Categories
Announcements

Special 4 – Mains 2018

1 Test each for GS Paper 1, 2, 3 and 4 containing best questions for Mains 2018 preparation. Questions will be a mix of Static as well Current Affairs as per the UPSC trend in last few years.

Schedule

GS Paper 1- 1st September

GS Paper 2- 5th September

GS Paper 3- 9th September

GS Paper 4- 13th September

What is special about these tests?

1. Question Formulation 

Rather than the regular uninspiring questions, we have gone the extra mile and crafted unique, intellectually-stimulating questions. These will reward analytical ability and problem-solving skills.

We will make the 1st question paper public so you can assess our claims for yourself.

2. Answer Checking 

Answer-copy evaluation in the industry has become stagnant. The focus is restricted to superficial, memory-based lapses rather than on analytical excellence and cross-domain inter-linkages.

Our stress will be on the following –

1. Superior introduction and conclusion.

2. Usage of subject-specific vocabulary.

3. Articulation proficiency.

4. Substantiating evidence like Government and International Reports and Indices.

5. Prominent and contemporary examples.

Overall, the program is the perfect tool that will equip you with everything that is needed to crack the exam

Price: Rs 2500

Join the program here: Click2Join


What are we offering?

1. 4 Full-length tests of GS1, GS2, GS3 & GS4. The difficulty level will be above the UPSC Mains Papers so that you are prepared in the best possible way for facing any kind of paper.

2. Detailed Sample Answers with “Mentor’s Comment” by Rank holders to help you gauge better the needs of the question.

3. The supplementary content provided will be helpful in covering multiple related questions.

4. Telegram Groups with Rank holders and Core faculty members.

5. Thorough answer checking with oversight of rankers like Dr. Vipin Garg(AIR 20), Swapnil Pawar (AIR 525).

6. Mentor Call after every test to discuss in detail your strengths and weaknesses.  You can schedule an in-person meeting with mentors at our office in Karol Bagh.

7. Detailed video discussion of each test.

8. Magazines, listicles and other relevant study material.

Prime TS folks will get a 30% discount as promised

Join the program here: Click2Join

Categories
Announcements

[Open Test] Modern History & Polity: Deadline Extended

Last Date to appear- Wednesday 22 August (Till midnight). Results will be announced on Thursday 23rd August

Attempt the test here: Click2Attempt  

We expect students to have completed Polity and Modern History by now.
Even if you have completed one of the two, you should appear for the test and attempt questions from that specific subject

The questions are of moderate difficulty and primarily from the core materials.

This is to help you assess if you are on the right track and are not passively reading books.

Most of the questions for the Open Test are from our Test Series. The aim is to demonstrate the level of our Test Series and how it is the best source to prepare and conquer prelims.

Questions will be from different themes ensuring complete coverage. The explanations can be regarded as a study material in itself.

Question Types ensure the questions framed are good. Watch the video to know more

For more details about our program click here: Click2Read

To enroll in the latest batch click here: Click2Join

Categories
Announcements

Batch 3: CD Prime Test Series for Prelims 2019

We are now accepting admissions for Batch 3

Join Batch 3 of Test series here: Click2Join

Click2View the detailed schedule of test series with complete booklist to be followed.

 

We will be extending the discount on this batch till 2nd September (the date for the first test of this batch) keeping in mind interest of students who were awaiting prelims results to decide further course of action and now want to join a test series for Prelims 2019. This is also to ensure that students join before tests start and they stay regular with the schedule

UPDATE #2

We are upgrading the program further to provide you more Comprehensive Preparation

Apart from the static subject videos, now we will also provide Economic Survey & Budget Analysis Videos covering key concepts and important terms for Prelims 2019.  Economic Survey analysis will be available from 2016 to 2018 covering trends in Indian Economy as well as key issues related to it.

That makes the total video lectures to be 75 hours

UPDATE  #1

Demolish UPSC series
We are releasing 60+ Hours of Advanced Video Lectures on Static subjects – Polity, History, Geography, Economy

These cover the most important topics from prelims perspective

Basic knowledge will be helpful in understanding these though it’s not mandatory
CD remains committed to its students’ success. We are ready to go the extra mile to turn your dreams into reality.

Join Batch 3 of Test series here: Click2Join

 

Here is the detailed schedule of lectures:

Importance of Economic Survey and Budget

Economic Survey and Budget are the 2 most important documents that you will go through in your exam preparation.

  • Economic Survey discusses all the major government initiatives with the explanation.
  • If we go by the trend, every year around 20 questions in prelims and 7-8 questions in mains are directly related to the Economic Survey and Budget.
  • Questions in prelims paper stress on important phrases, key analysis, and technical terms. Hence they have to be thoroughly studied.
  • Almost mandatory to imbibe actual phrases used in Economic Survey to frame answers for Main Examination. for example, if a Question is asked on Banking sector problems in the mains exam, you can always quote the 4R recommendations of the 2016th economic survey.
  • Adding the important and relevant facts and figures significantly enhance your marks in General Studies Paper-III.
  • Deep knowledge of the current policies and programs of the government also help an aspirant to write meaningful Essays in UPSC Civil Services Main Examination. For example, Wiping every tear from every eye “Twin balance sheet problem”, “translating potential into actuality” “ Chakravuyh challenge” etc.
  • According to the new trend economy and the environment is going hand in hand. So questions can come from that perspective also.
  • Many statistics and schemes are now being asked in Prelims

Watch the video to know how we ensure you get 120+ score in Prelims

The only TS that is supervised by top rankers and provides personalized attention to students. Check out the 7 points that make it the best in the market.

Follow the video below to understand what makes the TS unique. Our planning and execution remains perfect.

 

It goes without saying that Civilsdaily’s Flagship Test Series Program has created a name for itself. It is preferred among students in their advanced stages of preparation.
Here is what ABHILASH BARANWAL, AIR 44, CSE-2017 had to say about CD

Here is what  JITENDRA KUMAR SHARMA, AIR 392, CSE-2017 had to say –

This year, we have upgraded the program to make it the best offering in the market.

Introducing CD Prime TS 2019

1. One comprehensive program – Our TS is a full-fledged course in itself! With a mix and match of various kinds of questions and detailed explanation wherever need. It is a very effective way of both, starting a subject and revising one.

2. Telegram Groups moderated by to Toppers.  Mentorship taken to a whole new level. You will be helped at every step of the way.

3. Introducing questions-types – Judging the quality of any TS is very subjective. While some will say its great, others will say its quality has decreased over time. That is why we have introduced the concept of question-types. They ensure consistency in quality. How? We have explained that in the end.

4. Dedicated monthly CA Tests – Exclusive focus on Current Affairs(CA) by having dedicated monthly CA tests. Besides, exhaustively preparing for CA questions, it has helped students precisely figure out what their weaknesses are.  

5. Tikdams and mastering the art of intelligent guesses – Tikdam Technique is an innovation by Dr. V(AIR 20) and has helped students gain additional marks. Our TS is the only TS that puts a conscious effort to build student’s risk-taking appetite.

6. Subject and sub-subject Level Tagging – These tags will help you understand the importance of themes and revise other questions from them.

7. Two-tier quality check  – Our questions pass through a rigorous true stage assessment criteria. The first being done by CD’s core content team with the final approval from a coterie of rankers.


What are questions types 

Wherever applicable, we will try to stick to the format decided below. It standardizes questions to a decent extent.

A. Consolidation Questions
These questions consolidate information from different topics to help you see concepts holistically and also aid retention.
Eg. Consider this question. You would not have studied all the ‘Majorities’ together but under separate topics. This question will help you understand the concept in entirety.

Consider the following questions on the types of Majority
1. Special Majority of not less than 2/3 of the Members present and voting is required in the passage of a resolution under Art. 249 and Art. 312ONLY.
2. Impeachment of the President requires Not less than 2/3 of the Members present and voting along with Majority of the Total Strength of the House.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a)1
b)2
c)Both
d)None

Explanation – A very detailed account of the types of Majority is given here https://www.civilsdaily.com/types-of-majorities/
Statement 1 is correct despite having ‘ONLY’ in it.

B. Comparative Questions
Comparative questions help you understand the relative differences between related topics. Consider the question below. Instead of asking a question on HC or SC separately, we have clubbed it together.

Consider the following statements with respect to the appointment of judges of High Court & Supreme Court
1. The minimum qualifications prescribed in the Constitution is same for judges of HC & SC.
2. While SC judges are appointed by the President, HC judges are appointed by the SC.
Which of the following is/are incorrect?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None

Explanation – 3 qualifications are common to both judges of HC and SC
1. Citizen of India
2. Judge of HC for 5 years
3. Advocate in HC for 10 years
In case of judges of SC, there is an additional qualification – If he/she is a distinguished Jurist in the opinion of the President. Judges of HC are also appointed by the President. The controversy around appointments has been in news very frequently. Please read – https://www.civilsdaily.com/story/judicial-appointments-conundrum-post-njac-verdict/

C. Interactive Questions
These questions will ask you to go through a concept/related concepts and reply back with comments. This will help you re-visit the entire concept rather than simply answer one specific aspect of the topic.

