  •  The Act empowers the central government to reserve any mine (other than coal, lignite, and atomic minerals) to be leased through an auction for a particular end-use.The Bill provides that no mine will be reserved for particular end-use.
  • The Bill empowers the central government to specify a time period for completion of the auction process in consultation with the state government.  If the state government is unable to complete the auction process within this period, the auctions may be conducted by the central government.
  • The Act provides that the period of mining leases granted to government companies will be prescribed by the central government.
  1. The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Bill, 2021
  • The Code provides a time-bound process for resolving the insolvency of corporate debtors (within 330 days) called the corporate insolvency resolution process (CIRP).
  • The Bill introduces an alternate insolvency resolution process for micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs), called the pre-packaged insolvency resolution process (PIRP).  Unlike CIRP, PIRP may be initiated only by debtors.
  • Application for initiating PIRP may be filed in the event of a default of at least one lakh rupees.
  • During PIRP, the debtor will be provided with a moratorium under which certain actions against the debtor will be prohibited.  These include filing or continuation of suits, execution of court orders, or recovery of property.

CIRP: Under CIRP, a committee of creditors is constituted to decide on the insolvency resolution.  The committee may consider a resolution plan which typically provides for the payoff of debt by merger, acquisition, or restructuring of the company.  If a resolution plan is not approved by the committee of creditors within the specified time, the company is liquidated.  During CIRP, the affairs of the company are managed by the resolution professional (RP), who is appointed to conduct CIRP.

  1. The Constitution (One Hundred and Twenty-Seventh Amendment) Bill, 2021
  • The Bill amends the Constitution to allow states and union territories to prepare their own list of socially and educationally backward classes. 

List of socially and educationally backward classes:

          The National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) was established under the National Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993.

             The 2021 Bill amends this to provide that the President may notify the list of socially and educationally backward classes only for purposes of the central government.  This central list will be prepared and maintained by the central government.  Further, the Bill enables states and union territories to prepare their own list of socially and educationally backward classes. 

  1. The Election Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2021
  • The bill provides that the electoral registration officer may require a person to furnish their Aadhaar number for establishing their identity. 
  • Persons will not be denied inclusion in the electoral roll or have their names deleted from the roll, if they are unable to furnish Aadhaar number due to sufficient cause as prescribed. 
  • The Bill provides four qualifying dates in a calendar year, which will be January 1, April 1, July 1, and October 1. Earlier it was only 1 i.e. January 1.
  1. The Central Vigilance Commission (Amendment) Bill, 2021
  •  It replaces the Central Vigilance Commission (Amendment) Ordinance, 2021.  The Bill seeks to amend the Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003.  The 2003 Act provides for the constitution of a Central Vigilance Commission to conduct inquiries into offences alleged to have been committed under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.  
  • Under the 2003 Act, the Director of Enforcement is appointed by the central government, on the recommendation of a Committee.This Committee is chaired by the Central Vigilance Commissioner, and includes the Secretaries from the Ministries of Home Affairs, Personnel, and the Revenue Department. 
  • The Bill adds that the tenure of the Director may be extended by up to one year at a time, till the completion of five years from the initial appointment.  Such extensions may be granted in public interest, on the recommendation of the Committee.
  1. The Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2020
  • Under the Act, certain persons are prohibited to accept any foreign contribution.  These include: election candidates, editor or publisher of a newspaper, judges, government servants, members of any legislature, and political parties, among others
  • The Amendment prohibits the transfer of foreign contribution to any other person.
  • The Act states that a person may accept foreign contribution if they have: (i) obtained a certificate of registration from central government, or (ii) not registered, but obtained prior permission from the government to accept foreign contribution
  • Under the Act, a person who receives foreign contribution must use it only for the purpose for which the contribution is received.Further, they must not use more than 20% of the contribution for meeting administrative expenses.
  1. The Major Port Authorities Bill, 2020
  • The Bill will apply to the major ports of Chennai, Cochin, Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Mangalore, Mormugao, Paradip, V.O. Chidambaranar, and Vishakhapatnam.
  • The Bill provides for the creation of a Board of Major Port Authority for each major port.  These Boards will replace the existing Port Trusts. 
  • Under the 1963 Act, the Board has to seek prior sanction of the central government to raise any loan.
  • The Bill provides that the Board may use its funds for providing social benefits(Corporate Social Responsibility)
  • The Bill provides for the constitution of an Adjudicatory Board by the central government.

Toppers’ Choice: Prime Prelims TS-2023 | With On-Demand Mentorship Program

Prime Prelims TS 2023

44 Tests (14 Basic, 8 Advanced, 6 Current Affairs Based Test, 10 Full-Length Tests, 6 CSAT-Tests)

The new Tests are going to start on 11th June, 2022

‘What are you waiting for….?’

Civil Services Preliminary Exam is the first phase of the Civil Services Exam but not necessarily the simplest. There is a wide difference between the syllabi of the Preliminary and Main Exam, the nature of questions, and consequently, the preparation strategy needs to be well thought out. 

Despite the churnings happening around us, few fundamentals couldn’t be questioned at least about the UPSC exam. Much coveted UPSC civil service has always attracted the best talents from across India. Hence on the flip side heightens the competition. So, you have to strive hard. As a result, a focused and measured approach is always needed, and that too throughout the year.

Those who have already faced the exam would know it themselves. The importance & contribution of the Test series in fine-tuning the prep process.

Presenting you a few highlights about our Prime Prelims Program 2023

Target UPSC 2023 (Prelims): There are no shortcuts. Only smart work with the most probable questions works for you. Expect many questions in UPSC civil services Preliminary exam – 2023 directly from our Prime Prelims Test Series. You need to revise the solved points provided with each of these tests keeping in mind the nature of questions that were asked in Prelims 2021 & 2022. 

Avoid Last Time Rush..

Students Views: How Santosh Sir’s Mentorship Leads to Success in Prelims

Our Students’ Testimonials.


1. Complete course revision with Test Paper-based time-plan

The complete course has 44 Test papers, to enhance the exam worthiness of an aspirant. Especially those who have their house (concepts) in order about the course/syllabus. The idea of solving tests or mock papers is with the intent to find out the gaps in our preparation. Sometimes they are also helpful for the mains or subjective type questions.

2. A holistic mix of Static – cum- Dynamic Test series

Course completion is what we care to establish with each finishing module. And this incorporates the aspect of Current affairs and Associated statics as well. Hence an aspirant gets a holistic mix of Static cum Dynamic elements featured in this course.

3. Mentor & Discussion help for 1-1

Civilsdaily Mentorship with tests is going to help an aspirant keep a track of the syllabus, which was earlier either glossed over or paid little attention to. Our Senior Mentors will be the person who would have the responsibility to ensure you end up with all the papers. Also, imparting valuable advice to stay rational and mindful.

  1. Detailed Orientation session
  1. Year-long mentorship till prelims and beyond
  1. Mentor call after every 4 tests or one call/month
  1. Bi-Weekly zoom sessions for doubts and discussions
  1. 24*7 Habitat group mentors support

Civilsdaily’s mentors are highly qualified, with at least 3+ years of mentorship experience and two UPSC-CSE Interviews under their belts. They are well-versed in the many stages of preparation. These mentors will assist you in developing both a comprehensive and micro schedule. They’ll put together a weekly program for you, complete with mentorship calls. This schedule will be created based on a thorough examination of the importance of subjects as well as the interconnection of topics to make it easier for students to grasp the material.

Our highly experienced mentors will guide you with the all-round strategy

  • of How to deal with unfamiliar MCQs by using TIKDAM (Intelligent Guessing)
  • How many questions you should attempt.
  • When to start coding on OMR sheet
  • How to focus on strong areas

4. All India Rankings

All India ranking factors are here to help you deal with the moments of truth vis-à-vis your preparation level. They give you the necessary nudge to focus back on evaluating the current state of preparation. Your mentor would have a lot more to focus on wrt the rankings you achieve.

5. Performance-based Aspirant Cohorts on Civilsdaily Habitat

At Civilsdaily, you would get a community always ready to deal with unexpected roadblocks. We aim to create a like-minded and similarly placed aspirant cohort. For a better discussion of tasks and problem-solving capabilities. So as a member of any Cohort, chat (responsibly) with other learners.

If you have a question, chances are, you’re not alone. Reach out in the discussion forum to ask for help from other learners taking this program.

6. CivilsDaily Habitat Sessions – Ask Anything

Were your queries about courses/syllabus / basic doubts would be addressed to keep you always on the move.

Throughout this course, you will learn about the techniques of time management, and the ability to find a static–dynamic convergence. Also, peace of mind about course completion under the guidance of a mentor. 

The mentor would also provide a lot of reading material from time to time. But sometimes, you may need to look things up on your own for extra learning. Things change fast in our dynamic socio-political setup, so it is critical to do your own research so you can stay up-to-date on what is new.

What is there on Habitat?

  • An ecosystem for co-learning and active learning.
  • A highly motivated community to bring flexibility and consistency to your preparation.

Samachar Manthan Civilsdaily IAS Current Affairs UPSCHabitat – Desktop and Mobile view

Download PDF for better visibility – Prime Prelims TS 2023 Time Table (New Batch)

Program Inclusion

  • 44 Tests
    • 14 Basic tests
    • 8 Advanced tests
    • 6 Current Affairs Based Tests
    • 10 Full-Length Tests
    • 6 CSAT Tests
  • Civilsdaily’s Monthly Magazine Combo
  • Individual Mentorship
  • Economic Survey & Budget Videos and Notes
  • Advanced Static + Tikdam Videos
  • Admission to the exclusive Civilsdaily Prelims club on Habitat.

Where to find the tests?

After enrolling, you will receive a confirmation email with links to the tests and materials. These links are also available in the curriculum section of this course.

Facing any issues with test access post-enrollment?

Share your payment confirmation, name, email id, and contact number along with the issue that you are facing (with screenshots if possible) at and cc it to

We will resolve your issues in minutes.

This is what our students have to say about our mock tests…

Feedback for 2022 Prelims Mocks

Civilsdaily’s Community: Testimonials

-Still have queries?

All The Best.


Toppers’ Choice: Samachar Manthan Yearly 2023 Plus | Now current affairs is a cake walk | New Batch starting from 4th June 2022 | Enrolment open

Resource consolidation till Mains 2023 – Video lectures & notes; Mains answer writing; Habitat club; Google meet sessions; Magazine

New Batch Starting on 4th June 2022.

Note- There are two variants of Samachar Manthan – Till Prelims and Till Mains

Current affairs are an integral part of every phase of the UPSC-CSE exam. Understanding the significance of current affairs is just one part of the UPSC riddle. For solving the whole riddle, we keep presenting Samachar Manthan Plus Yearly Classes for 2023 aspirants.

Why are current affairs so important?

Up to 2020, UPSC used to ask more questions directly about current affairs.

But in 2021, trends are seen as more dynamic. The number of direct questions from current affairs was less but the current theme-based questions came in more number. Almost 40% of MCQs in Prelims were mixed with current affairs. And in the mains, approximately 50% of questions were connected with current affairs.

An irresistible reason to join ‘Samachar Manthat’ is that it’s more important to understand the analysis of news rather than to only recognize the facts for the upcoming UPSC-CSE 2023.

Why current affairs are crucial in the Interview?

In Personality Tests often your opinions are asked on various issues. Current Affairs make you aware of the surroundings and allow you to give practical answers to the problems faced by the country.

Do you know how our SM helped 2021 aspirants?

  • 85% of 2021 GS 2 Mains Questions Are From Civilsdaily Smash Mains & Samachar Manthan Test Series!! Click Here to know
  • 60% of 2021 GS 1 Mains Questions Are From Civilsdaily Mains Test Series!! Click Here to Know

Toppers and Samachar Manthan

Srija, AIR 20
Shahansha AIR 142, student of Samachar Manthan
Dilpreet Singh, AIR 237, student of Samachar Manthan

What is Samachar Manthan?

Samachar Manthan is our flagship program designed to help you develop a solid command of your newspaper reading and current affairs analyzing skills. We are also going to focus on imparting skills required to utilize current affairs. Since it builds your core, it is important for both Prelims and Mains & Interview also. 


Program inclusion

1. Weekly 5+ hours live video and offline lectures

2. High-quality Notes and reference material

3. Membership to Samachar Manthan Habitat club – doubts,  discussion, and mentorship session.

4. Weekly Current Affairs based Mains Test (10 Questions) and Evaluation

5. Current Affairs Monthly Prelims Test package

6. Marathon Revision sessions on Habitat before Prelims and Mains

7. Frequent Google meets Sessions to check on Student’s Preparation status

8. Micro notes to help you make your notes.

Duration of the program:

This program will continue till UPSC Mains 2023

What Differentiates Our Samachar Manthan Course?

