Categories
Mission Nikaalo Prelims

GI Tags in News

08th Oct 2021

 

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Geographical Indications in India

  • A Geographical Indication is used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin.
  • Such a name conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness which is essentially attributable to its origin in that defined geographical locality.
  • This tag is valid for a period of 10 years following which it can be renewed.
  • Recently the Union Minister of Commerce and Industry has launched the logo and tagline for the Geographical Indications (GI) of India.
  • The first product to get a GI tag in India was the Darjeeling tea in 2004.
  • The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 (GI Act) is a sui generis Act for the protection of GI in India.
  • India, as a member of the WTO, enacted the Act to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.
  • Geographical Indications protection is granted through the TRIPS Agreement.

Two well-known products from Tamil Nadu — Dindigul lock and Kandangi Saree — have been given the Geographical Indication (GI) tag by The Geographical Indications Registry in Chennai.

Dindigul lock

  • The Dindigul locks are known throughout the world for their superior quality and durability, so much so that even the city is called Lock City.
  • Government institutions such as prisons, godowns, hospitals, and even temples use these locks instead of other machine-made ones.
  • The application for the lock was made by the Dindigul Lock, Hardware and Steel Furniture Workers Industrial Co-operative Society Limited.
  • More than 3,125 lock manufacturing units are limited to an area of 5 km in and around Dindigul.
  • The abundance of iron in this region is the reason for the growth of the industry.
  • There are over 50 varieties of locks made by the artisans using raw materials such as MS flat plates and brass plates procured from the nearby towns, including Madurai and Salem.

The Kandangi sarees

  • The Kandangi sarees are manufactured in the entire Karaikudi taluk in Sivaganga district.
  • They are characterised by large contrast borders and some are known to have borders covering as far as two-thirds of the saree which is usually around 5.10 m-5.60 m in length.
  • Worn in summer, these cotton sarees are usually bought by customers in bulk.
  • The Amarar Rajeev Gandhi Handloom Weavers Co-operative Production and Sales Society Limited filed the application for the Kandangi saree.

Palani Panchamirtham

  • PalaniPanchamirtham, an abishegaPrasadam, from Palani Town is one of the main offerings in the Abisegam of Lord Dhandayuthapani Swamy, the presiding deity of the Temple.
  • It is a combination of five natural substances, namely, banana, jaggery sugar, cow ghee, honey and cardamom in a definite proportion.
  • It is prepared in a natural method without addition of any preservatives or artificial ingredients and is well known for its religious fervour and gaiety.
  • This is the first time a temple ‘prasadam’ from Tamil Nadu has been bestowed with the GI tag.

Tawlhlohpuan

  • Tawlhlohpuan, a medium to heavy, compactly woven, good quality fabric from Mizoram is known for warp yarns, warping, weaving & intricate designs that are made by hand.
  • Tawlhloh, in Mizo language, means ‘to stand firm or not to move backward’. Tawlhlohpuan, which holds high significance in the Mizo society, is produced throughout the state of Mizoram, Aizawl and Thenzawl town being the main centre of production.

Mizo Puanchei

  • Mizo Puanchei, a colourful Mizo shawl/textile, from Mizoram, is considered as the most colourful among the Mizo textiles.
  • It is an essential possession for every Mizo lady and an important marriage outfit in the state.
  • It is also the most commonly used costume in Mizo festive dances and official ceremonies.
  • The weavers insert the designs and motifs by using supplementary yarns while weaving to create this beautiful and alluring textile.

Tirur betel vine

  • Tirur betel vine from Kerala is mainly cultivated in Tirur, Tanur, Tirurangadi, Kuttippuram, Malappuram and Vengara block panchayaths of Malappuram District.
  • It is valued both for its mild stimulant action and medicinal properties.
  • Even though it is commonly used for making pan masala for chewing, it has many medicinal, industrial and cultural usages and is considered as a remedy for bad breath and digestive disorders.