Eg., consider the following question –
The conversion of Ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-) and then to nitrates (NO3-) is called

a) Nitrification
b) Ammonification
c) Assimilation
d) Denitrification
Answer A

Explanation
Nitrification
In this process, the ammonia is converted into nitrate by the presence of bacteria in the soil. Ammonia is oxidized to form nitrites by bacteria such as Nitrosomonas species. Nitrates are converted into nitrates by Nitrobacter. This conversion is very important as ammonia gas is toxic for plants.
Make a note of all the processes involved in the Nitrogen Cycle – nitrogen fixation, assimilation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification process.
Leave their definitions/organisms involved in the comments.

D. Star-marked/special questions
These are advanced questions that are not from standard sources but relevant for the exam. These questions will help you build additional knowledge without going through specialized books.
Eg. Questions on books by freedom-fighters, News not covered by the Hindu, IE, PIB but of very high importance in world affairs.

Besides these, questions indirectly related to CA will also be asked. 

Do I need to join a TS for prelims at all?

Despite UPSC being unpredictable, prelims TS is the only program that can help you assess how your preparation is. Besides few questions that are directly asked from TS, it helps in developing a good understanding of how to prepare/what to prepare/what to prioritize and so on.

In today’s hyper-competitive exam scenario, it’s almost impossible to clear the exam without a good TS in hand.

Join Batch 3 of Test series here: Click2Join

Categories
Announcements

Launching Batch 2 of Samachar Manthan 2018

UPDATE 1

We will also provide Economic Survey & Budget Analysis Videos covering key concepts and important terms for Prelims and Mains 2018/19

Economic Survey analysis will be available from 2016 to 2018 covering trends in Indian Economy as well as key issues related to it.

We are also releasing 60+ Hours of Advanced Video Lectures on Static subjects – Polity, History, Geography, Economy

These cover the most important topics from Prelims perspective

Basic knowledge will be helpful in understanding these though it’s not mandatory

We are delighted to launch Batch 2 of Samachar Manthan as well as Samachar Manthan with Answer Writing for 2018-2019. The course is designed to help you develop a solid command on your newspaper reading and current affairs analyzing skills. Since it builds your core, it is important for both prelims and mains.

The program will cover Current Affairs from June 2018 to November 2018 (For the 6 months batch)

For Yearly batch, the coverage will be from June 2018 to May 2019


Join Batch 2 of Samachar Manthan with Answer Writing here: Click2Join

If you wish to join Batch 2 of Samachar Manthan without Answer Writing, join here: Click2Join

Samachar Manthan Yearly with Answer Writing Module (June 2018 to May 2019) – Rs 15000 + Taxes Click2Join

Samachar Manthan Yearly 2018-19 (June 2018 to May 2019) – Rs 9000 + taxes Click2Join


Watch some Video Lectures of the program here:

View the topics covered in Week 1 & download detailed notes here:  Click2Download


Our students have benefited a lot from the classes and many have done well in 2018 Prelims despite the paper being tricky. Read a few testimonials here:


What are we offering and how is it unique?

1. Mentorship and guidance taken to a whole new level 

Once you enroll, you’ll be assigned a Telegram group headed by Sajal Sir and rankers like Dr. Vipin Garg AIR 20, Swapnil Pawar AIR 525 and others.   Our past students have found this immensely beneficial.

  • A convenient way to resolve your doubts and queries.
  • You’ll be provided with value-added material which is very important.
  • You’ll have an ecosystem to study and learn from.
  • Above all, it will help you stay focused every day.

Here’s what some of our students had to say about our mentorship.    

2. 4 stage structure of Video->Notes->testing->review to perfect your preparation    The sequence of video->Notes->testing->review is the best way to ensure maximum retention and a rock solid preparation. Each component of the program has been meticulously crafted.

3. Our video lectures and notes on weekly CA are brief but comprehensive   Packed 3-3.5 hours Weekly videos will focus on news and its importance from both prelims and mains perspective. We understand that the UPSC exam is a generalist exam. It’s more important to cover more issues than to cover one issue in more depth. Hence, we maintain a fine balance of covering cover many important news items and have a detailed discussion on selected topics which require the same. This program will also help you understand how to utilize current affairs in all your prelims and mains papers. This ideology makes this course the best utilization of your time.

Here’s what some of our students had to say about the lectures.

   

 

4. Guest Lectures on specific issues by Dr. Vipin Garg, IAS (Rank 20, UPSC 2016) and our distinguished mentor K.Siddhartha Sir.   Besides the above, you will have access to our monthly magazines and weekly notes/links to important news/external material. You will have access to all modules included in our Mentorship program – Study-plan, strategy discussion, specific weaknesses, overall guidance. Since our mentors will have information about your performance

5. Weekly Mains Test and Evaluation by our team of subject experts   The video and notes will be followed by a test released every weekend. It will have 10 high-quality questions. This will complete your study loop and enhance your retention. >Mains level questions with feedback. Sample review is attached.

     > Answer Enhancement We chose the Question & Answer format because it is perfectly aligned with the requirements of the exam. Having information is very different from presenting it in an answer with a proper structure. This will help in better retention of prelims specific information and prepare a solid ground for your mains prep. After every 2nd test you attempt, you can reach out to our mentors for personalized feedback.

6. Current Affairs Monthly Prelims Test package This was a feedback we received from many students. They wanted appropriate focus on the current affairs program.    Prime Students get their usual discount of 30%

Join Batch 2 of Samachar Manthan with Answer Writing here: Click2Join

If you wish to join Batch 2 of Samachar Manthan without Answer Writing, join here: Click2Join

Categories
Announcements

Batch 2: CD Prime Test Series for Prelims 2019

UPDATE #2

We have been getting emails every single day to extend the discount till the prelims results are announced and provide more lectures. Hence we are upgrading the program further.

Apart from the static subject videos, now we will also provide Economic Survey & Budget Analysis Videos covering key concepts and important terms for Prelims 2019.  Economic Survey analysis will be available from 2016 to 2018 covering trends in Indian Economy as well as key issues related to it.

That makes the total video lectures to be 75 hours.

We will be extending the discount till 2 weeks after prelims results keeping in mind interest of students who are awaiting prelims results to decide further course of action.

UPDATE  #1

Demolish UPSC series
We are releasing 60+ Hours of Advanced Video Lectures on Static subjects – Polity, History, Geography, Economy

These cover the most important topics from prelims perspective

Basic knowledge will be helpful in understanding these though it’s not mandatory
CD remains committed to its students’ success. We are ready to go the extra mile to turn your dreams into reality.

The detailed schedule of test series with complete booklist to be followed can be seen here: Click2View

 

Here is the detailed schedule of lectures:

Importance of Economic Survey and Budget

Economic Survey and Budget are the 2 most important documents that you will go through in your exam preparation.

  • Economic Survey discusses all the major government initiatives with the explanation.
  • If we go by the trend, every year around 20 questions in prelims and 7-8 questions in mains are directly related to the Economic Survey and Budget.
  • Questions in prelims paper stress on important phrases, key analysis, and technical terms. Hence they have to be thoroughly studied.
  • Almost mandatory to imbibe actual phrases used in Economic Survey to frame answers for Main Examination. for example, if a Question is asked on Banking sector problems in the mains exam, you can always quote the 4R recommendations of the 2016th economic survey.
  • Adding the important and relevant facts and figures significantly enhance your marks in General Studies Paper-III.
  • Deep knowledge of the current policies and programs of the government also help an aspirant to write meaningful Essays in UPSC Civil Services Main Examination. For example, Wiping every tear from every eye “Twin balance sheet problem”, “translating potential into actuality” “ Chakravuyh challenge” etc.
  • According to the new trend economy and the environment is going hand in hand. So questions can come from that perspective also.
  • Many statistics and schemes are now being asked in Prelims

Watch the video to know how we ensure you get 120+ score in Prelims

The only TS that is supervised by top rankers and provides personalized attention to students. Check out the 7 points that make it the best in the market.

Follow the video below to understand what makes the TS unique. Our planning and execution remains perfect.

 

It goes without saying that Civilsdaily’s Flagship Test Series Program has created a name for itself. It is preferred among students in their advanced stages of preparation.
Here is what ABHILASH BARANWAL, AIR 44, CSE-2017 had to say about CD

Here is what  JITENDRA KUMAR SHARMA, AIR 392, CSE-2017 had to say –

This year, we have upgraded the program to make it the best offering in the market.

Introducing CD Prime TS 2019

1. One comprehensive program – Our TS is a full-fledged course in itself! With a mix and match of various kinds of questions and detailed explanation wherever need. It is a very effective way of both, starting a subject and revising one.