Civilsdaily’s Samachar Manthan is evidently one brand that sets us apart from any other institute in this Domain.

Our Samachar Manthan Program helps you in 11 key components of your UPSC current affairs preparation:-

  • 5-stage structure of Lecture-Notes-Testing-Review-Mentoring

Our unique five-stage methodology helps ensure maximum retention and rock-solid preparation. Each component has been meticulously crafted which is repeated every week to create a virtuous cycle.

  • Diversified and Comprehensive coverage

We let news develop over a week, and a team under Sajal Sir daily covers it from various sources which include newspapers (The Hindu, The Indian Express, LiveMint, etc.), magazines (Yojana, Kurukshetra, EPW, Down to Earth), important websites (PIB, PRS, govt ministries, IDSA, etc.).

UPSC is a generalist exam. It’s important to cover more issues than to cover a few, in more depth. Samachar Manthan ensures a fine balance of comprehensive news coverage and detailed discussion on the most important topics.

  • Videos and Notes

Carefully selected relevant news is analyzed and delivered in a weekly lecture spanning over 5+ hours. You will be getting high-quality, well-designed notes. They are detailed with proper categorization of news into the Mains and Prelims category.

Our focus is on conceptual clarity, simplicity, relevance, and making interlinkages between current affairs and the basic/static part of the syllabus. 

Samachar Manthan will also help you understand how to utilize current affairs in all your Prelims and Mains papers. A part of which is done by tests.

  • Weekly Mains mini Test and Evaluation in an audio-visual way

Because learning is not enough, you must apply. Every week a 10-question UPSC level current affairs test follows with video and notes. The focus here is on Mains’s answer writing skills and practice.

It’s a skill that is learned, honed, and perfected gradually. And this is why it should be done regularly. Our team of subject experts evaluates your answers and provides you with feedback. Answer enhancement is one of the objectives of this exercise.

Samachar Manthan Weekly Notes (Click to download)

Samachar Manthan Micro-notes (click to download)

  • Guest lectures by in-service officers and domain specialists

Apart from comprehensive coverage of current affairs from all dimensions by our faculty, Other Senior Bureaucrats and toppers will also be joining us for various lectures and guest sessions. Their persuasive advice will dispel all doubts. Samachar Manthan is now going to be the optimum ingredient, needed for absolute growth.

  • Current Affairs Monthly Prelims Test package

This was feedback that we had received from our students. Now every month we provide a Current Affairs prelims test package.

All this completes a study loop and enhances your retention.

  • Civilsdaily Handholding and mentoring: 

Our team led by Sajal sir is there to provide handholding support all through your UPSC expedition. Increased interaction with the faculty and teachers from Civilsdaily will help you align your preparation and make it more appropriate. You can reach out to Sajal sir and other teachers on Habitat.

  • Google meet sessions

Another important component we have added this year is Google meet sessions. These sessions will be conducted on a regular basis with the aspirants. After almost every class, we will meet our students on the premium live webinar.

  • Samachar Manthan 2023 -Habitat club

Habitat is where everything comes together learning, doubt clearing, notes, references, mentors, and a focussed community. You’re going to learn and discuss like never before. 

How will your queries be resolved?

  • The moment you have a query, you post it in the group. At 11 PM, 3 AM, doesn’t matter. No need to schedule a call, or drop an email. Just drop a chat. Once our team is up, it will be resolved.
  • More often than not, your peers will take part in your doubt discussions adding a lot of value.

Besides doubts, what else is there on Habitat?

  • #DDS sessions – We have dedicated sessions every day to resolve doubts in real-time. Never keep a doubt to yourself. 
  • An ecosystem for co-learning and active learning.
  • A highly motivated community to bring flexibility and consistency to your preparation.
  • Marathon revision sessions before Prelims and Mains

To consolidate your coverage and revision we take revision sessions on Habitat.

  • Checked Copy Discussion On Phone / In-person

True ease in writing comes from art and not by chance. So, your writing copies will be checked by our highly qualified & experienced teachers. And they will discuss your checked answers individually with you over the phone or in person. It will help you thrive as a writing prodigy.

Evaluated answer sheet – 1 (Click to download)

Evaluated answer sheet – 2 (Click to download)

The Highly experienced faculty leading this program:

Sajal SinghSudhanshu Mishra
Sajal sir is known to make Economics and IR as easy as a cakewalk. He scored one of the highest marks in GS in the 2017 UPSC exam. Under his guidance, more than 80 percent of students qualified for the UPSC interview 2020 Smash mains Program.Sudhanshu sir has firsthand experience of 3 mains and two interviews of UPSC. He has served in the defense ministry for 10 years with a keen interest in regional and global geopolitics and has ample experience in various other competitive exams as well.
Sukanya RanaPoornima
Our Civilsdaily Mains Program Head Mrs. Sukanya Rana earlier worked as a PO in Canara Bank. She has an experience of 4 mains and 2 interviews of UPSC. In 2019, she had scored 140 in ethics paper 4. She is part of Smash Mains as an Ethics Mentor. Graduate from Miranda house in Geography and did MA from JNU in Geography. She is also a qualified Net JRF in Geography. So, she will comprehensively cover all the current affairs issues regarding Geography.
  • Other Senior Bureaucrats and toppers will also be joining for various lectures and guest sessions.

Shri V.P. Singh Sir, IRPS

Virendra Pratap Singh did his B.Tech from IIT Kharagpur in 2003. He joined the services with immense experience in the Private Sector working across domains in high-profile companies like Tata Steel, Maruti Suzuki India Ltd, and Tata Motors. He has consistently scored very high marks in interviews. His 2009 score of 213/300 was among the toppers.

Himanshu Arora

Himanshu sir has a wide experience in the field of both academics and policy-making. He has earlier taught Economics at both undergraduate and Post-Graduate levels at Delhi University. Currently, he is working at the Prime Minister’s economic advisory council. He also writes columns regularly in prestigious newspapers like The Hindu, Indian Express, and Millenium post.

SD Singh

Dr. S D Singh sir, Retd IFoS, 1988 Batch, Uttarakhand Cadre.

He is currently employed with MoEF as a senior consultant. He has 33 years of experience in forestry, environment, wildlife, and biodiversity conservation.

This is what our students have to say about Samachar Manthan and Sajal Sir & other faculties.

Feedbacks from our students.

Samachar Manthan Civilsdaily IAS Current Affairs UPSC

Toppers and Samachar Manthan

Shahansha AIR 142, student of Samachar Manthan
Dilpreet Singh, AIR 237, student of Samachar Manthan

Smash UPSC-CSE 2023: Foundation Batch-Offline Classroom Program by Civilsdaily | ONLY 10 SEATS LEFT | Success Rate of 80% in our past programs | Civilsdaily Goes Offline

After making a grand Success-History on the internet, Civilsdaily now goes offline to add a new feather in its cap. Yes, this is the all-dimensional extension of CD. Whether it is online or offline, It’s a distinction without a difference.

Acknowledging the need to ensure removing difficulties, the OFFLINE students face, priority has been accorded to content, quality, and accuracy. With the focus on all-round development, Civilsdaily has made up its mind to launch the much-covetedUPSC-CSE Foundation Program-2023 Offline Classroom Batch’ by the 3rd week of June 2022. 

Come rain or shine, Civilsdaily’s dedicated offline mentor teachers group stands by all UPSC aspirants without a second thought.

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EMI Facility Available @ No Extra Cost!

No Cost EMI Facility for Students enrolling in Civilsdaily’s Foundation Course 2023. This is ensure that financial burden has not remain a concern for your preparation.

Please note that there will be no processing fee involved and no hidden costs when you avail the EMI facility.


What Differentiates Our Foundation Course?

Civilsdaily’s Mentorship is clearly one brand which sets us apart from any other institute in this Domain.

Civilsdaily mentorship helps you in 6 key components of your preparation-

  1. Direction– Civilsdaily’s mentors are highly qualified, with at least one year of mentorship experience and two UPSC CSE Interviews under their belts. They are well-versed in themany stages of preparation. These mentors will assist you in developing both a comprehensive and micro schedule. They’ll put together a weekly programme for you, complete with mentorship calls. This schedule will be created based on a thorough examination of the importance of subjects as well as the interconnection of topics to make it easier for students to grasp the material.
  2. Discipline– The student will be held accountable to the mentor since he or she will be required to complete a weekly target set by the mentor.
  3. Consistency– Students can retain consistency in their preparation by having their mentor monitor them constantly and giving them regular tests. Furthermore, rational scheduling aids pupils in adopting an integrated approach to preparation..
  4. Value addition– Mentors also assist students with their questions and resources. Students become perplexed as to which resources to follow due to the abundance of content available on the market. Mentors can assist you in locating and referring to the most appropriate materials. This aids students in consolidating their resources and avoiding content overload. Mentors will also offer video assistance.Remember- the mantra to clear UPSC is MINIMUM RESOURCES, MAXIMUM REVISIONS.
  5. Evaluation– The UAP/foundation curriculum also contains a prelims and mains testseries, as well as weekly 10 mains questions from Samachar Manthan (SM). Your mentor will go through each test with you and help you figure out your strengths and shortcomings. So, if you devote yourself to this programme, you will receive one-on-one assistance for more than 40 mains tests (including SM) and more than 30 prelims tests. Furthermore, each test will be examined twice by professional evaluators, with a mentor evaluating the results later.
  6. Motivation– When you’re feeling down or don’t feel like studying, you can reach out to your mentor, have a conversation, get motivated, and restart your studies. Mentor-recommended relaxation techniques can assist you in learning more effectively.

A look at what students have to say about Mentorship:

If you want to experience the same mentorship as Rishab Sharma, then here’s the good news – your first UPSC mentorship is on us and is absolutely free! All you have to do is confirm your slot now.
Experience of Civilsdaily Mentorship

A name trusted by Rank 1 & 2:

Key Features about UPSC-CSE Foundation Program 2023 Offline Classroom Batch

  • Integrated Prelims, Mains and Essay Test Series along with Current Affairs and Personalized Mentorship.
  • UAP & Master Classes: Full coverage for GS prelims & mains.
  • Differentiators- Mentorship
  • Watch the lectures unlimited times
  • Combination of offline learning and in depth mentoring which gives students proper guidance throughout the preparation journey.
  • Pre cum mains offline foundation program contains every General Studies subject. Syllabus Wise each and every point will be covered in Prelims as well as in mains. 
  • Post classes support of individual mentor
  • Notes and study materials: all necessary materials of static and current will be provided through hard copies.

A look at the programs in Our Foundation course






  • 12 SECTIONAL + 12 FLTS





Here is a comparison Chart to know how Civilsdaily stands apart


About the faculty leading this program:

Sajal Singh: Sajal sir is known to make Economics and IR as easy as a cakewalk. He scored one of the highest marks in GS in the 2017 UPSC exam. Under his guidance, more than 80 percent of Students qualified for UPSC interview 2020 in Smash mains Program.


Sudhanshu Mishra: Prior to benchmarking himself as Polity teacher at Civilsdaily, Sudhanshu Sir has served in the Defense Ministry for 10 years. He has a keen interest in regional and global geopolitics which do not only substantially reflect in his lectures but also had come in handy in several stages of his UPSC & PSCs exams. 

He is also an MBA candidate Co’23 from IIM Kozhikode.


Sukanya Rana: Our Civilsdaily Mains Program Head Mrs. Sukanya Rana has been mentoring students across multiple stages from prelims to mains to interview. She is part of Smash Mains as Ethics Mentor ans helped Civilsdaily topper to achieve their dream. Interview in 2016.



Graduate from Miranda house in Geography and done MA from JNU in Geography. She is also a qualified Net JRF in Geography.

Other Senior Bureaucrats and toppers will also be joining for various lectures and guest session.

Shri V.P. Singh Sir, IRPS

Virendra Pratap Singh did is B.Tech from IIT Kharagpur in 2003. He joined the services with immense experience in the Private Sector working across domains in high profile companies like Tata Steel, Maruti Suzuki India Ltd, and Tata Motors. He has consistently scored very high marks in interviews. His 2009 score of 213/300 was among the toppers.

Himanshu Arora

Himanshu sir has a wide experience in the field of both academics and policy-making. He has earlier taught Economics at both under-graduate and Post-Graduate level in Delhi University. Currently, he is working at the Prime Minister economic advisory council. He also writes columns regularly in prestigious newspapers like The Hindu, Indian Express and Millenium post.

SD Singh

Dr. S D Singh sir, Retd IFoS, 1988 Batch, Uttarakhand Cadre.
He is currently employed with MoEF as a senior consultant. He has 33 years of experience in forestry, environment, wildlife and biodiversity conservation.