Panchamirtham’ of Palani temple gets GI tag

  • The famous Palani panchamirtham, given as ‘prasadam’ at the Murugan temple at Palani has been granted the Geographical Indication (GI) tag.
  • This is the first time a temple ‘prasadam’ from Tamil Nadu has been given the GI tag.

About the Panchamirtham

  • It is sweet in taste and one of the main offerings for Lord Dhandayuthapani Swamy, the presiding deity of Arulmigu Dhandayuthapani Swamy Temple, situated on Palani Hills.
  • The panchamirtham is a combination of five natural substances — banana, jaggery, cow ghee, honey and cardamom.
  • Dates and diamond sugar candies are added for flavour.
  • The panchamirtham is an ‘abhishega prasadam’ (food that is a religious offering), which is served in a semi-solid state.
  • Not even a single drop of water is added during the preparation of the panchamirtham.
  • This gives it its classic semi-solid consistency and taste. No preservatives or artificial ingredients are used.

Pashmina

  • Pashmina is a fine type of cashmere wool. The textiles made from it were first woven in Kashmir.
  • The wool comes from a number of different breeds of the cashmere goat; such as the changthangi or Kashmir pashmina goat from the Changthang Plateau in Tibet and part of the Ladakh region and few parts of Himachal Pradesh.
  • Often shawls called shahmina are made from this material in Kashmir and Nepal; these shawls are hand spun and woven from the very fine cashmere fibre.
  • Traditional producers of pashmina wool are people known as the Changpa.

About Kodaikanal’s malai poondu Garlic

  • Also known by its scientific name Allium Sativum, this particular garlic is known for its medicinal and preservative properties. It is grown in the Kodaikanal Hills, Dindugul district.
  • It has anti-oxidant and anti-microbial potential, which is attributed to the presence of higher amount of organosulfur compounds, phenols and flavonoids compared to other garlic varieties.
  • Its usually white or pale yellow and each bulb weighs 20-30g on an average.
  • According to the GI application, Kodaikanal Hill Garlic cultivation is done twice in a year, once around May and for second time in November depending upon the suitability of the climate.
  • The hill altitude, the misty condition and the soil prevailing in the Kodaikanal region are responsible for its medicinal property and the long storage shelf life of the garlic.

Kolhapuri Chappal

  • According to the GI application made by the two states, Kolhapuris can be traced back to the 12th century King Bijjal who ruled Bidar in Karnataka.
  • His prime minister Vishwaguru Basavanna wanted to create a casteless society and remove the stigma associated with the cobbler community.
  • The community embraced Lingayat faith and used its creative skills to start producing footwear known equally for its ruggedness and regal bearing.
  • Brand Kolhapuri came into being only in the beginning of 20th century when the footwear began to be traded in Kolhapur.
  • Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj (1874-1922) of Kolhapur encouraged its production and 29 tanning centres were opened during his rule in Kolhapur.

Kandhamal Haldi

  • Kandhamal in Odisha’s southern hinterland is famed for its turmeric, a spice that enjoys its pride of place in an array of cuisines.
  • The agricultural product also stands out for its healing properties and arresting aroma.
  • The GI tag was primarily developed with the purpose of recognising the unique identity connecting different products and places.
  • For a product to get GI tag it has to have a unique quality, reputation or characteristic which is attributable to its geographic origin. ‘Kandhamal Haldi’ has been placed under Class-30 type.

GI Tag for 5 Indian Coffee varieties

Coorg Arabica coffee 

  • It is grown specifically in the region of Kodagu district in Karnataka.

Wayanaad Robusta coffee 

  • It is grown specifically in the region of Wayanad district which is situated on the eastern portion of Kerala.

Chikmagalur Arabica coffee 

  • It is grown specifically in the region of Chikmagalur district and it is situated in the Deccan plateau, belongs to the Malnad region of Karnataka.