2. Telegram Groups moderated by to Toppers.  Mentorship taken to a whole new level. You will be helped at every step of the way.

3. Introducing questions-types – Judging the quality of any TS is very subjective. While some will say its great, others will say its quality has decreased over time. That is why we have introduced the concept of question-types. They ensure consistency in quality. How? We have explained that in the end.

4. Dedicated monthly CA Tests – Exclusive focus on Current Affairs(CA) by having dedicated monthly CA tests. Besides, exhaustively preparing for CA questions, it has helped students precisely figure out what their weaknesses are.  

5. Tikdams and mastering the art of intelligent guesses – Tikdam Technique is an innovation by Dr. V(AIR 20) and has helped students gain additional marks. Our TS is the only TS that puts a conscious effort to build student’s risk-taking appetite.

6. Subject and sub-subject Level Tagging – These tags will help you understand the importance of themes and revise other questions from them.

7. Two-tier quality check  – Our questions pass through a rigorous true stage assessment criteria. The first being done by CD’s core content team with the final approval from a coterie of rankers.


What are questions types 

Wherever applicable, we will try to stick to the format decided below. It standardizes questions to a decent extent.

A. Consolidation Questions
These questions consolidate information from different topics to help you see concepts holistically and also aid retention.
Eg. Consider this question. You would not have studied all the ‘Majorities’ together but under separate topics. This question will help you understand the concept in entirety.

Consider the following questions on the types of Majority
1. Special Majority of not less than 2/3 of the Members present and voting is required in the passage of a resolution under Art. 249 and Art. 312ONLY.
2. Impeachment of the President requires Not less than 2/3 of the Members present and voting along with Majority of the Total Strength of the House.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a)1
b)2
c)Both
d)None

Explanation – A very detailed account of the types of Majority is given here https://www.civilsdaily.com/types-of-majorities/
Statement 1 is correct despite having ‘ONLY’ in it.

B. Comparative Questions
Comparative questions help you understand the relative differences between related topics. Consider the question below. Instead of asking a question on HC or SC separately, we have clubbed it together.

Consider the following statements with respect to the appointment of judges of High Court & Supreme Court
1. The minimum qualifications prescribed in the Constitution is same for judges of HC & SC.
2. While SC judges are appointed by the President, HC judges are appointed by the SC.
Which of the following is/are incorrect?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None

Explanation – 3 qualifications are common to both judges of HC and SC
1. Citizen of India
2. Judge of HC for 5 years
3. Advocate in HC for 10 years
In case of judges of SC, there is an additional qualification – If he/she is a distinguished Jurist in the opinion of the President. Judges of HC are also appointed by the President. The controversy around appointments has been in news very frequently. Please read – https://www.civilsdaily.com/story/judicial-appointments-conundrum-post-njac-verdict/

C. Interactive Questions
These questions will ask you to go through a concept/related concepts and reply back with comments. This will help you re-visit the entire concept rather than simply answer one specific aspect of the topic.

Eg., consider the following question –
The conversion of Ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-) and then to nitrates (NO3-) is called

a) Nitrification
b) Ammonification
c) Assimilation
d) Denitrification
Answer A

Explanation
Nitrification
In this process, the ammonia is converted into nitrate by the presence of bacteria in the soil. Ammonia is oxidized to form nitrites by bacteria such as Nitrosomonas species. Nitrates are converted into nitrates by Nitrobacter. This conversion is very important as ammonia gas is toxic for plants.
Make a note of all the processes involved in the Nitrogen Cycle – nitrogen fixation, assimilation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification process.
Leave their definitions/organisms involved in the comments.

D. Star-marked/special questions
These are advanced questions that are not from standard sources but relevant for the exam. These questions will help you build additional knowledge without going through specialized books.
Eg. Questions on books by freedom-fighters, News not covered by the Hindu, IE, PIB but of very high importance in world affairs.

Besides these, questions indirectly related to CA will also be asked. 

Do I need to join a TS for prelims at all?

Despite UPSC being unpredictable, prelims TS is the only program that can help you assess how your preparation is. Besides few questions that are directly asked from TS, it helps in developing a good understanding of how to prepare/what to prepare/what to prioritize and so on.

In today’s hyper-competitive exam scenario, it’s almost impossible to clear the exam without a good TS in hand.

Join Batch 2 of Test series here: Click2Join

Categories
Announcements

Get Ready for Polity TS – 02

Hello Students,

Test 02 Polity has gone live.
We’ve extensively dealt with all major themes – Panchayati Raj, Anti-Defection Law, Constitutional and Statutory Bodies, other important bodies repetitively in news and many others.

We have covered few questions from Parliamentary Committees. A couple of important themes from the topics for Test 01 would be there as they couldn’t be covered in Test 01. Please attempt these as these will only serve as a revision.

Finally, please be regular.

Categories
Announcements

Optional Telegram Groups – Inviting Moderators

Dear Students,

We have moved our discussion forums for optional subjects to the following telegram groups. It was evident that telegram had many smooth features which were beneficial for optional discussions.

From time to time, we will try to get Rankers and Mentors to communicate with you and solve your queries. It should be noted that these are self-moderated groups where you can collaborate and communicate with your fellow peers. Students interested to become Moderators so they can streamline the conversations are more than welcome to write to us.

Categories
Announcements

Samachar Manthan for 2018-2019: Week 1 Highlights

Samachar Manthan for 2018-2019 is designed to help you develop a solid command on your newspaper reading and current affairs analyzing skills. Since it builds your core, it is important for both prelims and mains.

Watch some highlights of Week 1 Video Lecture here:

Know all details about the course and join here: Click2Read

Categories
Announcements

120+ in UPSC Prelims: Know the Secret

CD remains committed to its students’ success. We are ready to go the extra mile to turn your dreams into reality.

Watch the video to know rigorous testing methodology followed by us for ensuring comprehensive Prelims preparation for our TS subscribers and how it will benefit you

Link for buying test series + video lectures: Click2Join

For students joining before the end of this month, you will get it for Rs. 6372 (Special discounted TS price)

Categories
Announcements

Demolish UPSC series: 60+ Hours of Advanced Video Lectures

Demolish UPSC series

We are releasing 60+ Hours of Advanced Video Lectures on Static subjects – Polity, History, Geography, Economy

These cover the most important topics from prelims perspective

Basic knowledge will be helpful in understanding these though it’s not mandatory

CD remains committed to its students’ success. We are ready to go the extra mile to turn your dreams into reality. For students joining before the end of this month, you will get these lectures + Prelims test series for Rs. 6372 (Special 10% discounted TS price)

Link for buying test series + video lectures: Click2Join

For other students joining after June 30, the price would be Rs. 7000 + taxes for test series + video lectures

Here is the detailed schedule of lectures:

These lectures will be aligned to our CD Prime Prelims Test Series. You can view the schedule of test series here: Click2View

Categories
Announcements

Government Bodies related to environment conservation in India

Central Pollution Control Board

Established: It was established in 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.

Objective: To provide technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

Key Functions:

  • Advise the Central Government on any matter concerning prevention and control of water and air pollution and improvement of the quality of air.
  • Plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution
  • Coordinate the activities of the State Board and resolve disputes among them
  • Provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards, carry out and sponsor investigation and research relating to problems of water and air pollution, and for their prevention, control or abatement
  • Plan and organise training of persons engaged in the programme on the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution
  • Organise through mass media, a comprehensive mass awareness programme on the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution
  • Collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to water and air pollution and the measures devised for their effective prevention, control or abatement;
  • Prepare manuals, codes and guidelines relating to treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents as well as for stack gas cleaning devices, stacks and ducts;
  • Disseminate information in respect of matters relating to water and air pollution and their prevention and control
  • Lay down, modify or annul, in consultation with the State Governments concerned, the standards for stream or well, and lay down standards for the quality of air.
  • Perform such other functions as may be prescribed by the Government of India.

 

National Biodiversity Authority

Established When: It is a statutory autonomous body under the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India established in 2003, after India signed Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1992

Headquarter: Chennai

The objective of the body: Implementation of Biological Diversity Act, 2002

Key Functions:

It acts as a facilitating, regulating and advisory body to the Government of India “on issues of conservation, sustainable use of biological resources and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of biological resources.”

Additionally, it advises State Governments in identifying the areas of biodiversity importance (biodiversity hotspots) as heritage sites.

 

National Tiger conservation authority

Established: It was established in December 2005 following a recommendation of the Tiger Task Force, constituted by the Prime Minister of India for reorganised management of Project Tiger and the many Tiger Reserves in India.

Headquarter: Delhi

Objective:

  • Providing statutory authority to Project Tiger so that compliance of its directives become legal.
  • Fostering accountability of Center-State in management of Tiger Reserves, by providing a basis for MoU with States within our federal structure.
  • Providing for oversight by Parliament.
  • Addressing livelihood interests of local people in areas surrounding Tiger Reserves.