Join our inaugural session:

Date: Will be announced soon

Address: 1 LGF, Apsara Arcade, Pusa Rd Next to Gate No.7 Karol Bagh, Metro, North Extn Area, Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi, Delhi 110060

Get In Touch:


Phone: +91 8882914783

Finally, Teachers Open The Doors, But You Must Enter By Yourself. Now, both the ways lie before you. If you like learning in a traditional classroom way, we are waiting for you at Rajendra Nagar. And if you prefer learning by staying at your home, we appear on the internet anytime you fit. All the best.


Toppers’ Footprints: How to best utilize 120 mins in UPSC Prelims 2022 to crack in the very 1st Attempt | Face Prelims More Confidently | Ask Me Anything Open Book Session | Joining Link

Feel Free to Enter the amazing Ask Me Anything open book session & don’t let Prelims faze you out.

Civilsdaily Team is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.
*How to best utilise 120 mins in Prelims 2022 exam || Shubham Jatte, Mentor @Civilsdaily IAS*Date & Time: *May 13, 2022 @07:00 PM (start login 06:45 PM onwards) India*

Join Zoom Meeting

Meeting ID: 893 7955 7388

Passcode: 671762

Webinar Details:

Seize the opportunity to get infallible tips on ‘How to face prelims MCQs on the real ground’, and ‘What is the best exam hall mindset’, & ‘How to use Self Mastery to avoid silly mistakes. This exclusive webinar is free. All aspirants are wholeheartedly welcome to attend.

Date: 13th May 2022 (Sunday)

Time: 7 PM to 8 PM

Unavoidable Tips in This Free Live Webinar by Shubham Sir!

  1. What is the importance of having a real exam hall mindset? How should it be your attitude! How to stay focused on the question paper with full of concentration. Best, authentic, Do’s & Don’t, to retain all essential pieces of information for UPSC-Prelims. 
  1. How to avoid silly mistakes? They’re nobody’s enemy but yours own. So, how to stay fully concentrated over the question papers, will also be discussed.
  1. What & how should be your All round strategy for both the papers in UPSC Prelims 2022? To stay emotionally firm in the exam hall is mandatory to give your best on the OMR sheets. The most appropriate firsthand strategy is going to be discussed here.
  1. How many questions you ought to attempt! What should you focus on while attempting MCQs with full of confidence? It’s yourself over whom you have to hold control. So, how to establish a 120 minutes-relationship between questions & you are the foremost thing you should never ignore.
  1. What are those 5 magical principles that exist behind the Elimination-techniques? Our toppers used to utilize & implement these 5 magical principles that proved miracles to maintain consistency of approach.
  2. When is the accurate time to start marking in the OMR sheet? So, even a single second fetch an optimistic attitude in your approach, will be disclosed in this webinar.

About Subham Jatte Sir:

Subham sir is a mentor with CivilsDaily for nearly 3+ years and is now working with other senior mentors of the Civilsdaily UPSC Guidance Program. He has mentored more than 2500+ Aspirants with his huge experience of cracking 4 Mains in UPSC-CSE. He also identifies himself as a certified teacher by preference. He is also known for his love for writing and sharing the best success mantras with aspirants.


Mock Interview UPSC 2021: Paneled by former EC, Dy CAG, CEC, and Secretary level bureaucrats | On-demand session: book your slot

Book your slot for UPSC Mock interviews (paneled by ex UPSC members) and get a dedicated mentor, on-call DAF analysis, DAF-based personalized questionnaire, and Situational questionnaire (FREE)

To give you a real feel of the panel that you will be facing in your real UPSC interview 2021, CD has brought together a mix of the most experienced and valued panelists for your mock interview.

Panelists for Mock Interviews: 

  1. Shri Shankar Aggarwal, IAS (retd.), former Secretary
  2. Dr. Noor Mohammad, IAS (retd.), former EC
  3. Dr. P.K. Agrawal, IAS (Retd.), former Ch. Secy
  4. Shri T. N. Thakur, IAAS (retd.), former Dy CAG
  5. Shri V. P. Singh, IRPS
  6. Mrs.Aditi Gupta, Corporate Leadership Specialist
  7. Prof. U.M. Amin, Jamia Milia University
  8. Mr. S. D. Singh, IFoS (Retd.)
  9. Mr. Kunal Aggarwal, IRS
  10. Mr. Debraj Das, IPS

Tentative: Shri S. Y. Quraishi (former CEC), Shri Harsh V. Pant (Observer Research Foundation), Shri SN Tripathi, IAS (Director IIPA), Shri Yogesh Narain (Retd. Defence Secretary), Shri Dipankar Gupta (Indian Sociologist), and others.

Upcoming Mock interview and session

This week’s mock interview dates have been fixed.

  • Mock interview this week 12th May onwards – (Book your slot)   
  • Time: 10 a.m. – 7 p.m.  
  • Mode: Online/Offline 

Do You Know That Civilsdaily Has a 75% Success Rate In UPSC Interview?

Interview slots will be allocated on a first-come, first-served basis.

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Transcend Interview Guidance 2021: Program inclusion

  1. 2 Mock interviews, detailed analysis + feedback
  2. Most important issues coverage – current and structural
  3. Personalized mentorship
  4. DAF analysis and one-on-one sessions with in-service officers and panelists
  5. DAF based personalized questionnaire
  6. Situational and Roleplay questionnaire

Do You Know That Civilsdaily Has a 75% Success Rate In UPSC Interviews?

As a part of Transcend Interview Guidance Program for UPSC 2021 we’ve prepared and compiled a high-quality comprehensive questionnaire.


UPSC PRELIMS 2022: 10 Question solving smart techniques to get 110+ score

Sajal Sir lecture on Smart question solving techniques

Knowledge alone is not enough to clear UPSC Prelims. Elimination techniques alone are not enough to crack this exam. One needs both to clear UPSC Prelims from 2014 onwards. Since UPSC Prelims is the toughest exam out of Interview and Mains with over 9.5 lakh aspirants getting disqualified, it’s always better to think about increasing 20-30 marks with your existing knowledge using elimination techniques. 

Why is that with the same syllabus, the same study materials and similar syllabus and similar study materials, most candidates score differently? For some, just a reading of the Spectrum book is enough to answer all the Modern History questions, but for others despite reading the same book they are not able to answer the questions

If it’s about prelims exam performance, then aspirants fall into either of these four categories. Which category are you in currently?

1) Prelims score 0-40: They need to work on improving their knowledge first and then learn answering tricks
2) Prelims score 50-70: They have decent knowledge and decent answering tricks.But this is not enough to clear Prelims, they need to be an above average performer. Hence, they must focus on preparing for the topics they have scored less in their mock tests. 
3) Prelims score 80-100: They have good knowledge but they need to develop answering tricks. They can do without learning elimination techniques as well, but if they wish to be on the same time learning elimination techniques will guarantee them success. 
4) Prelims score 120+: They have excellent knowledge and know all the answering tricks.

Sajal Sir lecture on Smart question solving techniques

Clearing Prelims is all about Knowledge + Answering Tricks (Tikdams).

These Techniques will be your last minute addition to prelims preparation.

Watch the video and let us know if you have any last minute query or doubt on prelims 2022.

Announcements Nikaalo Prelims

Imp: UPSC Prelims 2022 || Important British Commissions and Committees

10th May, 2022

Educational Commissions

(1) Charles Wood Despatch – 1854
  • Objective: Wood’s despatch proposed several recommendations in order to improve the system of education.
  • According to the recommendations, it was declared that the aim of the Government’s policy was the promotion of western education. In his despatch, he emphasized on the education of art, science, philosophy and literature of Europe.
  • In short, the propagation of European knowledge was the motto of the Wood’s Despatch.
  • According to the despatch, for higher education, the chief medium of instruction would be English.
  • However, the significance of the vernacular language was no less emphasized as Wood believed that through the mediums of vernacular language, European knowledge could reach to the masses.
  • Wood’s Despatch also proposed the setting up of several vernacular primary schools in the villages at the lowest stage.
  • Moreover, there should be Anglo-Vernacular high schools and an affiliated college in the district level.
  • Wood’s Despatch recommended a system of grants-in-aid to encourage and foster the private enterprise in the field of education.
  • The grants-in-aid were conditional on the institution employing qualified teachers and maintaining proper standards of teaching.

(2) Hunter Commission – 1882

  • Appointed by: Viceroy Lord Ripon
  • Objective: Hunter Education Commission was a landmark commission with objectives to look into the complaints of the non-implementation of the Wood’s Despatch of 1854; the contemporary status of elementary education in the British territories; and suggests means by which this can be extended and improved.
  • Headed by: Sir William Wilson Hunter
  • He submitted its report in 1882.

Commission suggestions:

  1. There should be two types of education arrangements at the high school level, in which emphasis should be given on giving a vocational and business education and other such literary education should be given, which will help in admission to the university.
  2. Arrangement for emphasis on the importance of education at the primary level and education in local language and useful subjects.
  3. Private efforts should be welcomed in the field of education, but primary education should be given without him.
  4. Control of education at the primary level should be handed over to the district and city boards.

(3) Hunter Commission of 1882 on Primary Education:

  • Primary education should be regarded as the education of the masses. Education should be able to train the people for self-dependence.
  • The medium of instruction in primary education should be the mother tongue. Normal Schools should be established for the training of teachers.
  • The curriculum should include useful subjects like agriculture, elements of natural and physical science and the native method of arithmetic and measurement, etc.
  • The spread of primary education for the tribal and backward people should be the responsibility of the Government.
  • Fees should be an example to students on the basis of their financial difficulties.

(4) Raleigh Commission – 1902

  • Appointed under: Raleigh Commission was appointed under the presidency of Sir Thomas Raleigh on 27 January 1902.
  • Objective: To inquire into the condition and prospects of universities in India and to recommend proposals for improving their constitution and working.
  • Evidently, the Commission was precluded from reporting on primary or secondary education.
  • As a result of the report of the recommendations of the Commission the Indian Universities Act was passed in 1904.
  • The main objective of the Act: to improve the condition of education in India and upgrade the system to a better level

Important changes introduced for the upliftment of University Education:

  1. Universities were empowered to appoint their own staff including the teaching staff.
  2. The number of Fellows of a University was limited within 50 to 100.
  3. The number of elected Fellows was fixed at 20 for the Bombay, Madras and Calcutta Universities and 15 for others.
  4. The Governor-General was now empowered to decide a University’s territorial limits and also affiliation between the universities and colleges.
  5. After the implementation of the provisions of the University Act, though the number of colleges declined, yet the number of students increased considerably.

Government Resolution on Education Policy (1913)

  • In 1906, the progressive state of Baroda introduced compulsory primary education throughout its territories. In its 1913
  • Resolution on Education Policy, the government refused to take up the responsibility of compulsory education, but accepted the policy of removal of illiteracy and urged provincial governments to take early steps to provide free elementary education to the poorer and more backward sections.
Timeline: Vernacular education development in India

(5) Sadler Commission – 1917

  • In 1917, the Calcutta University Commission (Sadler Commission) was appointed by the Government of India under the Chairmanship of Mr. Michel Sadler, the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds.


  1. All the teaching resources in the city of Calcutta should be organized so that the Calcutta University may become entirely a teaching university.
  2. A separate teaching and residential university should be established at Dacca.
  3. There was a need for a coordinating agency. Hence an inter-University Board should be set up.
  4. Honors courses should be instituted and they should be distinctly different from the Pass courses.
  5. Full time and salaried Vice-Chancellor should be appointed to be the administrative head of the university.
  6. The Senate and the syndicate should be replaced by the Court and the Executive Council respectively.
  7. Universities should be freed from excessive official control.
  8. Government interference in the academic matters of universities should stop.

(6) Hartog Commission – 1929

  • Sir Philip Joseph Hartog committee was appointed by the British Indian government to survey on the growth of education in India.
  • The Hartog committee (1929), had devoted more attention to mass education than the secondary and University education.
  • The Hartog committee highlighted the problem of wastage and stagnation in education at the primary level.
  • It recommended the policy of consolidation instead of multiplication of schools. The duration of the primary course was to be fixed to four years.
  • It recommended for the improvements in quality, pay, and service conditions of teachers and relating the syllabus and teaching methods to the local environment of villages and locality
  • The Hartog committee on education recommended for the promotion of technical and commercial education by universities to control the problem of unemployment.
  • The recommendation of the Hartog committee of 1929 was an attempt for consolidation and stabilization of education. The Hartog committee of 1929 was seen as a torchbearer of the government’s effort to improve the quality of education.
  • However, these recommendations of Hartog committee of 1929 remained only on paper and could not be implemented due to the great economic depression of 1930-31.

(7) Sargent Plan – 1944

  • The Sargent plan of education came after Sir John Sargent was given the task to prepare a comprehensive scheme of education for India in 1944.