Araku Valley Arabica coffee 

  • It is coffee from the hilly tracks of Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha region at an elevation of 900-1100 Mt MSL.
  • The coffee produce of Araku, by the tribals, follows an organic approach in which they emphasise management practices involving substantial use of organic manures, green manuring and organic pest management practices.

Bababudangiris Arabica coffee 

  • It is grown specifically in the birthplace of coffee in India and the region is situated in the central portion of Chikmagalur district.
  • Selectively hand-picked and processed by natural fermentation, the cup exhibits full body, acidity, mild flavour and striking aroma with a note of chocolate.
  • This coffee is also called high grown coffee which slowly ripens in the mild climate and thereby the bean acquires a special taste and aroma.

Sirsi Arecanut

  • It is cultivated in Yellapura, Siddapura and Sirsi taluks.
  • Totgars’ Cooperative Sale Society Ltd., Sirsi, is the registered proprietor of the GI.
  • The arecanut grown in these taluks have unique features like a round and flattened coin shape, particular texture, size, cross-sectional views, taste, etc.
  • These features are not seen in arecanut grown in any other regions.

Shahi Litchi

  • The lychee crop, which is available from May to June, is mainly cultivated in the districts of Muzaffarpur and surrounding districts.
  • Cultivation of litchi covers approximately an area of about 25,800 hectares producing about 300,000 tonnes every year.
  • India’s share in the world litchi market amounts to less than 1%.
  • The names of the litchi produced in Muzaffarpur are Shahi and China.
  • The fruits are known for excellent aroma and quality.

King of Mangoes gets GI tag

  • Alphonso from Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Palghar, Thane and Raigad districts of  Maharashtra, is registered as Geographical Indication (GI).
  • The king of mangoes, Alphonso, better known as ‘Hapus’ in Maharashtra, is in demand in domestic and international markets not only for its taste but also for pleasant fragrance and vibrant colour.
  • It has long been one of the world’s most popular fruit and is exported to various countries including Japan, Korea and Europe.
  • New markets such as USA and Australia have recently opened up.

GI Tag for Telangana

  • The Chennai-based GI Registry gave Geographical Indication certificate for Warangal dhurries
  • The shatranji carpets and jainamaaz prayer mats are made in Warangal

Specialty of carpets

  • Bright colors, geometrically repetitive patterns and interlocking zigzag motifs in cotton and jute are the signature styles of the carpets
  • One of the newest innovations by the weavers here is an adaptation of tie-dyed ikat techniques and hand-painted or block-printed kalamkari designs for the dhurries to save time and energy.

Kalamkari Paintings

  • Kalamkari or qalamkari is a type of hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile, produced in Iran and
    India
  • Its name originates in the Persian, which is derived from the words qalam (pen) and kari (craftsmanship),
    meaning drawing with a pen
  • There are two distinctive styles of kalamkari art in India – the Srikalahasti style and the Machilipatnam
    style
  • The Srikalahasti style of kalamkari, wherein the "kalam" or pen is used for freehand drawing of the
    subject and filling in the colors is entirely hand worked
  • The Pedana Kalamkari craft made at Pedana nearby Machilipatnam in Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh,
    evolved with the patronage of the Mughals and the Golconda sultanate

MP gets GI tag for a chicken breed

  • Madhya Pradesh has received the Geographical Indications (GI) tag for Kadaknath, a chicken breed whose black meat is in demand in some quarters
  • The protein-rich meat of Kadaknath, chicks, and eggs are sold at a much higher rate than other varieties of chicken.

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Mission Nikaalo Prelims

Important Schemes Regarding MSME Sectors

06th Oct 2021

 

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Credit Guarantee Trust Fund for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGTMSE)

What is CGTMSE?