Key Functions:

  • to approve the tiger conservation plan prepared by the State Government under sub-section (3) of section 38V of this Act
  • evaluate and assess various aspects of sustainable ecology and disallow any ecologically unsustainable land use such as mining, industry and other projects within the tiger reserves;
  • provide for management focus and measures for addressing conflicts of  men and wild animal and to emphasize on co-existence in forest areas outside the National Parks, sanctuaries or tiger reserve, in the working plan code
  • provide information on protection measures including future conservation plan, estimation of population of tiger and its natural prey species, the status of habitats, disease surveillance, mortality survey, patrolling, reports on untoward happenings and such other management aspects as it may deem fit including future plan conservation
  • ensure critical support including scientific, information technology and legal support for better implementation of the tiger conservation plan
  • facilitate ongoing capacity building programme for skill development of officers and staff of tiger reserves.

 

Animal Welfare Board of India

Established When: It was established in 1962 under Section 4 of The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act,1960.

Headquarter: Chennai

Objective: To advise Government on Animal Welfare Laws and promotes animal welfare in the country.

Key Functions:

  • Recognition of Animal Welfare Organisations: The Board oversees Animal Welfare Organisations (AWOs) by granting recognition to them if they meet its guidelines. The organisation must submit paperwork; agree to nominate a representative of the Animal Welfare Board of India on its Executive Committee, and to submit to regular inspections. After meeting the requirements and inspection, the organisation is considered for grant of recognition.
  • The AWBI also appoints key people to the positions of (Hon) Animal Welfare Officers, who serve as the key point of contact between the people, the government and law enforcement agencies.
  • Financial assistance: The Board provides financial assistance to recognised Animal Welfare Organisations (AWOs), who submit applications to the Board. Categories of grants include Regular Grant, Cattle Rescue Grant, Provision of Shelter House for looking after the Animals, Animal Birth Control (ABC) Programme, Provision of Ambulance for the animals in distress and Natural Calamity grant.
  • Animal welfare laws and Rules: The Board suggests changes to laws and rules about animal welfare issues. In 2011, a new draft Animal Welfare Act was published for comment. Guidance is also offered to organisations and officials such as the police to help them interpret and apply the laws.
  • Raising awareness: The Board issues publications to raise awareness of various animal welfare issues. The Board’s Education Team gives talks on animal welfare subjects, and trains members of the community to be Board Certified Animal Welfare Educators.

 

Forest Survey of India

Established When:  It is a government organization in India under the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change for conducting forest surveys and studies. The organization came into being in, 1981.

Headquarter: Dehradun, Uttarakhand

Objective

The objective of the organization is monitoring periodically the changing situation of land and forest resources and present the data for national planning; conservation and management of environmental preservation and implementation of social forestry projects.

Key Functions

  • The Functions of the Forest Survey of India are:
  • To prepare State of Forest Report biennially, providing an assessment of the latest forest cover in the country and monitoring changes in these.
  • To conduct an inventory in forest and non-forest areas and develop a database on forest tree resources.
  • To prepare thematic maps on 1:50,000 scale, using aerial photographs.
  • To function as a nodal agency for collection, compilation, storage and dissemination of spatial database on forest resources.
  • To conduct training of forestry personnel in the application of technologies related to resources survey, remote sensing, GIS, etc.
  • To strengthen research & development infrastructure in FSI and to conduct research on applied forest survey techniques.
  • To support State/UT Forest Departments (SFD) in forest resources survey, mapping and inventory.
  • To undertake forestry-related special studies/consultancies and custom made training courses for SFD’s and other organizations on a project basis.

Forest Survey of India assesses forest cover of the country every 2 years by digital interpretation of remote sensing satellite data and publishes the results in a biennial report called ‘State of Forest Report'(SFR).

Central Zoo Authority of India

Established: It was established in 1992 and constituted under the Wild Life (Protection) Act.

Headquarter: Delhi

Objective 

The main objective of the authority is to complement the national effort in the conservation of wildlife.

Standards and norms for housing, upkeep, health care and overall management of animals in zoos have been laid down under the Recognition of Zoo Rules, 1992.   

Key Functions

  • Since its inception in 1992, the Authority has evaluated 513 zoos, out of which 167 have been recognized and 346 refused recognition.
  • The Authority’s role is more of a facilitator than a regulator.  It, therefore, provides technical and financial assistance to such zoos which have the potential to attain the desired standard in animal management. Only such captive facilities which have neither the managerial skills nor the requisite resources are asked to close down.
  • Apart from the primary function of the grant of recognition and release of financial assistance, the Central Zoo Authority also regulates the exchange of animals of the endangered category listed under Schedule-I and II of the Wildlife (Protection Act) among zoos.  
  • Exchange of animals between Indian and foreign zoos is also approved by the Authority before the requisite clearances under EXIM Policy and the CITES permits are issued by the competent authority.  
  • The Authority also coordinates and implements programmes on capacity building of zoo personnel, planned conservation breeding programmes and ex-situ research including biotechnological intervention for the conservation of species for complementing in-situ conservation efforts in the country.

 

 

 

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Impact of Globalisation on India

Globalization has been defined as the process of rapid integration of countries and happenings through greater foreign trade and foreign investment. It is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.

What are the factors aiding globalisation?

1) Technology: has reduced the speed of communication manifolds. The phenomenon of social media in the recent world has made distance insignificant.

The integration of technology in India has transformed jobs which required specialized skills and lacked decision-making skills to extensively-defined jobs with higher accountability that require new skills, such as numerical, analytical, communication and interactive skills. As a result of this, more job opportunities are created for people.

2) LPG Reforms: The 1991 reforms in India have led to greater economic liberalisation which has in turn increased India’s interaction with the rest of the world.

3) Faster Transportation: Improved transport, making global travel easier. For example, there has been a rapid growth in air-travel, enabling greater movement of people and goods across the globe.

4) Rise of WTO: The formation of WTO in 1994 led to reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers across the world. It also led to the increase in the free trade agreements among various countries.

5) Improved mobility of capital: In the past few decades there has been a general reduction in capital barriers, making it easier for capital to flow between different economies. This has increased the ability for firms to receive finance. It has also increased the global interconnectedness of global financial markets.

6) Rise of MNCs: Multinational corporations operating in different geographies have led to a diffusion of best practices. MNCs source resources from around the globe and sell their products in global markets leading to greater local interaction.

These factors have helped in economic liberalization and globalization and have facilitated the world in becoming a “global village”. Increasing interaction between people of different countries has led to internationalization of food habits, dress habits, lifestyle and views.

Globalization and India:

Developed countries have been trying to pursue developing countries to liberalize the trade and allow more flexibility in business policies to provide equal opportunities to multinational firms in their domestic market. International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank helped them in this endeavour. Liberalization began to hold its foot on barren lands of developing countries like India by means of reduction in excise duties on electronic goods in a fixed time frame.

Indian government did the same and liberalized the trade and investment due to the pressure from World Trade Organization. Import duties were cut down phase-wise to allow MNC’s operate in India on equality basis. As a result globalization has brought to India new technologies, new products and also the economic opportunities.

Despite bureaucracy, lack of infrastructure, and an ambiguous policy framework that adversely impact MNCs operating in India, MNCs are looking at India in a big way, and are making huge investments to set up R&D centers in the country. India has made a lead over other growing economies for IT, business processing, and R&D investments. There have been both positive and negative impacts of globalization on social and cultural values in India.

IMPACTS OF GLOBALISATION IN INDIA

Economic Impact:

  1. Greater Number of Jobs: The advent of foreign companies and growth in economy has led to job creation. However, these jobs are concentrated more in the services sector and this has led to rapid growth of service sector creating problems for individuals with low level of education. The last decade came to be known for its jobless growth as job creation was not proportionate to the level of economic growth.
  2. More choice to consumers: Globalisation has led to a boom in consumer products market. We have a range of choice in selecting goods unlike the times where there were just a couple of manufacturers.
  3. Higher Disposable Incomes: People in cities working in high paying jobs have greater income to spend on lifestyle goods. There has been an increase in the demand of products like meat, egg, pulses, organic food as a result. It has also led to protein inflation.

Protein food inflation contributes a large part to the food inflation in India. It is evident from the rising prices of pulses and animal proteins in the form of eggs, milk and meat.

With an improvement in standard of living and rising income level, the food habits of people change. People tend toward taking more protein intensive foods. This shift in dietary pattern, along with rising population results in an overwhelming demand for protein rich food, which the supply side could not meet. Thus resulting in a demand supply mismatch thereby, causing inflation.

In India, the Green Revolution and other technological advancements have primarily focused on enhancing cereals productivity and pulses and oilseeds have traditionally been neglected.