  1. Pre-primary education for children between 3 to 6 years of age. Universal, compulsory and free primary or basic education for all children between the ages 6—11 (junior basic) and 11—14 (senior basic).
  2. High school education for six years for selected children between the years 11—17.
  3. Degree course for three years beginning after the higher secondary examination for selected students
  4. Technical, commercial, agricultural and art education for full time and part-time students, girls schools are to teach domestic science.
  5. The liquidation of adult illiteracy and the development of a public library system in about 20 years.
  6. Full provision for the proper training of teachers.
  7. Educational provision is made for the physically and mentally handicapped children.
  8. The organization of compulsory physical education.
  9. Provision to be made for social and recreational activities.
  10. The creation of employment bureaus.
  11. The creation of the Department of Education in the centre and in the states.
  12. The use of mother tongue is to be used as the medium of instruction in all high schools.

Famine Commissions during British Rule in India

(1) Campbell Commission
  • In 1865-66, a famine engulfed Orissa, Bengal, Bihar, and Madras and took a toll of nearly 20 lakhs of lives with Orissa alone loosing 10 lakh lives, since the famine was most severe in Orissa; it is called the Orissa famine.
  • The Government officers though forewarned took no steps to meet the calamity.
  • The Government adhered to the principles of free trade and the law of demand and supply, the Government did provide employment to the table booked men leaving the work of charitable relief to the voluntary agency.
  • But the famine proved a turning point in the history of Indian famines for it was followed by the appointment of a committee under the chairmanship of Sir George Campbell.

(2) Stratchy Commission

  • It was set up in 1878 under the Chairmanship of Sir Richard Strachey.
  • The commission recommended state interference in food trade in the event of famine. India witnessed another major famine in 1896-97.

(3) Lyall Commission

  • It was constituted in 1897 under the Chairmanship of Sir James Lyall. This commission recommended the development of irrigation facilities.

(4) MacDonnell Commission

  • It was set up in 1900 under the Chairmanship of Sir Anthony (Later Lord) McDonnel to re-evaluate and recommend changes in report of the previous commission, based on the findings of the recent famine.
  • This Commission recommended that the official machinery dealing with a famine must work around the year so that the scarcity of food grains could be controlled well in time.

Law Commission

  • Law Commissions in India have a pre-independence origin. The first Law Commission was formed in 1834 as a result of the Charter Act, 1833 under the chairmanship of TB Macaulay.
  • The first commission’s recommendations resulted in the codification of the penal code and the Criminal Procedure Code.
  • Three other law commissions were constituted before independence by the British government.
  • All four pre-independent law commissions have contributed to the statute books immensely.
  • After independence, the first Law Commission was constituted in 1955 in a continuance of the tradition of bringing law reforms in the country through the medium of law commissions.
  • Second Pre-Independence Law Commission,1853 – Sir John Romilly.
  • Third Pre-Independence Law Commission, 1862- Sir John Romilly.
  • Fourth Pre-Independence Law Commission, 1879 – Dr Whitley Stokes.

Currency Commission

(1) Mansfield Commission by Dufferin in 1886
  • The Indian Currency Committee or Fowler Committee was a government committee appointed by the British-run Government of India on 29 April 1898 to examine the current situation in India.
  • Until 1892, silver was the metal on which Indian currency and coinage had largely been based. In 1892, the Government of India announced its intent to “close Indian mints to silver” and, in 1893, it brought this policy into force.

Other Commissions on Currency:

  1. Fowler Commission by Elgin II in 1898
  2. Babington Smith Commission by Chelmsford in 1919
  3. Hilton Young Commission by Linlithgow in 1926

Other Important Commissions

  1. Scott-Moncrieff Commission (Irrigation) by Curzon in 1901
  2. Fraser Commission (Police Reforms) by Curzon in 1902
  3. Hunter Commission (Punjab Disturbances) by Chelmsford 1919
  4. Butler Commission (Indian States relation with British Crown) by Irwin in 1927
  5. Whiteley Commission (Labour) by Irwin in 1929
  6. Sapru Commission (Unemployment) by Linlithgow in 1935
  7. Chalfield Commission (Army) by Linlighgow 1939
  8. Floud Commission (Tenancy in Bengal) by Linlighgow in 1940


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Siddharth sir is a mentor with CivilsDaily for nearly 5+ years and is now working with other senior mentors of the Civilsdaily UPSC Guidance Program. With a brief stint in the service and Edtech industry, he has mentored more than 2000 Aspirants and is one of the recognized interviewers under UPSC Domain. He also identifies himself as a certified Nutritionist and a fitness fanatic by inclination. He is also known for his love for writing and reciting News/poetry in a deeper and soulful voice.


Cracking UPSC 2 times || How did AIR 42 Pooja Gupta benefited from Civilsdaily Mentorship Program ?

An out and out performer, Pooja Gupta has done it again. She has kept it simple and clean. As she mentions in the interview, her strategy revolved heavily around NCERTs, solving sufficient numbers of question papers and obtaining timely guidance.

She appeared in UPSC IAS exam twice and aced it on both the occasions. Going through the process of structuring upsc syllabus extensively, she recommends the NCERTs over other sources.

Pooja’s answers before she joined Civilsdaily.

Pooja-Gupta(AIR-42)-Answers Before Feedback From CD

Notice the change in her writing after guidance from our mentors.

Pooja-Gupta (AIR-42)-Answers After Feedback From CD


Overwhelmed by UPSC material- online PDFs, yellow books and whatnot? | Fill Samanvaya (FREE) for best Sources, personalized Timetable and mentors’ advice

It is better to know one book intimately than a hundred superficially.”– Every UPSC topper and senior IAS mentor echoed this sentiment.

We believe it and that’s why Top rank-seeking aspirants always get in touch with us.

Unfortunately, the internet is flooded with countless UPSC videos, coaching material e-books, and PDFs, etc. But, have you ever considered that if just by following material one could become an IAS, only the children of bookshop owners would have cracked this exam!

Not surprisingly, For prelims, knowing the most appropriate sources for GS without CSAT is just meaningless.

What to do?

  1. Cover as widely as possible – revise regularly what has been covered
  2. Maintain a proper balance between memorization and understanding – both are needed
  3. Quality of coverage is more important than the quantity of material covered.

Many fail to understand the importance of experienced Mentors and jump into reaching the destination by any means in every walk of life. This however can be misleading in preparation for UPSC-CSE.

The more you think of the results independently, the more you miss in fine-tuning and adhering to a sustainable resource & routine. A mentor’s guide is the key to reaching your goal.

How Much Content Should You Refer To For UPSC Preparation? 

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Apart from NCERT books, be mentally prepared to spend in at least 15-20 standard textbooks for various topics. This is since the UPSC-CSE Prelims and Mains both include at least 15 subjects/topics. To cover each subject in-depth, you’ll probably need to read several volumes.

Even though you should prioritize what you learn, you should never limit your reading. Your reading should be extensive and in-depth. Advanced books can be used as supplements to your internet preparation and can greatly aid self-study.

Most of the essential books will be covered automatically as per the timetable if you use Civilsdaily Test-based strategy to clear UPSC Prelims.

If you only have a limited amount of time to complete the syllabus before the exam, compact books are preferable to bulky ones. There’s no need to read all of the books in order. Concentrate on the most crucial parts of each book.

How Civilsdaily helps thousands of UPSC Aspirants in PDFs + Online video content selection?

Most of the topics for UPSC-CSE will be covered in class lectures and coaching notes if you are pursuing a UPSC-CSE online/offline foundation course.

To save aspirants from being misled, Civilsdaily has been conducting these from time to time:

However, if you are preparing for the UPSC totally on your own, you may not have access to a few of these tools. In this scenario, books are your most influential UPSC companions.

Bottom Line:

Yet, even with so extensive list of books published on the various websites, they cannot cover the syllabi of UPSC comprehensively. There are some portions, which need to be picked up from periodic sources.

Now, the question surfaces, as it does for many new aspirants: if such well-known sources are widely available, what do successful candidates do in addition to getting an advantage over their competitors? What are the additional resources that should be utilized to overcome the large influx of aspirants? Are there any hidden or secret materials that only a select few have access to?

Such resources, to be honest, do not exist. Honestly, the books and sources mentioned here only cover a small portion of the material available in bookshops and markets. In reality, a lesser number of sources than those mentioned above will suffice.

Remember: despite having all the books, toppers couldn’t have become toppers without mentors’ guidance. Their meticulous preparation, consistency in studies, self-belief, thirst for success, zeal to achieve their goals, and patience are what set them apart. 

All the best.

Announcements Nikaalo Prelims

Imp: UPSC Prelims 2022 || Schemes Regarding Agriculture & Allied Sectors

6th May 2022

Dear Aspirants,

This Spotlight is a part of our Mission Nikaalo Prelims-2022

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1.1 Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana


  • To achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level.
  • To enhance the recharge of aquifers and introduce sustainable water conservation practices.
  • To explore the feasibility of reusing treated municipal wastewater for peri-urban agriculture.
  • To attract greater private investments in irrigation.
  • To promote extension activities relating to water harvesting, water management and crop alignment for farmers and grass root level field functionaries.

Salient features

  • Decentralized State level planning and projectized execution’ structure, in order to allow States to draw up a District Irrigation Plan (DIP) and a State Irrigation Plan (SIP). These plans need to be prepared in order to access the PMKSY fund.
  • It will be supervised and monitored by the Inter-Ministerial National Steering Committee (NSC) under PM with Union Ministers of all concerned Ministries. A National Executive Committee (NEC) is to be constituted under the Chairmanship of the Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog to oversee programme implementation.
  • PMKSY has been formulated amalgamation ongoing schemes viz. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP); Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP); and On-Farm Water Management (OFWM) component of National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).
  • Water budgeting is done for all sectors namely, household, agriculture and industries.
  • Investments will happen at farm level. So, farmers know what is happening and can provide valuable feedback.
  • Recently, the Long Term Irrigation Fund has been instituted under PMKSY in NABARD for funding and fast-tracking the implementation of incomplete major and medium irrigation projects.

1.2 Large Area Certification Scheme


   Despite deep inroads of modern agricultural practices, still, there are large contiguous areas in hills, tribal districts, desert and rained areas in India that continue to remain free from chemical input usage. With little efforts, such traditional/ default organic areas can be brought under organic certification almost immediately.
  Department of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare under its flagship scheme of Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojna (PKVY) has launched a unique quick certification programme “Large Area Certification” (LAC) to harness these potential areas under Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yajana.

 Salient features

  • LAC is a Quick certification process that is cost-effective and farmers do not have to wait for 2-3 years for marketing PGS(Participatory Guarantee System) organic certified products. Whereas As per the established norm of organic production systems, the areas having chemical input usage history are required to undergo a transition period of minimum 2-3 years to qualify as organic. 

  • Under LAC, each village in the area is considered as one cluster/group.  
  • Documentations are simple and maintained village-wise.
  • Plan based on agro-climatic conditions, availability of appropriate technology and natural priorities.
  • All farmers with their farmland and livestock need to adhere to the standard requirements and on being verified get certified en-mass without the need to go under conversion period. Certification is renewed on annual basis through annual verification by a process of peer appraisals as per the process of PGS-India.



  • Increasing production of rice, wheat, pulses, coarse cereals and commercial crops through area expansion and productivity enhancement in a sustainable manner.
  • Restore soil fertility and productivity at the individual farm level.
  • Enhancing farm level economy.

Salient features

  • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme which was launched in 2007.
  • The approach of the scheme is to bridge the yield gap in respect of these crops through dissemination of improved technologies and farm management practices while focusing on districts which have high potential but relatively low level of productivity at present.
  • Major Components – National Food Security Mission – Rice, National Food Security Mission – Wheat, National Food Security Mission – Pulses,
  • National Food Security Mission – Coarse Cereals and National Food Security Mission –Commercial Crops.


Objective of this Scheme:

  • Create scientific storage capacity with allied facilities in rural areas.
  • To meet the requirements of farmers for storing farm produce, processed farm produce and agricultural inputs.
  • Promotion of grading, standardization and quality control of agricultural produce to improve their marketability.
  • Prevent distress sale immediately after harvest by providing the facility of pledge financing and marketing credit by strengthening agricultural marketing infrastructure in the country.




  • To issue soil health cards every 3 years, to all farmers of the country, so as to provide a basis to address nutrient deficiencies in fertilization practices.
  • To strengthen the functioning of Soil Testing Laboratories (STLs) through capacity building, the involvement of agriculture students and effective linkage with Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) / State Agricultural Universities (SAUs).
  • To diagnose soil fertility related constraints with standardized procedures for sampling uniformly across states.
  • To build capacities of district and state level staff and of progressive farmers for promotion of nutrient management practices.