  • Shrinking Agricultural Sector: Agriculture now contributes only about 15% to GDP. The international norms imposed by WTO and other multilateral organizations have reduced government support to agriculture. Greater integration of global commodities markets leads to constant fluctuation in prices.
  • This has increased the vulnerability of Indian farmers. Farmers are also increasingly dependent on seeds and fertilizers sold by the MNCs.
  • Globalization does not have any positive impact on agriculture. On the contrary, it has few detrimental effects as government is always willing to import food grains, sugar etc. Whenever there is a price increase of these commodities.
  • Government never thinks to pay more to farmers so that they produce more food grains but resorts to imports. On the other hand, subsidies are declining so cost of production is increasing. Even farms producing fertilizers have to suffer due to imports. There are also threats like introduction of GM crops, herbicide resistant crops etc.
  • Increasing Health-Care costs: Greater interconnections of the world has also led to the increasing susceptibility to diseases. Whether it is the bird-flu virus or Ebola, the diseases have taken a global turn, spreading far and wide. This results in greater investment in healthcare system to fight such diseases.
  • Child Labour: Despite prohibition of child labor by the Indian constitution, over 60 to a 115 million children in India work. While most rural child workers are agricultural laborers, urban children work in manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs. Globalization most directly exploits an estimated 300,000 Indian children who work in India’s hand-knotted carpet industry, which exports over $300 million worth of goods a year.

Socio-Cultural Impact on Indian Society

Nuclear families are emerging. Divorce rates are rising day by day. Men and women are gaining equal right to education, to earn, and to speak. ‘Hi’, ‘Hello’ is used to greet people in spite of Namaskar and Namaste. American festivals like Valentines’ day, Friendship day etc. are spreading across India.

  • Access to education: On one hand globalisation has aided in the explosion of information on the web that has helped in greater awareness among people. It has also led to greater need for specialisation and promotion of higher education in the country.
  • On the flip side the advent of private education, coaching classes and paid study material has created a gap between the haves and have-nots. It has become increasingly difficult for an individual to obtain higher education.
  • Growth of cities: It has been estimated that by 2050 more than 50% of India’s population will live in cities. The boom of services sector and city centric job creation has led to increasing rural to urban migration.
  • Indian cuisine: is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. Historically, Indian spices and herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. Pizzas, burgers, Chinese foods and other Western foods have become quite popular.
  • Clothing: Traditional Indian clothes for women are the saris, suits, etc. and for men, traditional clothes are the dhoti, kurta. Hindu married women also adorned the red bindi and sindhur, but now, it is no more a compulsion. Rather, Indo-western clothing, the fusion of Western and Sub continental fashion is in trend. Wearing jeans, t-shirts, mini skirts have become common among Indian girls.
  • Indian Performing Arts: The music of India includes multiples varieties of religious, folk, popular, pop, and classical music. India’s classical music includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. It remains instrumental to the religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms.
  • Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kathakali, Mohiniattam, Kuchipudi, Odissi are popular dance forms in India. Kalarippayattu or Kalari for short is considered one of the world’s oldest martial art. There have been many great practitioners of Indian Martial Arts including Bodhidharma who supposedly brought Indian martial arts to China.
  • The Indian Classical music has gained worldwide recognition but recently, western music is too becoming very popular in our country. Fusing Indian music along with western music is encouraged among musicians. More Indian dance shows are held globally. The number of foreigners who are eager to learn Bharatanatyam is rising. Western dance forms such as Jazz, Hip hop, Salsa, Ballet have become common among Indian youngsters.
  • Nuclear Families: The increasing migration coupled with financial independence has led to the breaking of joint families into nuclear ones. The western influence of individualism has led to an aspirational generation of youth. Concepts of national identity, family, job and tradition are changing rapidly and significantly.
  • Old Age Vulnerability: The rise of nuclear families has reduced the social security that the joint family provided. This has led to greater economic, health and emotional vulnerability of old age individuals.
  • Pervasive Media: There is greater access to news, music, movies, videos from around the world. Foreign media houses have increased their presence in India. India is part of the global launch of Hollywood movies which is very well received here. It has a psychological, social and cultural influence on our society.
  • McDonaldization: A term denoting the increasing rationalization of the routine tasks of everyday life. It becomes manifested when a culture adopts the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant. McDonaldization is a reconceptualization of rationalization, or moving from traditional to rational modes of thought, and scientific management.
  • Walmartization: A term referring to profound transformations in regional and global economies through the sheer size, influence, and power of the big-box department store WalMart. It can be seen with the rise of big businesses which have nearly killed the small traditional businesses in our society.

Psychological Impact on Indian Society

  • Development of Bicultural Identity: The first is the development of a bicultural identity or perhaps a hybrid identity, which means that part of one’s identity is rooted in the local culture while another part stems from an awareness of one’s relation to the global world.
  • The development of global identities is no longer just a part of immigrants and ethnic minorities. People today especially the young develop an identity that gives them a sense of belonging to a worldwide culture, which includes an awareness of events, practices, styles and information that are a part of the global culture. Media such as television and especially the Internet, which allows for instant communication with any place in the world, play an important part in developing a global identity.

A good example of bicultural identity is among the educated youth in India who despite being integrated into the global fast paced technological world, may continue to have deep rooted traditional Indian values with respect to their personal lives and choices such as preference for an arranged marriage, caring for parents in their old age.

  1. Growth of Self-Selected Culture: means people choose to form groups with like-minded persons who wish to have an identity that is untainted by the global culture and its values. The values of the global culture, which are based on individualism, free market economics, and democracy and include freedom, of choice, individual rights, openness to change, and tolerance of differences are part of western values. For most people worldwide, what the global culture has to offer is appealing. One of the most vehement criticisms of globalization is that it threatens to create one homogeneous worldwide culture in which all children grow up wanting to be like the latest pop music star, eat Big Macs, vacation at Disney World, and wear blue jeans, and Nikes.
  2. Emerging Adulthood: The timing of transitions to adult roles such as work, marriage and parenthood are occurring at later stages in most parts of the world as the need for preparing for jobs in an economy that is highly technological and information based is slowly extending from the late teens to the mid-twenties. Additionally, as the traditional hierarchies of authority weaken and break down under the pressure of globalization, the youth are forced to develop control over their own lives including marriage and parenthood. The spread of emerging adulthood is related to issues of identity.
  3. Consumerism: Consumerism has permeated and changed the fabric of contemporary Indian society. Western fashions are coming to India: the traditional Indian dress is increasingly being displaced by western dresses especially in urban areas. Media- movies and serials- set a stage for patterns of behavior, dress codes and jargon. There is a changing need to consume more and more of everything.

Globalisation is an age old phenomenon which has been taking place for centuries now. We can experience it so profoundly these days because of its increased pace. The penetration of technology and new economic structures are leading to an increased interaction between people. As with other things there have been both positive and negative impacts on India due to it.

Conclusion: We cannot say that the impact of globalization has been totally positive or totally negative. It has been both. Each impact mentioned above can be seen as both positive as well as negative. However, it becomes a point of concern when, an overwhelming impact of globalization can be observed on the Indian culture.

Every educated Indian seems to believe that nothing in India, past or present, is to be approved unless recognized and recommended by an appropriate authority in the West. There is an all-pervading presence of a positive, if not worshipful, attitude towards everything in western society and culture, past as well as present in the name of progress, reason and science. Nothing from the West is to be rejected unless it has first been weighed and found wanting by a Western evaluation. This should be checked, to preserve the rich culture and diversity of India.

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Civilsdaily Listicles & Titbits | High Yield Material for Quick Prelims Revision

When done with basic book reading and Prelims is near, many aspirants face the dilemma of how to revise entire syllabus and then remember important points from it.

We understood this problem and our team worked together to compile all important topics at one place through excel sheets and Dr V compiled all important static syllabus points through Titbits.

The excel sheets prepared by us are available to view and download below (best viewed on desktop/ large screens):

  1. Important Acts/bills- Bills/Acts/Amendments which have been in news from 2014-2017- Click2view
  2. Declarations, conventions, protocols- Contains important IR pacts signed in the last few years- Click2view
  3. Important Books/ Texts in Indian History – IAS Pre & beyond- Click2view
  4. Satellites, Space Missions, Space Tech by India –Click2view
  5. Important Historical Sculptures- Click2view
  6. Important Temples/Monasteries/Stupa/Caves- Click2view
  7. Key/important Terms related to Ancient/ Medieval History- contains nearly 180 terms from the most authentic history textbooks of our times Click2view
  8. Tribes in India, their festivals, and culture- Click2view

 

Read all Titbits here

  1. Polity Titbits: Fundamentals of Polity and Constitution Click2read
  2. Polity Titbits: Important articles/schedules of Constitution Click2read
  3. Polity Titbits: Functions/powers of legislature Click2read
  4. Polity Titbits: Functions/powers of executive Click2read
  5. Polity Titbits: Functions/powers of Judiciary Click2read
  6. Polity Titbits: Constitution- Special provisions Click2read
  7. Polity Titbits: Constitutional, Statutory and quasi-judicial bodies Click2read
  8. Polity Titbits: Panchayati Raj- Local governance Click2read

 

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Chapter 8 | Post-Gupta Period I (600AD – 750AD)

Area of interest : North India, Deccan India & South India

Political situation became complex with the passing away of the Guptas and the demise of the Vakataka rulers. Vassals of the Guptas became independent in the North.
In the Deccan and far South too multiplicity of powers was witnessed.

NORTH INDIA

I. Political Background

Harshavardhana (590 AD to 648 AD) –

The fall of the Gupta rulers paved the way for domination of the Later Guptas, Maukharis and Pushyabhutis in the North. Harsha, though a Pushyabhuti ruler of Thaneswar ruled from Kanauj, which was originally the seat of Maukharis, with whom he contracted a marriage alliance. Harsha is celebrated as last ‘Hindu’ ruler in the North post the Gupta era.

 

II. Literature and Language

Work Author Type Theme Patronage
Kadambari Banabhatta Romantic Sanskrit Novel Romantic attachment between Chandrapeeda and Kadambari
Harshacharita Banabhatta Harsha’s biography in Sanskrit An account of Harsha’s ancestry and his early life Harsha
Priyadarshika Harsha Sanskrit play Harsha
Nagananda Harsha Sanskrit play Harsha
Ratnavali Harsha Sanskrit play About a princess Ratnavali and a great King Udayan. One of the first references of Holi found in the text Harsha
Mahaviracharita Bhavabhuti Sanskrit play Based on the early life of Rama Yashovarman of Kannauj
Malatimadhava Bhavabhuti Sanskrit play The love story between Malati and Madhava Yashovarman of Kannauj

 

III. Religion

All religions were patronized under Harshavardhana’s reign. He was a Shaivite, but later Hiuen Tsang converted him to Mahayana Buddhism.

Hiuen Tsang who visited Harshavardhana’s empire noted Buddhism was declining in India while Brahmanism was on rise.

 

IV. Art and Architecture

The art and architectural contributions of Harsha’s period are very few and mostly followed the Guptas. Harshavardhana’s realm is associated with construction of numerous stupas and monasteries. Harsha patronised the Nalanda University by his liberal endowments.

The brick temple of Lakshmana at Sirpur with its rich architecture is assigned to the period of Harsha.

Lakshamana temple, Sirpur

Related image

  • The Lakshamana temple is located in the village Sirpur of Chattisgarh.
  • It is dedicated to Lord Vishnu

 


DECCAN INDIA

I. Political Background

The late sixth century is marked by rise of Badami Chalukyas around the North Eastern part of Karnataka. The empire was founded by Pulakesin I. Pulakesin II (610 – 642 AD ) is considered the greatest ruler of the house.

 

II. Literature and Language

Work Author Type Theme Patronage
Aihole Prasasti Ravi Kirti Pulakesin II’s eulogy Mentions defeat of Harshavardhana by Pulekesin II when Harsha tried expanding towards the Deccan Pulakesin II
Vikramankadevacharitam Bilhana An epic in honor of Vikramaditya VI Western Chalukyan ruler, Vikramaditya VI

 

III. Religion

Chalukyans were both Vaishanavas and Shaivites but had a greater inclination towards Vaishnavism and Jainism. Nonetheless, they patronized all religions.

 

IV. Architecture

A. Caves

Cave temple architecture was also famous under the Chalukyas. Their cave temples are found in Ajanta, Ellora and Nasik.

B. Temples

Chalukyan temples are found in 3 places – Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal.

BadamiBadami cave temples are a complex of 6 temples – 4 Hindu, 1 Jain & 1 possibly Buddhist.
Image result for vishnu paintings badami

Cave 3 – Vishnu image

AiholeLadkhan temple, Durga temple and Ravana Phadi Temple

Durga temple

Aihole.jpg

  • It is an apsidal temple of 550 AD. The apsidal shape is similar to the shape of a Buddhist chaitya.
  • Temple has an open pillared verandah serving as pradakshinapatha instead of a dark ambulatory path.
  • Temple shows improvements in shikhara development as compared to the Gupta period.

 

Ravana Phadi Temple

Image result for ravana phadi cave

  • Ravana Phadi is a rock cut cave with distinct sculptures made during the Chalukyan era.
  • Among numerous sculptures is the Goddess Durga is portrayed in the carving. She appears to be slaying Mahishasura (panel above).

 

Pattadakal – This temple complex has 10 temples – 4 Dravida style, 4 in Nagara style, 1 Vesara style & 1 Jain Sanctuary. The Papanath temple is the Nagara style temple.

Virupaksha Temple

File:Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal.jpg

  • Largest and grandest temple in Pattadakal
  • Built in 8th Century by Queen Lokamahadevi to commemorate her husband’s (Vikramaditya II’s ) victory over Pallava ruler.

 

 


SOUTH INDIA

 

I. Political Background

The Pallavas were feudatories of the Satavahanas. After the fall of the Satavahanas in third century AD, they became independent. They ruled in the Tondaimandalam area with Kachipuram as their capital. The 7th Century marked the rise of great rulers like Mahendravarman, Narasimhavarman I and Rajasimha. The Pallava rule reached its zenith under these rulers.

 

II. Literature and Language

 

Work Author Type Theme
Mattavilasa Prahasana Mahendravarman I Sanskrit Means the ‘delight of the drunkards’. Sanskrit farse on Buddhist and Kapalika ascetics
Kiratarjuniya Bharavi Sanskrit Simhavishnu
Devaram Nayanars Tamil Saiva literature
Nalayradivyaprabandam Alvars Tamil Vaishnava literature

 

III. Religion

The Tamil society witnessed a great change during the Pallava period.

A. Hinduism

The Brahmins occupied a high place in the society. Brahmanism and Brahmins were patronized by the rulers. The Pallava period witnessed the rise of Saivism and Vaishnavism.

Bhakti Cult

The Saiva Nayanmars and the Vaishnava Alwars contributed to the growth of Saivism and Vaishnavism. Apar and Sambandar were Shaivite bhakti saints who contributed immensely to the growth of Shaivism.

B. Buddhism and Jainism

Increased patronage to Hinduism and revival by Bhakti movement led to decline of Buddhism and Jainism.

 

IV. Architecture

A. Temples

This era is significant for temple building activities as the Dravidian style of temple architecture began. The Pallavas introduced the art of excavating temples out of rocks. We see a gradual evolution starting from the cave temples to monolithic rathas which culminated in structural temples. The development of temple architecture under the Pallavas can be seen in 4 stages.

Stage I – Mahendra phase

This stage sees the development of Pallava rock-cut temples under Mahendravarman I. They were built in many places. The most important among them are Pallavaram, Mamandur, Mahendravadi, Vallam and Thalavanur.

 

Pallavaram Caves

Stage II – Mamallapuram phase

The second stage of Pallava architecture is represented by the monolithic rathas and mandapas found at Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram). The name ‘Mammalapuram’ is derived from Narshimahavarman’s name ‘Mamalla’ which means the ‘great wrestler’.

There are 5 Rathas – Dharmaraj Ratha, Bhim Ratha, Arjuna Ratha, Draupadi Ratha, Nakul Sahdev. These rathas, popularly called as the Panchapanadava rathas, signify 5 different styles of temple architecture. Dharmaraja Rath is the largest and it’s considered a precursor for the Dravidian style.

Rathas of Mahabalipuram

  • The South saw the emergence of Dravida style of architecture. Earliest Dravida style is visible at Mahabalipuram where during the Pallava period were constructed different rock cut structures called rathas.
  • Main shrine has a square ground plan
  • The superstructure above the shrine instead of having a shikhara, has horizontal platforms each placed one above the other with the size receding upwards. This is called a vimana.
  • Constructed under the patronage of Mahendravarman I and Narsimhavarman I.

The mandapas contain beautiful sculptures on its walls. The most popular of these mandapas are Varaha Madapam, Mahishasuramardhini Mandapa, Tirumurthi Mandapam and the Panchpandava Caves.

 

Panchpandava Caves

Stage III – Rajasimha phase

This stage witnesses the evolution of structural temples in South India. These temples were built by using the soft sand rocks. The Kailasanatha temple at Kanchi and the Shore temple at Mamallapuram remain the finest examples of the early structural temples of the Pallavas.

Shore Temple

Related image

  • The Shore temple is located in Mamallapuram.
  • Its name is credited to its presence at the shore of Bay of Bengal.
  • Built by Rajasimha.
  • Made up of granite
  • A Shaiva temple but also has a Vaishnava shrine

Kailasanatha Temple

Image result for kailasanatha temple kanchipuram

  • This temple is the oldest structure in Kanchipuram.
  • Located in Tamil Nadu, it is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva.
  • Dravidian style temple.
  • Built by Rajasimha.