Salient features

  • It is a centrally sponsored scheme launched by the Government of India in 2015.
  • It is being implemented through the Department of Agriculture of all the State and Union Territory Governments.
  • Assistance is provided to the State Government to issue Soil Health Card and also develop a database to improve service delivery.
  • Soil Health Card issued to farmers carry crop-wise recommendations of nutrients and fertilizers required for the individual farms.
  • The experts will analyze the strength and weaknesses (micronutrients deficiency) of the soil collected from farms and suggest measures to deal with it.
  • It will contain the status of his soil with respect to 12 parameters, namely N,P,K (Macronutrients); S (Secondary nutrient); Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo (Micro – nutrients); and pH, EC, OC (Physical parameters).



  • To provide insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of natural calamities, pests & diseases.
  • To stabilise the income of farmers to ensure their continuance in farming.
  • To encourage farmers to adopt innovative and modern agricultural practices.
  • To ensure flow of credit to the agriculture sector.
  • Intended beneficiary – All farmers including sharecroppers and tenant farmers growing notified crops in a notified area during the season who have insurable interest in the crop are eligible.

Salient features

  • It replaced all other existing insurance schemes except the Restructured Weather-Based Crop Insurance Scheme (uses weather parameters as proxy for crop yield in compensating the cultivators for deemed crop loses).
  • A uniform premium of only 2% to be paid by farmers for all Kharif crops and 1.5% for all Rabi crops.
  • In case of annual commercial and horticultural crops, the premium to be paid by farmers will be only 5%.
  • There is no upper limit on Government subsidy so farmers will get claim against full sum insured without any reduction.
  • The difference between the premium paid by farmers and the actuarial premium charged was paid by the Centre and state government in the ratio of 50:50.
  • It is compulsory for loanee farmers availing crop loans for notified crops in notified areas and voluntary for non-loanee farmers.
  • Yield Losses: due to non-preventable risks, such as Natural Fire and Lightning, Storm, Hailstorm, Cyclone, Typhoon, Tempest, Hurricane, Tornado.
  • Risks due to Flood, Inundation and Landslide, Drought, Dry spells, Pests/ Diseases also will be covered.
  • Post-harvest losses are also covered.
  • Mandatory use of technology: Smart phones, drones etc., will be used to capture and upload data of crop cutting to reduce the delays in claim payment to farmers. Remote sensing will be used to reduce the number of crop cutting experiments.
  • The Scheme shall be implemented on an ‘Area Approach basis’. Defined Area (i.e., unit area of insurance) is Village or above. It can be a Geo-Fenced/Geo-mapped region having homogenous Risk Profile for the notified crop.
  • Presently, 5 public sector insurers (Agriculture Insurance Company of India, United India Insurance Company etc.) and 13 private insurance companies are empanelled for implementation of the scheme.
  • Recently, states have been allowed to set up their own insurance companies for implementing the scheme.

1.7 National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) has been formulated for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rainfed areas focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management and synergizing resource conservation.


  • To make agriculture more productive, sustainable, remunerative and climate resilient by promoting location specific Integrated/Composite Farming Systems
  • To conserve natural resources through appropriate soil and moisture conservation measures
  • To adopt comprehensive soil health management practices based on soil fertility maps, soil test based application of macro & micro nutrients, judicious use of fertilizers etc.
  • To optimize utilization of water resources through efficient water management to expand coverage for achieving ‘more crop per drop’.
  • To develop capacity of farmers & stakeholders, in conjunction with other on going missions e.g. National Mission on Agriculture Extension & Technology, National Food Security Mission, National Initiative for Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) etc., in the domain of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.
  • To pilot models in select blocks for improving productivity of rainfed farming by mainstreaming rainfed technologies refined through NICRA and by leveraging resources  from other schemes/Missions like Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP), RKVY etc.; and
  • To establish an effective inter and intra Departmental/Ministerial coordination for accomplishing key deliverables of National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture under the aegis of National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).



  • Promotion of commercial organic production through certified organic farming.
  • pesticide residue free produce and improved health of consumer
  • Raise farmer’s income and create potential markets for traders.
  • Motivate the farmers for natural resource mobilization for input production.
  • Increase domestic production and certification of organic produce by involving farmers.

Intended beneficiary

  • Farmers doing organic farming
  • Farmers from NE India such as Sikkim
  • Food processing industries
  • Organic foods – export industry

Salient features

  • “Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana” is an elaborated component of Soil Health Management (SHM) under National Mission of Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).
  • Cluster Approach: Fifty or more farmers form a cluster having 50 acre land to take organic farming. Each farmer will be provided Rs. 20000 per acre in three years for seed to harvesting crops and to transport them to market.
  • Government plans to form around 10 thousand clusters in three years and cover an area of 5 Lakh hectares under organic farming.

Components –

  • Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) certification through cluster approach – mobilization of farmers, form clusters, identification of land resources and training on organic farming and PGS Certification and quality control.
  • Adoption of organic village for manure management and biological nitrogen harvesting through cluster approach –action plan for Organic Farming, Integrated Manure Management, Packing, Labelling and Branding of organic products of cluster.



  • To promote genuine price discovery
  • Increases farmers’ options for sale and access to markets
  • Liberal licensing of traders / buyers and commission agents. One license for a trader valid across all markets in the State
  • Harmonisation of quality standards of agricultural produce
  • Single point levy of market fees, i.e on the first wholesale purchase from the farmer.
  • Provision of Soil Testing Laboratories in/ or near the selected mandi to facilitate visiting farmers to access this facility in the mandi itself

Intended beneficiary

  • 585 regulated wholesale markets in states/union territories (UTs).
  • Farmers
  • Local traders
  • Bulk buyers, processors
  • Farm produce exporters
  • Overall economy of the nation

Salient features

  • NAM is a pan-India electronic trading portal which seeks to network the existing APMCs and other market yards to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.
  • Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) has been selected as the lead agency to implement it.
  • Central government will provide the software free of cost to the states and in addition, a grant of up to Rs. 30 lakhs per mandi or market or private mandis will be given for related equipment and infrastructure requirements.
  • New Features added to the scheme such as E-NAM Mobile App, BHIM Payment facility, MIS dashboard for better analysis and insights, grievance redressal mechanism for Mandi Secretaries and integration with Farmer Database to ease the registration and identification process will further strengthen e-NAM.
  • Fund Allocation – The Scheme is being funded through AgriTech Infrastructure Fund (AITF).

1.10 Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF)


  • ZBNF is a set of farming methods, and also a grassroots peasant movement, which has spread to various states in India.
  • Subhash Palekar perfected it during the 1990s at his farm in Amravati district in Maharashtra’s drought-prone Vidarbha region.
  • According to the “zero budget” concept, farmers won’t have to spend any money on fertilisers and other agricultural inputs.
  • Over 98% of the nutrients that crops require — carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water, solar energy — are already present in nature.
  • The remaining 1.5-2% are taken from the soil,

Four wheels of ZBNF

The “four wheels” of ZBNF are ‘Jiwamrita’, ‘Bijamrita’, ‘Mulching’ and ‘Waaphasa’.

  • Jiwamrita is a fermented mixture of cow dung and urine (of desi breeds), jaggery, pulses flour, water and soil from the farm bund.
  • This isn’t a fertilizer, but just a source of some 500 crore micro-organisms that can convert all the necessary “non-available” nutrients into “available” form.
  • Bijamrita is a mix of desi cow dung and urine, water, bund soil and lime that is used as a seed treatment solution prior to sowing.
  • Mulching, or covering the plants with a layer of dried straw or fallen leaves, is meant to conserve soil moisture and keep the temperature around the roots at 25-32 degrees Celsius, which allows the microorganisms to do their job.
  • Waaphasa, or providing water to maintain the required moisture-air balance, also achieves the same objective.



  • To promote direct interface of scientists withthe farmers and hasten the land to lab process.
  • To imbibe a sense of ownership among the agricultural scientists
  • To provide farmers with required information, knowledge and advisories on regular basis by adopting villages.

Intended beneficiary

  • Scientists with ground level experience
  • Farmers

 Salient features

  • This scheme involves scientists of the Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) and state agricultural universities.
  • Groups of four multidisciplinary scientists each will be constituted at these institutes and universities. Each group will “adopt” five villages within a radius of maximum 100 km.

1.12 Price Stabilization Fund

Objective: to safeguard the interest of the growers and provide them financial relief when prices fall below a specified level.


  • Central Sector Scheme.
  • To support market interventions for price control of perishable agri-horticultural commodities.
  • PSF will be used to advance interest free loan to State Governments and Central agencies to support their working capital and other expenses on procurement and distribution interventions for such commodities.
  • Procurement of the commodities will be undertaken directly from farmers or farmers’ organizations at farm gate/mandi and made available at a more reasonable price to the consumers.
  • Initially the fund is proposed to be used for onion and potato only. Losses incurred, if any, in the operations will be shared between the Centre and the States.

Framework and Funding:

  • States will set up a revolving fund to which theCentre and State will contribute equally, i.e. 50:50.
  • The ratio of Centre-State contribution to the State-level corpus in respect of Northeast States will, however, be 75:25.

1.13 Mission Fingerling

  • It is a programme to enable holistic development and management of the fisheries sector in India.
  • The mission aims to achieve the target to enhance fisheries production from 10.79 mmt (2014-15) to 15 mmt by 2020-21 under the Blue Revolution.


  • Government has identified 20 States based ontheir potential and other relevant factors to strengthen the Fish Fingerling production and Fish Seed infrastructure in the country.
  • This program will facilitate the establishment of Fingerling rearing pond and hatcheries.
  • This will converge in the production of 20 lakh tonnes of fish annually, which will in turn benefit about 4 million families.
  • The implementation of this program will supplement the requirement of stocking materials in the country up to a large extent, which is a much needed input to achieve the enhanced fish production.

1.14 Umbrella Scheme Green Revolution — Krishonnati Yojana


These schemes look to develop the agriculture and allied sector in a holistic and scientific manner to increase the income of farmers by enhancing production, productivity and better returns on produce.

The Schemes that are part of the Umbrella Schemes are :-

  1. Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH)
  2. National Food Security Mission (NFSM)
  3. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
  4. Submission on Agriculture Extension (SMAE)
  5. Sub-Mission on Seeds and Planting Material (SMSP)
  6. Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanisation (SMAM)
  7. Sub Mission on Plant Protection and Plan Quarantine (SMPPQ)
  8. Integrated Scheme on Agriculture Census, Economics and Statistics (ISACES)
  9. Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Cooperation (ISAC)
  10. Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Marketing (ISAM)
  11. National e-Governance Plan (NeGP-A) The Schemes/Missions focus on creating/strengthening of infrastructure of production, reducing production cost and marketing of agriculture and allied produce.

1.15 Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay SanraksHan Abhiyan (PM-AASHA)

  1. The Scheme is aimed at ensuring remunerative prices to the farmers for their produce as announced in the Union Budget for 2018.
  2. It is expected that the increase in MSP will be translated to farmers’ income by way of robust procurement mechanism in coordination with the State Governments.

The three schemes that are part of AASHA are:

  1. the Price Support Scheme (PSS)
  2. the Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS)
  3. the Pilot of Private Procurement and Stockist Scheme (PPPS)
  • These three components will complement the existing schemes of the Department of Food and Public Distribution.
  • They relate to paddy, wheat and other cereals and coarse grains where procurement is at MSP now.
  • PSS – Under the PSS, physical procurement of pulses, oilseeds and copra will be done by Central Nodal Agencies.
  • Besides, NAFED and Food Corporation of India will also take up procurement of crops under PSS.
  • The expenditure and losses due to procurement will be borne by the Centre.
  • PDPS – Under the PDPS, the Centre proposes to cover all oilseeds.
  • The difference between the MSP and actual selling/modal price will be directly paid into the farmer’s bank account.
  • Farmers who sell their crops in recognised mandis within the notified period can benefit from it.
  • PPSS – In the case of oilseeds, States will have the option to roll out PPSS in select districts.
  • Under this, a private player can procure crops at MSP when market prices drop below MSP.
  • The private player will then be compensated through a service charge up to a maximum of 15% of the MSP.

1.16 Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)

What is the news:

  • The Central Government notified a decision to extend the benefit of ₹6,000 per year under the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi scheme to all 14.5 crore farmers in the country, irrespective of the size of their landholding.
  • Central sector scheme


○ To provide income support to all farmer families having cultivable land.

○ To supplement the financial needs of the farmers in procuring various inputs to ensure proper crop health and appropriate yields, commensurate with the anticipated farm income.