Stage IV – Nandivarman phase

The last stage of the Pallava art is also represented by structural temples built by the later Pallavas. The Vaikundaperumal temple and Muktheeswara temple at Kanchipuram belong to this stage of architecture.

Vaikunda Perumal Temple

Image result for vaikundaperumal temple

  • Dedicated to Lord Vishnu
  • Dravidian style

 

V. Art

The Pallavas had also contributed to the development of sculpture. Apart from the sculptures found in temples, an ‘Open Art Gallery’ at Mamallpuram remains an important monument.

The Descent of the Ganga or Arjun’s penance remains the most important sculpture.

Descent of Ganga/ Arjun’s penance

 

F:\UPSC\Civils_Culture_Module\DOG.png

  • Made of a monolithic rock
  • Found in Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu
  • Identified as Bhagiratha’s bringing Ganga down from the matted locks of Shiva
  • It is also identified as Arjun’s penance
  • Declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

 

The Sittannavasal jain paintings belonged to the period of Pallavas.

 


References and image credits:

  1. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/history-vardhana-society.htm
  2. http://www.indianetzone.com/35/features_pala_sculpture_indian_sculpture.htm
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalukya_dynasty#Architecture
  4. http://www.cpreecenvis.nic.in/Database/AiholeCaveorRavanaPhadiCave_2838.aspx
  5. NCERTs
  6. NIOS
  7. CCRT site
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Chapter 5 | Mauryan Period (400BC – 200BC)

Areas of Interest : North India

File:Asia 323bc.jpg Alexander-Empire_323bc

NORTH INDIA

I. Political Background

The period from sixth to late fourth century BC witnessed the rise of territorial polities (mahajanapadas) in North India. This culminated into the establishment of the Mauryan Empire in about 325 BC. The Mauryan Empire was a pan Indian empire founded by Chandragupta Maurya.

Ashoka is considered the most significant ruler of the empire.

 

II. Literature and Language

The Mauryan era witnessed very few literary contributions. These contributions were either in Prakrit or Pali or Sanskrit.

1. Sanskrit

Work Author Type Theme Patronage
Arthashastra Chanakya Political text written in Sanskrit Deals with statecraft, polity. Economic policy, military strategy and overall administration of the Mauryan realm. Chandragupta Maurya

 

2. Pali and Prakrit

The religious books of Buddhism and Jainism were written in Pali and Prakrit (language of the masses) respectively. This ensured even common men read and understood religion.

The earliest Buddhist works were written in Pali. The Buddhist works can be divided into the canonical and the non-canonical.

The canonical literature is best represented by the “Tripitakas”, that is, three baskets – Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka.

Work Author Type Theme
Vinaya Pitaka Upali Buddhist scripture written in Pali. Name meaning basket of discipline. Deals with monastic rules for monks and nuns.
Abhidhamma Pitaka Buddhist scripture written in Pali Deals with philosophy and metaphysics.
Sutta Pitaka Ananda Pali collection of Buddhist writings of Thervada Buddhism Deals with dialogues and discourses on morality and
deals with Dharma.

The non-canonical literature is best represented by the Jatakas. Jatakas are interesting stories of previous births of Buddha. Each birth story is called a Jataka.

The Jain texts were written in Prakrit.

Work Author Type Theme
Kalpasutra Bhadrabahu Jain scripture written in Prakrit. Deals with the life stories of the last two Jain Tirthankaras, Parshvanath and Mahavira.

In the eight day long festival of Paryushan by Jain monks Kalpasutra is read for the general Jain people.

 

Besides these texts, Megasthenes’ Indica which was written in Greek also sheds light on Mauryan administration.

 

III. Religion

Mauryan rulers were tolerant towards all religions.

1. Hinduism

Despite increased popularity of Buddhism and Jainism, Hinduism remained popular too. Hinduism underwent changes during this era. Though Yajanas were performed but animal sacrifices were stopped.

2. Buddhism

Buddhism flourished during Ashoka’s realm. He sent his son Mahinda and daughter Sangamitra to Sri Lanka to propagate Buddhism. Ashoka is also credited for construction of 84000 stupas. Ashoka also convened the Third Buddhist Council.

History of Buddhist Council – These councils were Buddhist meetings held periodically which included Buddhist monks, nuns and religious leaders.

 

Buddhist Council Timeline Location Outcome Spiritual Leader (Monk) Patronage
First Buddhist Council Around 400 BC after Lord Buddha’s death. Sattapanni caves, Rajgriha Led to formulation of Sutta and Vinaya Pitaka. Mahakasyapa Ajatashatru
Second Buddhist Council Around 383 BC Vaishali The aim was to settle the dispute on practices of Vinaya Pitaka which led to the first schism of Buddhism– Mahasamghikas and Sthaviravadins sects were formed.

Sthaviravadins followed orthodox norms while Mahasamghikas followed less rigid norms.

Yasa Kalasoka
Third Buddhist Council Around 251 BC Pātaliputra Led to formulation of Abhidhamma Pitaka. Moggaliputta Tissa Ashoka
Fourth Buddhist Council Around 72 AD Kashmir Buddhists further divided into two sects- Mahayana and Hinayana. Vasumitra Kanishka

Explore more – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cz1413OZGb8

 

3. Jainism

Growing merchant community made religious grants to Jainism which ensured the religion prospered. Chandragupta Maurya became a Jain follower and sent missions to the South to propagate the religion further. The decline in animal sacrifices was a result of increasing influence of Jainism and Buddhism.

 

IV. Architecture

For the first time, we see state-sponsored art and architecture. Architectures prior to this period seem to have been made of wood and hence were not able to survive. A case in point is the 80 pillared hall at Kumrahar which is often considered to be a Mauryan palace.

A. Stupas (click for more details)

For the first time, we see the construction of Stupas. These are hemispherical dome structures originally built over the relics of Buddha after his death. There were 8 of them in distributed in places where Buddha seemed to have lived – Rajagraha, Vaishali, Kapilvastu, Allakapa, Ramagrama, Vethadipa, Pava, Kushinagar. Ashoka is credited to have commissioned construction of 84000 stupas.

The components of a Stupa are shown in the diagram –

 

 

B. Pillars and Capitals (click for more details)

After the Harappan period stone sculpting had disappeared. Its re-emergence is seen in Ashokan pillar and capitals.

Summary of sites where capitals have been discovered

Crowning Animal Site
Quadruple Lion Sarnath
Single Lion Basarah – Bakhira, Lauriya – Nandangarh, Rampurva, Vaishali
Elephant Sankissa
Bull Rampurva

 

1. Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh

Image result for sarnath pillar

  • Another remarkable sculpture is Sarnath’s lion capital
  • Characterized by four Asiatic lions standing back to back
  • It was adopted as India’s national emblem in 1950.
  • Figures of horse, lion, bull and elephant are sculpted on the abacus.
  • This pillar capital symbolized Dharmachakraparivartana that is the first sermon of Buddha.
  • The abacus has four wheels with 24 spokes each. This wheel with 24 spokes is adopted in the National Flag.

 

1. Basarah – Bakhira, Bihar

Related image

  • Single crowning lion sitting on a square abacus.
  • Compared to other capitals, this sculpture is relatively less ornamented.

 

2. Lauriya – Nandangarh Lion Capital

Related image

  • In Champaran district of Bihar.
  • The pillar is inscribed with edicts of Ashoka
  • Characterized by round abacus and lion as the crowning animal.

 

3. Sankisa Elephant Capital

Image result for Sankisa elephant pillar

  • Located in Uttar Pradesh
  • After Buddha’s death Ashoka installed series of columns in Sankissa among them only the Elephant capital survives.

 

 

4. Rampurva, Bihar

Image result for rampurva bull pillar

  • Is a hybridization of Persian and Indian elements.
  • The abacus shows Greek influence and has beautiful floral designs.
  • Zebu bull is depicted as the crowning animal.

 

C. Temples

Evidence of the earliest known structural temples has been recovered through excavations at the Bairat District of Jaipur, Rajasthan.

 

 

  • This shrine is dated to the 3rd century B.C
  • A circular brick and timber shrine of the Mauryan period
  • Was made of lime-plastered brick work
  • Points to construction of wooden pillars.
  • Surrounded by a seven feet wide ambulatory.

 

Temple 40′ at Sanchi, has a similar plan, it was a stone temple on an apsidal plan enclosed by an ambulatory, and raised on a high, rectangular scale, approached by two flights of steps from diagonally opposite sides. The super-structure was possibly built of wood, and has disappeared.