Salient Features:

  • The revised Scheme is expected to coveraround 2 crore more farmers, increasing the coverage of PM-KISAN to around 14.5 crore beneficiaries.
  • Responsibility of identifying the landholder farmer family eligible for benefit under the scheme shall be of the State/UT Government.
  • The lists of eligible beneficiaries would be published at the village level to ensure transparency.
  • Exclusions: Certain categories of beneficiaries of higher economic status such as institutional landholders, former and present holder of constitutional posts, persons who paid income tax in the last assessment year etc. shall not be eligible for benefit under the scheme.
    • Professionals like doctors, engineers and lawyers as well as retired pensioners with a monthly pension of over ₹10,000 and those who paid income tax in the last assessment year are also not eligible for the benefits.
    • For the purpose of exclusion State/UT Government can certify the eligibility of the beneficiary based on self-declaration by the beneficiaries.
  • A dedicated PM Kisan Portal will be launched for the implementation of the scheme.
  • This is a Central Sector Scheme and will be funded fully by the Government of India


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Strategies & Approaches, in This Free Live Webinar by Swatantra Sir!

  1. Best, authentic, minimum materials for UPSC-CSE Mains Preparation. Do’s & Dont’s, How to remake ‘Recognition of information’ into ‘recall, analyse & express’.
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Announcements Nikaalo Prelims

Most Important Keywords from Ancient Indian History for Prelims 2022

It is a part of our Nikaalo Prelims 2022 Initiative. You can join our official space on habitat to ask your doubts with the mentors and decode Prelims.

These keywords are taken from Upinder Singh book which is a very high relevant source for Prelims but bulky for an Aspirant to cover.

Agrahara: Land or village gifted by a king 

Ahimsa: Non-injury, non-violence 

Ajivikas: An ancient religious sect, associated with Makkhali Gosala 

Akam: Sangam love poems 

Alvars: The Vaishnava saint-poets of early medieval South India

Anekantavada: The Jaina doctrine of the manifold nature of reality

Antarala: The vestibule or antechamber of a temple

Araghatta: The Persian wheel, or a similar contrivance

Aranyakas: literally ‘forest books’; part of the Vedic corpus

Ardhamandapa: The hall preceding the sanctum in a temple

Ariya-sachchani: The Four Noble Truths related to suffering; an important part of the Buddha’s teaching

Ayyavole: A powerful merchant guild of early medieval South India 

Bands: Small and usually nomadic communities, usually related to each other through kinship

Brahmadeya: Land gifted to Brahmanas, generally by kings.

​​Charana: School of Vedic study 

Charvaka: An atheistic materialism philosophical school, also known as Lokayata

Dhamma: A Pali word (Sanskrit, dharma), referring to the ideal conduct of an individual living in society.

Dhammachakka-pavattana: Pali, literally ‘turning the wheel of dhamma’; the Buddha’s first sermon in the deer park near Benaras 

Dhamma-mahamatas: A new cadre of officials created by Ashoka to propagate dhamma.

Dvija: literally ‘twice born’: Those entitled to the performance of the upanayana (sacred thread) ceremony, which is considered analogous to a second birth, viz., the upper three varnas, namely the Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaishyas.

Four Noble Truths(Ariya-sachchani): An important part of the Buddha’s teaching, viz., there is suffering; it has a cause; it can be eliminated; and the way to eliminate it is to follow the Eight-fold Path

Gahapati: Pali for Sanskrit grihapati, i.e., householder; a wealthy property-owner 

Gaja-Lakshmi: A popular representation of the goddess Lakshmi, flanked by two elephants, sometimes holding jars in their trunks gana: a word which has many meanings, including an oligarchy 

Garbha-griha: The inner sanctum of a temple, where the image of the main deity is placed and worshipped.

Hundikas: Bills of exchange used by traders in early medieval India

Kani rights: Rights over land in early medieval South India, sometimes also associated with certain duties and obligations 

Kara-shasanas: Tax-paying agraharas

kottam: Settlement clusters in the Pallava kingdom, similar to the nadus 

Kraya-shasana: A secular land-sale deed 

Kshatra: Secular power kshatrapa: a viceroy or subordinate ruler of the Scytho-Parthians; a title assumed by kings of the Kshaharata and Kardamaka dynasties

Madhayamaka: A major Mahayana school founded by Nagarjuna, in which the idea of shunyata (emptiness) is of great importance.

Mandapika: A local centre of exchange, in between small periodic markets and larger trade centres Manigramam: a powerful merchant guild of early medieval South India.

Mahakshatrapa: Viceroy, subordinate ruler; a title assumed by some kings of the Kshaharata and Kardamaka dynasties

Menhir: A type of megalithic burial, marked by a single, large, standing stone.

Nagarakkani: Land owned and managed by the nagaram 

Nagarams: Market or commercial centres in early medieval South India N

Agarattar: The corporate organization of the nagaram

Nattar: The leading men of the nadu (locality) in early medieval South India.

Nibbana: A term used often in the Buddhist tradition for liberation from the cycle of birth and death

Niyoga: levirate; the ancient custom of a widow cohabiting with her brother-in-law or another man in order to produce sons.

Paramitas: Perfections whose attainment led to the bodhisattva path; a Mahayana idea Paribbajaka: Pali, literally, ‘wanderer’, renunciant pariharas: exemptions and privileges granted to donees in royal land grants parinibbana: the passing away of the Buddha Patichcha-samuppada: Pali, the law of dependent origination; a part of the Buddha’s teaching

Periyapuranam: A 12th century work containing hagiographies of the Nayanmar saints

Pramanas: grounds of knowledge 

Prashasti: Panegyric 

Pravara: The names of one, two, three, or five supposed ancestral rishis, connected with the gotra system of the Brahmanas

Puram: War poems of the Sangam corpus 

Purva Mimamsa: A school of Vedic exegesis

Samana: A Pali word (Sanskrit shramana); literally, ‘one who strives’, a renunciant 

Samanta: Subordinate ruler; feudatory 

Samhita: A collection of hymns, associated with the Vedas 

Samkhya: A very ancient philosophical school which views the world as consisting of two fundamental categories of purusha (the spiritual principle) and prakriti (matter or nature)

Sandhara: A temple style with an enclosed passage for circumambulation

Sangam literature: Texts in old Tamil, comprising the earliest parts of the Ettutokai, Pattuppattu, and Tolkappiyam.

Sapindas: People who are held to be related to each other, an important category in Dharmashastra discussions on rules of marriage, inheritance, and rules of purity and impurity to be observed among relatives when a person died 

Saptanga rajya: Literally ‘the seven-limbed state’, the Arthashastra concept of the state as consisting of seven elements.

Setthi: Pali (Sanskrit sreshthin); a high-level businessman associated with trade and money-lending 

Shakha: A recension of a Veda

Siddhamatrika: An ancient script, known from the 6th century CE; also known as Kutila

Syadavada: Literally ‘doctrine of maybe’; the Jaina doctrine of the partial nature of all statements about reality

Taniyur: A special status given to certain brahmadeyas in early medieval South India, making them independent of the nadu wherein they were located

Tevaram: A collection of hymns, part of the canon of South Indian Shaiva bhakti

Tipitaka: Pali, literally ‘the three baskets’ or ‘three collections’, Buddhist canonical texts; the Pali Tipitaka is the canon of the Theravada school 

Tirthankara: Literally, ‘ford builder’; a Jaina saint 

Tirumurai: The canon of South Indian Shaiva bhakti 

Tiruttondar-Tiruvantai: A work by Nambi Andar Nambi, which gives a short hagiography of the Nayanmar saints 

Tiruttondar-Tokai: A work by Sundarar, which lists 62 Nayanmar saints torana: the gateway of a shrine

Vatteluttu: An ancient South Indian script used for writing Tamil

Vellala/vellalar: Cultivating groups of South India 

Vellanvagai: Non-brahmadeya villages of early medieval South India; same as ur 

Vendar: The three ‘crowned kings’ of early historical South India, i.e., the Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas

Viragal: The word for a ‘hero stone’ in the Tamil Nadu area

Yajamana: The person for whom the yajna (sacrifice) is performed and who bears its expenses Yajna: sacrifice 

Yakshas: Deities associated with water, fertility, trees, forests, and the wilderness 

Yakshis: Female deities associated with fertility, consorts of yakshas 

Yavana: Greeks, foreigners from the West 

Yoga: A philosophical school which aimed at focusing the mind to achieve complete tranquility and control 

Yogachara: A major Mahayana school which attached great importance to meditation as a means of attaining the highest goal
Yupa: Sacrificial post

Announcements Nikaalo Prelims

Prelims Spotlight: Schemes, Project, and Policies Regarding Science and Technology

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04th May 2022


The Department of Science & Technology has launched a unique scheme calledSophisticated Analytical & Technical Help Institutes(SATHI)”.

Objectives of the Scheme

  • SATHI will address the problems of accessibility, maintenance, redundancy and duplication of expensive equipment in the institutions.
  • This will also foster a strong culture of collaboration between institutions and across disciplines to take advantage of developments, innovations and expertise in diverse areas.

2. National Blockchain Strategy

The ‘National Strategy on Blockchain’ as brought out by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), Government of India, is the move in the direction towards enabling trusted digital platforms creating blockchain framework for the development of applications based on this technology.

About NBS

  • Aim: To provide trusted digital platform for providing e – governance services using blockchain technology.

  • Creation of trusted digital platforms through blockchain.
  • To make India a global leader in Blockchain Technology.
  • Provide trusted, secure and transparent service delivery to citizens and businesses.

3. Project MANAV: Human Atlas Initiative

  • For the first time, Indian scientists will be mapping every single tissue of the human body to have a deeper understanding of the roles of tissues and cells linked to various diseases.
  • Department of Biotechnology (DBT) launched MANAV: Human Atlas Initiative towards improving knowledge on human physiology.
  • It is a project funded by DBT, which aims at creating a database network of all tissues in the human body from the available scientific literature.
  • It is a project that involves scientific skill development for annotation, science outreach along with handling big data.
  • It will involve gaining better biological insights through physiological and molecular mapping, develop disease models through predictive computing and have a holistic analysis and finally drug discovery.
  • The student community, who will be the backbone on assimilating the information, will be trained and imparted with skills to perform annotation and curation of information that will ultimately form the online network.
  • DBT has invested funds shared between two institutions in Pune – National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS) and Indian Institute of Science, Education and Research (IISER), Pune.
  • Besides, Persistent Systems Limited has co-funded the project and is developing the platform.

4. Project Cosmic Microwave Background-Bharat

  • CMB stands for Cosmic Microwave Background, and the scientific space project CMB-Bharat has been presented as a proposal to ISRO and is under consideration.
  • In the workshop, project CMB-Bharat, which could help us listen to the faintest murmurs of the early universe, was discussed.
  • CMB-Bharat is a proposal for comprehensive next-generation Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) mission in international collaboration with major Indian contribution.
  • This referred to quantum gravitational waves, which are different from what LIGO detectors had observed that were classical in nature.

5. Phyto-Pharma Plant Mission


  • Rs 50 crore Mission aimed at conservation and cultivation of endangered and threatened endemic medicinal plants, and discovery of new botanical drugs for unmet medical needs using the rich traditional ethnobotanical knowledge and biodiversity of these states and at the same time also improve the availability of authentic and quality botanical raw material on a sustainable basis for a boom in the phyto-pharmaceutical industry
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Science & Technology

6. Biotech-PRIDE Guidelines

The Union Ministry for Science & Technology has released “Biotech-PRIDE (Promotion of Research and Innovation through Data Exchange) Guidelines” developed by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT)


  • These guidelines aim at providing a well-defined framework and guiding principle to facilitate and enable sharing and exchange of biological knowledge, information and data.
  • They will facilitate this and enable the exchange of information to promote research and innovation in different research groups across the country.
  • They will be implemented through the Indian Biological Data Centre (IBDC) at Regional Centre for Biotechnology supported by the Department of Biotechnology.

7. Drone Rules, 2021

Some of the key features are as under:

Number of forms: The rules propose to reduce the number of forms required for manufacturing, importing, testing, certifying and operating drones in India from 25 to six.

Abolishing authorization number: The draft seeks to abolish the unique authorisation number, unique prototype identification number, and certificate of conformance that were previously required for approval of drone flights.

Digital Sky Platform: Digital Sky, a platform launched by the government in December 2018, will become a single-window system for all approvals under the newly proposed rules.

Airspace map: An airspace map segregating the entire landmass of India into Green, Yellow and Red zones will be published on the platform within 30 days of notification of the new rules, the government said. The map will also be machine-readable through an Application Programming Interface (API) for easier plotting of drone flight paths.

Airport Perimeter: The draft rules reduced the airport perimeter from 45 km to 12 km. The rules state that no flight permissions would be required to fly up to 400 feet in green zones and up to 200 feet in the area between 8 and 12 km from the airport perimeter.