 

D. Caves

Many caves were built during the time of Ashoka. They were mostly Chaityas and Viharas (click to read more)

1. BARABARA CAVES

  • Oldest surviving rock cut cave in India.
  • These caves are situated in the twin hills of Barabar (four caves) and Nagarjuni (three caves) located in Bihar.
  • These caves were granted to Ajivika sect by Ashoka. Ashokan inscriptions have been found in this cave.
  • Caves are carved out of granite and have a polished surface.
  • Barabar Hill contains four caves, namely, Karan Chaupar, Lomas Rishi, Sudama and Visva Zopri.
  • Among these most important are Sudama and Lomas Rishi Caves as they are the earliest examples of rock-cut architecture in India

 

2. LOMAS RISHI CAVE

  • The arch-like shape facade of Lomas Rishi Caves, imitate the contemporary timber architecture

 

3. SUDAMA CAVE

  • This cave has better finishing in comparison to Lomas Rishi cave. Inner walls are highly polished.

 

V. Independent Art

In visual art of Mauryan period human figures are conspicuously absent. Salient exceptions to this pattern are the yaksha and yakshi sculptures.

A. Sculpture

Yaksha and Yakshi figures – Life size figures have been found in Vidisha, Patna and Mathura.

DIDARGANJ YAKSHI

  • Found from a Didarganj, Patna.
  • A wonderfully modeled life-size standing image of a Yakshini holding a chauri (flywhisk)
  • Characterized by elaborate ornamentations and sensuous appeal depicting Indian sculptural tradition.
  • Highly polished surface made up of sandstone.

Image result for yaksha

PAKHAM, YAKSHA

  • Located in Mathura
  • Made up of sandstone

 

Elephant in Dhauli, Orissa

  • Dhauli hills are located on the banks of river Daya south of Bhubaneshwar
  • The oldest Buddhist sculptures in Orissa is the rock-cut elephant above which Ashokan Edicts are spotted.

 

Male Torso, Lohanipur

 

– Highly polished. The nude torso of a Jain Tirthankara or a saviour of the Digambara sect found at Lohanipur

 


 

References and image credits

1. https://www.asianart.com/articles/jaya/yakspar.html

2. http://www.mapability.com/travel/p2i/barabar_4.php

3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhauli

4. http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/apac/photocoll/s/019pho000001003u0330b000.html

5. www.studyblue.com

6. http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/india/dhauli/re01.html

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The 8 Major Types of Farming Systems in India

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Based primarily on nature of land, climatic characteristics and available irrigational facilities, the farmers in India practise different types of farming.

#1. Subsistence Farming:

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  • Majority of farmers in the country practise subsistence farming.
  • It is characterised by small and scattered land holdings and use of primitive tools.
  • As the farmers are poor, they do not use fertilisers and high yielding variety of seeds in their fields to the extent they should do.
  • Facilities like electricity and irrigation are generally not available to them.

Features of Subsistence Farming:

  • The whole family works on the farm
  • Most of the work is done manually
  • The farms are small
  • Tradition methods of farming are followed
  • Yield is not very high
  • Most of the yield is consumed by the family with very little surplus for the family

#2. Shifting Agriculture:

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  • In this type of agriculture, first of all a piece of forest land is cleared by felling trees and burning of trunks and branches.
  • After the land is cleared, crops are grown for two to three years and then the land is abandoned as the fertility of the soil decreases.
  • The farmers then move to new areas and the process is repeated.
  • Dry paddy, maize, millets and vegetables are the crops commonly grown in this type of farming.

This practice is known by different name in different regions of India like:

  1. Jhum in Assam,
  2. Ponam in Kerala,
  3. Podu in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha and
  4. Bewar masha penda and Bera in various parts of Madhya Pradesh.
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As far as possible governments have tried to discourage this practice of cultivation by tribals due to wasteful nature such as soil erosion caused by it, when soil erosion caused by it, when soils are not under cultivation.

#3. Plantation Agriculture:

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  • Plantation farming is bush or tree farming. It was introduced by the British in the 19th century.
  • It is a single crop farming of rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, coconut and fruit crops like apples, grapes, oranges, etc.
  • It is capital intensive and demands good managerial ability, technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilisers, irrigation, and transport facilities.
  • Plantation agriculture is an export-oriented agriculture. Most of the crops grown in plantation agriculture have a life cycle of more than two years.
  • Natural rubber, coconuts, oil palm, tea, cocoa, and coffee are all tree crops and take years to mature, but afterwards they are productive for long periods.
  • Plantation agriculture is confined within tropical areas, i.e., both sides of the equator. Plantations exist on every continent possessing a tropical climate.

Some of the plantations like tea, coffee and rubber have a processing factory within the farm itself or close to it.

This type of agriculture has developed in hilly areas of north-eastern India, sub-Himalayan West Bengal and in Nilgiri, Anamalai and Cardamom hills in peninsular India.

#4. Intensive Farming:

In areas where irrigation has been possible, the farmers use fertilisers and pesticides on large scale. They have also brought their land under high yielding variety of seeds. They have mechanised agriculture by introducing machines in various processes of farming.

Also known as industrial agriculture, it is characterized by a low fallow ratio and higher use of inputs such as capital and labour per unit land area. This is in contrast to traditional agriculture in which the inputs per unit land are lower.

Remember Intensive Agriculture Development program?

Intensive Agriculture Development program (IADP) was the first major experiment of Indian government in the field of agriculture and it was also known as a “package programme” as it was based upon the package approach.

The programme was launched in 1961 after the Community Development Programme lost sheen. The core philosophy was to provide loan for seeds and fertilizers to farmers. Intensive Agriculture Development program was started with the assistance of Ford Foundation.

The IADP was expanded and later a new Intensive Agriculture Area programme (IAAP) was launched to develop special harvest in agriculture area.

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The IADP was expanded and later a new Intensive Agriculture Area programme (IAAP) was launched to develop special harvest in agriculture area.

#5. Dry Agriculture:

Dry farming or dry-land farming may be defined as a practice of growing crops without irrigation in areas which receive an annual rainfall of 750 mm – 500 mm or even less.

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Key elements of effective combat with perils of Dryland agriculture

  • Capturing and Conservation of Moisture
  • Effective Use of Available Moisture
  • Soil Conservation
  • Control of Input Costs

Dryland agriculture is subject to high variability in areas sown, yields and output. These variations are the results of aberrations in weather conditions, especially rainfall. Alternate crop strategies have been worked out for important regions of the country:

#6. Mixed and Multiple Agriculture:

  • Mixed farming is referred to cultivation of crops and raising of animals simultaneously.
  • The multiple farming is used to denote the practice of growing two or more crops together.
  • In such case a number of crops having varying maturing periods are sown at the same time.
  • This practice is followed is areas having good rainfall or facilities of irrigation.
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#7. Crop Rotation:

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This refers to growing of number of Crops one after the other in a fixed rotation to maintain the fertility of the soil. The rotation of crops may be complete in a year in some of the areas while it may involve more than one year’s time is others.

  • Pulses or any leguminous crop is grown after the cereal crops.
  • Legumes have the ability of fixing nitrogen to the soil.
  • Highly fertilizer intensive crops like sugarcane or tobacco are rotated with cereal crops.
  • The selection of crops for rotation depends upon the local soil conditions and the experience and the understanding of the farmers.

Good time to re-visit the nitrogen cycle again!

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#8. Terrace Cultivation:

  • The hill and mountain slopes are cut to form terraces and the land is used in the same way as in permanent agriculture.
  • Since the availability of flat land is limited terraces are made to provide small patch of level land.
  • Soil erosion is also checked due to terrace formation on hill slopes.
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Questions from Previous Year’s Prelims

#1. Which of the following is the chief characteristic of ‘mixed farming’? [UPSC 2012]

A. Cultivation of both cash crops and food crops
B. Cultivation of two or more crops in the same field
C. Rearing of animals and cultivation of crops together
D. None of the above.

Ans: C

#2. With reference to Indian agriculture, which one of the following statements is correct? [UPSC 2002]

A. About 90 per cent of the area under pulses in India is rainfed.
B. The share of pulses in the gross cropped area at the national level has double in the last two decades
C. India accounts for about 15 per cent of the total area under rice in the world
D. Rice occupies about 34 per cent of the gross cropped area of India

Ans: A

#3. Which one of the following agricultural practices is eco-friendly ? [UPSC 1999]

A. Organic farming
B. Shifting cultivation
C. Cultivation of high-yielding varieties
D. Growing plants in glass-houses

Ans: A

#4. What can be the impact of excessive/ inappropriate use of nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture? [UPSC 2015]
1. Proliferation of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms in soil can occur.
2. increase in the acidity of soil can take place.
3. Leaching of nitrate to the groundwater can occur.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

A. 1 and 3 only
B. 2 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. 1, 2 and 3

Ans: C

#5. In India, the problem of soil erosion is associated with which of the following? [UPSC 2015]
1.Terrace cultivation
2. Deforestation
3. Tropical climate
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

A. I and 2 only
B. 2 only
C. 1 and 3 only
D. 1, 2 and 3

Ans: B