Drone corridors: The government will also publish a policy framework for Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) within 60 days of notifying the rules. This will also include frameworks for developing “drone corridors” for the safe transfer of goods by drones.

Drone Promotion Council: The Rules also propose the setting up of a Drone Promotion Council, with the aim of facilitating a business-friendly regulatory regime for drones in India, the establishment of incubators for developing drone technologies and organizing competitive events to showcase drones and counter-drone solutions.

Others: To implement safety features such as “no permission, no take-off”, real-time tracking and geofencing, drone manufacturers, importers and operators will get six months’ time to comply from the date of notification of the rules.

8. CYBER Attacks in India

Common types of cyber-attacks are:

(1) Backdoor Trojan

  • A backdoor Trojan creates a backdoor vulnerability in the victim’s system, allowing the attacker to gain remote, and almost total, control.
  • Frequently used to link up a group of victims’ computers into a botnet or zombie network, attackers can use the Trojan for other cybercrimes.

(2) Cross-site scripting (XSS) attack

  • XSS attacks insert malicious code into a legitimate website or application script to get a user’s information, often using third-party web resources.

Denial-of-service (DoS)

  • DoS and Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks flood a system’s resources, overwhelming them and preventing responses to service requests, which reduces the system’s ability to perform.
  • Often, this attack is a setup for another attack.

(3) DNS tunnelling

  • Cybercriminals use DNS tunnelling, a transactional protocol, to exchange application data, like extract data silently or establish a communication channel with an unknown server, such as a command and control (C&C) exchange.

(4) Malware

  • Malware is malicious software that can render infected systems inoperable. Most malware variants destroy data by deleting or wiping files critical to the operating system’s ability to run.

(5) Phishing

  • Phishing scams attempt to steal users’ credentials or sensitive data like credit card numbers.
  • In this case, scammers send users emails or text messages designed to look as though they’re coming from a legitimate source, using fake hyperlinks.

(6) Ransomware

  • Ransomware is sophisticated malware that takes advantage of system weaknesses, using strong encryption to hold data or system functionality hostage.
  • Cybercriminals use ransomware to demand payment in exchange for releasing the system. A recent development with ransomware is the add-on of extortion tactics.

(7) Zero-day exploit

  • Zero-day exploit attacks take advantage of unknown hardware and software weaknesses. These vulnerabilities can exist for days, months or years before developers learn about the flaws.


Objectives –

  • The Government of India recently launched VAJRA (Visiting Advanced Joint Research) Faculty scheme by the Department of Science and Technology which enables NRIs and overseas scientific community to participate and contribute to research and development in India. The Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), a statutory body of the Department will implement the Scheme.
  • International Faculty / scientists/technologists including Non-resident Indians (NRI) and Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) / Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) are offered adjunct / visiting faculty positions in Indian Institutions / Universities for a period of 1-3 months under this scheme. The faculty can also undertake the role of teaching /mentoring apart from R&D.
  • Public funded institutions and national laboratories are allowed to host the VAJRA faculty.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Science & Technology

10. National Initiative for Developing & Harnessing Innovation (NIDHI)


A programme to address the complete chain of innovation ecosystem right from scouting to mentoring to scaling up innovations. launched by DST. Establishment of a research park at IIT Gandhinagar has been supported at a cost of Rs.90 cr.

11.Surya Jyoti


  • In order to capture daylight and concentrate the same inside a dark room, particularly in the urban slum or rural areas which lack electricity supply, a low cost and energy-efficient Micro Solar Dome (Surya Jyoti) has been tested and developed. -Potential users of this device are10 million households.
  • According to preliminary estimates, if this technology is adopted in 10 million households only, it has the potential of saving 1750 million units of energy.
  • It would also lead to an emission reduction of about 12.5 million ton of CO2 equivalent, hence giving a fillip to the mission of ‘Clean India, Green India’.
  • The manufacturing process, being labour-intensive, would also generate huge job opportunities in the economy.
  • Nodal Ministry – Department of Science & Technology.

12. Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan

  • Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan is running successfully to motivate children to learn Science, Maths and Technology through observation and experimentation.
  • It was launched on 9th July 2015 by Late Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Former President of India.
  • Nodal Ministry-HRD Ministry.

Announcements Nikaalo Prelims

Important Summits, Conventions, and Declarations

3rd May 2022


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1.RAMSAR Convention on Wetlands

Brief Intro

  • The Convention was adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971 and came into force in 1975 after UNESCO, the Convention’s depositary received the instruments of accession from the countries.
  • The RAMSAR Secretariat is based at the headquarters of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in Gland, Switzerland.
  • World Wetlands Day is celebrated on February 2nd.

Key Objectives-

  • An intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.


Place – Ramasar

Key Terms-The Montreux Record – a register of wetland sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character are of concern. It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List.

India specific – India currently has 27 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites).

2.The World Heritage Convention

Brief Intro

The Convention recognizes the way in which people interact with nature, and the fundamental need to preserve the balance between the two.

Key Objectives-

The Convention defines the kind of natural or cultural sites which can be considered for inscription on the World Heritage List under UNESCO


3.Stockholm Conference

Brief Intro

Stockholm Declaration contains 26 principles. These principles provide the basis of an International Policy for the Protection and improvement of the environment.

Key Point-The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has been established by the UNGA in pursuance of the Stockholm Conference.



Brief Intro

To ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild, and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants.

Key Objectives-

  • It is a multilateral treaty drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
  • Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – it does not take the place of national laws.

India Specific –

The Government of India signed the Convention in July 1976, which was ratified in October 1976

5.Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC)

Brief Intro

Seeks to establish a uniform global legal regime for compensation to victims in the unlikely event of a nuclear accident. It was adopted on 12 September 1997. It can enter into force after ratification by at least 5 countries having a minimum of 400,000 units of installed nuclear capacity.

Key Objectives-

  • It provides a uniform framework for channelling liability and providing speedy compensation after the nuclear accident.
  • Seeks to encourage regional and global co-operation to promote a higher level of nuclear safety in accordance with the principles of international partnership and solidarity.
  • All states are free to participate in it regardless of their presence of nuclear installations on their territories or involvement in existing nuclear liability conventions.
  • It has been framed inconsistent with the principles of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (1963) and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (1960).

India Specific –

India has ratified Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC), 1997 which sets parameters on a nuclear operator’s financial liability.

6.Nuclear security summit

Brief Intro

The Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) is a world summit, aimed at preventing nuclear terrorism around the globe. The first summit was held in Washington, D.C., United States, on April 12–13, 2010. The second summit was held in Seoul, South Korea, in 2012. The third summit was held in The Hague, Netherlands, on March 24–25, 2014. The fourth summit was held in Washington, D.C. on March 31–April 1, 2016.

Key Objectives-

Aimed at preventing nuclear terrorism around the globe.

India specific-

Prime Minister Narendra Modi attended the NSS 2016 in Washington

7.Ashgabat Agreement

Brief Intro

Ashgabat Agreement is an international transport and transit corridor facilitating transportation of goods between Central Asia and the Persian Gulf.

Key Objectives-

  • The transit agreement provides for a transit corridor across Central Asia and the Middle East through the continuous landmass between Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Iran before reaching the Persian Gulf and into Oman.
  • The objective of this agreement is to enhance connectivity within Eurasian region and synchronize it with other transport corridors within that region including the International North–South Transport Corridor (INSTC).

8.The Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA)

Brief Intro

The Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) is an inter-governmental forum for enhancing cooperation towards promoting peace, security and stability in Asia.

Key Objectives-

It is a forum based on the recognition that there is close link between peace, security and stability in Asia and in the rest of the world.enhancing cooperation towards promoting peace, security and stability in Asia.

India Specific-

India is a member of CICA

9.Beijing declaration

Brief Intro

The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (BPfA) is an international declaration of women’s rights set up at the UN’s landmark Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995.

Key Objectives-

  • The BPfA covers 12 key critical matters of concern and areas for action including women and poverty, violence against women and access to power and decision- making.
  • It was supported by 189 countries, including the UK, at the 1995 World Conference.gender equality and the empowerment of all women, everywhere.1995.
  • It was the outcome of The Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace convened by UN.

12.The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC)

Brief Intro

The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is a treaty adopted by the 56th World Health Assembly held in Geneva,Switzerland on 21 May 2003.

Key Objectives-

  • It became the first World Health Organization treaty adopted under article 19 of the WHO constitution.To protect present and future generations from the devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke” by enacting a set of universal standards stating the dangers of tobacco and limiting its use in all forms worldwide.
  • The FCTC established two principal bodies to oversee the functioning of the treaty: the Conference of the parties and the permanent Secretariat. In addition, there are over 50 different intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations who are official observers to the Conference of the Parties.

India Specific-

India has hosted 7th Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC).


Brief Intro

  • The Group of Seven (G7) is an informal bloc of industrialized democracies—Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States—that meets annually to discuss issues such as global economic governance, international security, and energy policy.
  • Russia belonged to the forum from 1998 through 2014—then the Group of Eight (G8)—but was suspended after its annexation of Crimea in March of that year.


Brief Intro– It was started in 1999 as a meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors in the aftermath of the Southeast Asian (Tiger economies) financial crisis.

Key Objectives-

  • The Group of Twenty (G20) is the premier forum for its members’ international economic cooperation and decision-making.
  • It is deliberating forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies on economic issues and other important development challenges.
  • In 2008, the first G20 Leaders’ Summit was held in Washington DC, US. The group had played a key role in responding to the global financial crisis. It comprises total 19 countries plus the European Union (EU), representing 85% of global GDP, 80% of international trade, 65% of world’s population. Its members include Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, India, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Turkey, South Africa, UK, US and EU. 4.The 2016 summit was held in Hangzhou China.
  • It was established for studying, reviewing, and promoting high-level discussion of policy issues pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability.

India Specific-

India is a founding member of G-20

12.International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

Brief Intro

It is a comprehensive international agreement in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity, which aims at guaranteeing food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA), as well as the fair and equitable benefit sharing arising from its use.

Key Objectives-

  • It also recognises Farmers’ Rights, subject to national laws the protection of traditional knowledge relevant to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
  • The right to equitably participate in sharing benefits arising from the utilisation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture;
  • The right to participate in making decisions, at the national level, on matters related to the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
  • It is a comprehensive international agreement in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity.

India Specific-

India has signed the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.

13.Marrakesh treaty

Brief Intro

  • The treaty requires signatories to introduce national law provisions that facilitate the availability of published works in formats like Braille that are accessible to the blind and allow their exchange across borders by organizations working for the visually impaired.

Key Objectives-

  • The pact will help import of accessible format copies from the member countries by the Indian authorized entities such as educational institutions, libraries and other institutions working for the welfare of the visually impaired.
  • The treaty will also ease translation of imported accessible format copies and export of accessible format copies in Indian languages.To create a set of mandatory limitations and exceptions for the benefit of the blind, visually impaired and otherwise print disabled (VIPs).

14.London Declaration

Brief Intro

  • The London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases is a collaborative disease eradication programme launched on 30 January 2012 in London.
  • It was inspired by the World Health Organization 2020 roadmap to eradicate or negate transmission for neglected tropical diseases.
  • Officials from WHO, the World Bank, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the world’s 13 leading pharmaceutical companies, and government representatives from US, UK, United Arab Emirate, Bangladesh, Brazil, Mozambique and Tanzania participated in a joint meeting at the Royal College of Physicians to launch this project.

15.Declaration of Montreal

Brief Intro

The Declaration of Montreal on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Human Rights is a document adopted in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, on July 29, 2006, by the International Conference on LGBT Human Rights which formed part of the first World Outgames.

Key Objectives-

  • The Declaration outlines a number of rights and freedoms pertaining to LGBT and intersex people that it is proposed to be universally guaranteed.
  • It encompasses all aspects of human rights, from the guarantee of fundamental freedoms to the prevention of discrimination against LGBT people in healthcare, education and immigration.
  • The Declaration also addresses various issues that impinge on the global promotion of LGBT rights and intersex human rights.

16. Istanbul Convention

Brief Intro

  • The Istanbul Convention is the first legally-binding instrument which “creates a comprehensive legal framework and approach to combat violence against women” and is focussed on preventing domestic violence, protecting victims and prosecuting accused offenders. The convention aims at prevention of violence, victim protection and “to end with the impunity of perpetrators.
  • The Council of Europe. Only European countries have signed this convention.

17.vienna convention on diplomatic relations

Brief Intro

It is a treaty that came into force in 1964 2.It lays out the rules and regulations for diplomatic relations between countries as well as the various privileges that diplomats and diplomatic missions enjoy.

Key Objectives-

  • One of these privileges is legal immunity for diplomats so that they don’t have to face prosecution as per their host country’s laws.
  • The Vienna Convention classifies diplomats according to their posting in the embassy, consular or international organisations such as the UN. A nation has only one embassy per foreign country, usually in the capital, but may have multiple consulate offices, generally in locations where many of its citizens live or visit.
  • Diplomats posted in an embassy get immunity, along with his or her family members. While diplomats posted in consulates too get immunity, they can be prosecuted in case of serious crimes, that is, when a warrant is issued.
  • Besides, their families don’t share that immunity.It has been ratified by 187 countries, including India.

18.Jaipur Summit

Brief Intro

  • The Forum for India–Pacific Islands Cooperation (FIPIC) was launched during Hon’ble Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi’s visit to Fiji in November 2014.
  • FIPIC includes 14 of the island countries – Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.
  • The second summit of the Forum for India Pacific Cooperation (FIPIC-2) in Jaipur on 21-22 August 2015 has made significant progress in strengthening India’s engagement with the 14 Pacific Island countries. Increase Cooperation Between India and 14 Pacific Countries.

Key Objectives-

  • Though these countries are relatively small in land area and distant from India, many have large exclusive economic zones (EEZs), and offer promising possibilities for fruitful cooperation.
  • India’s focus has largely been on the Indian Ocean where it has sought to play a major role and protect its strategic and commercial interests. The FIPIC initiative marks a serious effort to expand India’s engagement in the Pacific region.
  • At this moment, total annual trade of about $300 million between the Indian and Pacific Island countries, where as exports are around $200 million and imports are around $100 million.


Brief Intro

The NPT is a landmark international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.

Key Objectives-

  • The Treaty represents the only binding commitment in a multilateral treaty to the goal of disarmament by the nuclear-weapon States. Opened for signature in 1968, the Treaty entered into force in 1970.
  • To prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.

India Specific-

India has not signed the treaty as India argues that the NPT creates a club of “nuclear haves” and a larger group of “nuclear have-nots” by restricting the legal possession of nuclear weapons to those states that tested them before 1967, but the treaty never explains on what ethical grounds such a distinction is valid.


Brief Intro

  • The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear explosions, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments.
  • It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996 but has not entered into force as eight specific states have not ratified the treaty. Nuclear weapon-free
  • The treaty thus awaits signature and ratification from India, Pakistan, and North Korea and in addition requires the United States, China, Israel, Iran and Egypt (which have already signed) to formally ratify it.

India Specific-

Even though it is yet to sign the CTBT, India has supported the treaty’s basic principle of banning nuclear explosions by declaring a unilateral moratorium on nuclear testing. India’s expressed support to the essential requirement of the treaty makes it a de facto member of the CTBT.

21.Convention on biological diversity

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), a legally binding treaty to conserve biodiversity has been in force since 1993.


  • It has 3 main objectives: The conservation of biological diversity.
  • The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity.,fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.
  • The CBD, one of the key agreements adopted during the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, is the first comprehensive global agreement which addresses all aspects relating to biodiversity.

22.International Whaling Commission (IWC)

The IWC is an Inter-Governmental Organisation set up by the terms of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) signed in Washington, D.C in 1946. It aims to provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry. The body is the first piece of International Environmental Legislation established in 1946.

23.Global Digital Health Partnership Summit

The Global Digital Health Partnership (GDHP) is an international collaboration of governments, government agencies and multinational organisations dedicated to improving the health and well-being of their citizens through the best use of evidence-based digital technologies.


  • Governments are making significant investments to harness the power of technology and foster innovation and public-private partnerships that support high quality, sustainable health and care for all. The GDHP facilitates global collaboration and co-operation in the implementation of digital health services.The GDHP is committed to improving health and care through promoting its principles of equality, co-operation, transparency and responsibility.
  • Equality: All participants will have an equal opportunity to participate and contribute to the development of the GDHP deliverables and share in the lessons learnt and outputs of the GDHP.
  • Co-operation: Participants are helpful and supportive and participate in debates thoughtfully, constructively and respectfully.
  • Transparency: Participants act with openness in their engagement with fellow participants to contribute to improved health services, promote innovation and create safer and healthier communities.
  • Responsibility: Participants are responsible for their country’s input through their active contribution to GDHP activities that are guided by the annual work plan. Each participant shall endeavour to ensure that outcomes from meetings, such as tasks appointed to them or in general, are carried out effectively and efficiently. Participants will make decisions and participate in discussions in a transparent and fair manner, using evidence, and without discrimination or bias, ensuring they act in the public interest and not for commercial purposes.


The Convention on International Transport of Goods Under Cover of TIR Carnets is a multilateral treaty that was concluded at Geneva on 14 November 1975 to simplify and harmonise the administrative formalities of international road transport.


  • The TIR Convention establishes an international customs transit system with maximum facility to move goods:in sealed vehicles or containers;
  • from a customs office of departure in one country to a customs office of destination in another country;
  • without requiring extensive and time-consuming border checks at intermediate borders;
  • while, at the same time, providing customs authorities with the required security and guarantees.

25. 1 Trillion Trees Initiative

It aims to ensure the conservation and restoration of one trillion trees within this decade. Initiative is led by UNEP and initiated by WEF.


  • The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR), 2015-2030, which is the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda, identifies investing in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) for resilience and to build back better in reconstruction as priorities for action towards reducing disaster risk.
  • Similarly, Goal 9 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognizes disaster resilient infrastructure as a crucial driver of economic growth and development.
  • Besides reducing infrastructure losses, disaster resilient infrastructure will also help achieve targets pertaining to reduction in mortality, number of affected people and economic losses due to disasters.

26.International Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.

Key points of the Convention


  • Prohibition of production and use of chemical weapons
  • Destruction (or monitored conversion to other functions) of chemical weapons production facilities
  • Destruction of all chemical weapons (including chemical weapons abandoned outside the state parties territory)
  • Assistance between State Parties and the OPCW in the case of use of chemical weapons
  • An OPCW inspection regime for the production of chemicals which might be converted to chemical weapons
  • International cooperation in the peaceful use of chemistry in relevant areas

27.Convention on Supplementary Compensation for nuclear Damage (CSC)

The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage is a 1963 treaty that governs issues of liability in cases of a nuclear accident. It was concluded at Vienna on 21 May 1963 and entered into force on 12 November 1977. The convention has been amended by a 1997 protocol. The depository is the International Atomic Energy Agency.


  • The Convention on Supplementary Compensation (CSC) aims at establishing a minimum national compensation amount and at further increasing the amount of compensation through public funds to be made available by the Contracting Parties should the national amount be insufficient to compensate the damage caused by a nuclear incident.
  • The Convention is open not only to States that are party to either the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage or the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (including any amendments to either) but also to other States provided that their national legislation is consistent with uniform rules on civil liability laid down in the Annex to the Convention.

28.Hague Code of Conduct

The International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation, also known as the Hague Code of Conduct (HCOC), was established on 25 November 2002 as an arrangement to prevent the proliferation of ballistic missiles.


  • The HCOC is the result of international efforts to regulate access to ballistic missiles which can potentially deliver weapons of mass destruction. The HCOC is the only multilateral code in the area of disarmament which has been adopted over the last years.
  • It is the only normative instrument to verify the spread of ballistic missiles.
  • The HCOC does not ban ballistic missiles, but it does call for restraint in their production, testing, and export.

29. Tropical Forest Alliance

Global PPP launched at Rio+20 summit. It aims halving deforestation by 2020 and ending it by 2030 in tropical rainforest countries. The secretariat of the Alliance is hosted by the World Economic Forum.

30.Biological weapons convention

The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons.


  • Each State Party to this Convention undertakes never in any circumstances to develop, produce, stockpile or otherwise acquire or retain:
  • Microbial or other biological agents, or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes;
  • Weapons, equipment or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict.”
  • The United States Congress passed the Bioweapons Anti-Terrorism Act in 1989 to implement the Convention. The law applies the Convention’s convent to countries and private citizens, and criminalizes violations of the Convention.

31.Sendai Framework

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030) is an international document which was adopted by UN member states between 14th and 18th of March 2015 at the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Sendai, Japan and endorsed by the UN General Assembly in June 2015. It is the successor agreement to the Hyogo Framework for Action (2005–2015), which had been the most encompassing international accord to date on disaster risk reduction.


  • The Sendai Framework sets four specific priorities for action:
  • Understanding disaster risk;
  • Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk;
  • Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience;
  • Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

32.Outer Space Treaty

The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law. The 1967 Outer Space Treaty bans the stationing of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in outer space, prohibits military activities on celestial bodies, and details legally binding rules governing the peaceful exploration and use of space.

33.Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 UNFCCC that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the premise that

(a) global warming exists and (b) human-made CO2 emissions have caused it.


  • The main feature of the Protocol is that it established legally binding commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases for parties that ratified the Protocol.
  • The commitments were based on the Berlin Mandate, which was a part of UNFCCC negotiations leading up to the Protocol.
  • Minimizing Impacts on Developing Countries by establishing an adaptation fund for climate change.

34.U.N. Frame Work Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)


  • A framework for international cooperation to combat climate change by limiting average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and coping with impacts that were inevitable.
  • The primary goals of the UNFCCC were to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at levels that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the global climate.
  • The convention embraced the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities which has guided the adoption of a regulatory structure.

35.Basel Convention

  • The industrialized world in the 1980s had led to increasing public resistance to the disposal of hazardous wastes, in accordance with what became known as the NIMBY (Not in My Back Yard) syndrome, and to an increase of disposal costs.
  • This, in turn, led some operators to seek cheap disposal options for hazardous wastes in the developing countries.
  • Environmental awareness was much less developed and regulations and enforcement mechanisms were lacking. The objectives of the convention are to reduce trans-boundary movements of hazardous wastes, to minimize the creation of such wastes and to prohibit their shipment from developed countries to the LDCs.

36.Montreal Protocol


  • The protocol set targets for reducing the consumption and production of a range of ozone-depleting substances.
  • In a major innovation, the protocol recognized that all nations should not be treated equally.
  • The agreement acknowledges that certain countries have contributed to ozone depletion more than others.
  • It also recognizes that a nation‘s obligation to reduce current emissions should reflect its technological and financial ability to do so.
  • Because of this, the agreement sets more stringent standards and accelerated phase-out time tables to countries that have contributed most to ozone depletion

37.World Conservation Strategy


  • It set out fundamental principles and objectives for conservation worldwide and identified priorities for national and international action.
  • It is considered one of the most influential documents in 20th-century nature conservation and one of the first official documents to introduce the concept of sustainable development.

38.Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn Convention)


  • Aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range.
  • The Convention facilitates the adoption of strict protection measures for endangered migratory species, the conclusion of multilateral agreements for the conservation and management of migratory species, and co-operative research activities.

39.World Sustainable Development summit

  • WSDS has replaced TERI’s earlier called Delhi Sustainable Development Summit (DSDS). The first DSDS was organised in 2005. It underscored the need for businesses and the private sector to take lead in poverty reduction and to ensure rapid and sustained adoption of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • It had brought together Nobel laureates, decision-makers political leaders from around the world to deliberate on issues related to sustainable development.
  • The aim of the summit is to provide various stakeholders with a single platform in order to provide long-term solutions for the benefit of the global community.

40.Kigali Agreement

The Kigali Amendment amends the 1987 Montreal Protocol to now include gases responsible for global warming and will be binding on countries from 2019.


  • It also has provisions for penalties for non-compliance.
  • It is considered absolutely vital for reaching the Paris Agreement target of keeping global temperature rise to below 2-degree Celsius compared to pre-industrial times.
  • Under it, developed countries will also provide enhanced funding support estimated at billions of dollars globally. The exact amount of additional funding from developed countries will be agreed at the next
  • Meeting of the Parties in Montreal in 2017 to reduce the emissions of category of greenhouse gases (GHGs) which leads to hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs)

41. Glassgow Summit

The Glasgow meeting was the 26th session of the Conference of Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, or COP26.


  1. Mitigation: The Glasgow agreement has emphasised that stronger action in the current decade was most critical to achieving the 1.5-degree target.
  2. Adaptation: Most of the countries, especially the smaller and poorer ones, and the small island states have been demanded that at least half of all climate finance should be directed towards adaptation efforts.
  3. Finance: In 2009, developed countries had promised to mobilise at least $100 billion every year from 2020, which did not happen. The developed nations have now said that they will arrange this amount by 2023.
  4. Accounting earlier mistakes: Asked the developed countries to provide transparent information about the money they plan to provide
  5. Loss & Damage: The frequency of climate disasters has been rising rapidly, and many of these caused large scale devastation. One of the earlier drafts included a provision for setting up of a facility to coordinate loss and damage activities.
  6. Carbon markets: This meeting has allowed carbon credits to be used in meeting countries’ first NDC targets to the developing nations.