  • CGTMSE is a fund which provides a guarantee for loans given to MSEs i.e. in case borrowers fails to give back loans, the bank will get their money from this fund.
  • It is a Central Government program to promote MSMEs.
  • Government has increased corpus of fund from Rs 2500 crore to Rs 7500 crore
  • Now loans given by NBFCs can also be covered under this fund

Udyami Mitra’ portal

  • Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) has revamped its Udyami Mitra with enhanced features.
  • The portal was launched to improve the accessibility of credit for the MSMEs.
  • It helps MSMEs for submission of loan applications which can be picked up by multiple lenders.
  • It aims at bringing in transparency in the processing of loans by the banks.
  • Now non-banking finance companies and small finance banks are being on-boarded on the platform for enhancing the flow of credit to MSMEs.
  • Under the new capitalisation plan, banks will have to compete for loans through the revamped udyamimitra portal.

A Scheme for Promotion of Innovation, Rural Industry and Entrepreneurship (ASPIRE)

  • ASPIRE has been launched on 16.03.2015 with an objective to set up a network of technology centres, incubation centres to accelerate entrepreneurship and also to promote start-ups for innovation and entrepreneurship in the rural and agriculture-based industry with a fund of Rs.210 crores.
  • The planned outcomes of ASPIRE are setting up Technology Business Incubators (TBI), Livelihood Business Incubators (LBI) and creation of a Fund of Funds for such initiatives with SIDBI.

Prime Ministers Employment Generation Programme, PMEGP

  • Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) is a nodal implementation agency at the national level.
    At State and district level, State offices of KVIC, Khadi and Village Industries Boards (KVIBs) and District Industry Centres (DIC) are the implementing agencies.

Objectives

  • To generate continuous and sustainable employment opportunities in Rural and Urban areas of the country
  • To provide continuous and sustainable employment to a large segment of traditional and prospective artisans, rural and urban unemployed youth in the country through setting up of micro-enterprises.
  • To facilitate the participation of financial institutions for higher credit flow to the micro sector.

Eligibility

  • Individuals above 18 years of age
  • VIII Std. pass required for the project above Rs.10.00 lakhs in manufacturing and above Rs. 5.00 lakhs for Service Sector
  • Self Help Groups and Charitable Trusts
  • Institutions registered under Societies Registration Act- 1860
  • Production-based Co-operative Societies

Salient features of the scheme

  • The Scheme is implemented through KVIC and State/UT Khadi & V.I. Boards in Rural areas and through District Industries Centres in Urban and Rural areas in ratio of 30:30:40 between KVIC / KVIB / DIC respectively.
  • No income ceiling for setting up projects.
  • Assistance under the Scheme is available only to new units to be established.
  • Existing units or units already availed any Govt. Subsidy either under State/Central Govt. Schemes are not eligible.
  • Any industry including Coir Based projects excluding those mentioned in the negative list.
  • Per capita investment should not exceed Rs. 1.00 lakhs in plain areas and Rs. 1.50 lakhs in Hilly areas.
  • The maximum project cost of Rs. 25.00 lakhs in the manufacturing sector and Rs. 10.00 lakhs in Service Sector.
Credit Linked Capital Subsidy Scheme (CLCSS)-CLCSS aims at facilitating technology up-gradation of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) by providing 15% capital subsidy (limited to maximum Rs.15 lakhs) for purchase of Plant & Machinery.   -Maximum limit of eligible loan for calculation of subsidy under the scheme is Rs.100 lakhs. Presently, more than 1500 well established/improved technologies under 51 sub-sectors have been approved under the Scheme.

UDYAM SAKHI

It is a network for nurturing social entrepreneurship creating business models revolving around low-cost products and services to resolve social inequities.

Mission

  • Udyam Sakhi seeks to encourage women entrepreneurs and to aid, counsel, assist and protect their interests. It also preserves free competitive enterprise and to maintain and strengthen the overall economy of our nation.
  • The Udyam Sakhi helps Indian women to start, build and grow businesses. It recognises that women entrepreneur in the industry is critical to economic recovery and strength, in building the nation’s future, and to helping India compete in today’s global marketplace.
Samadhan PortalThe portal aims at empowering micro and small entrepreneurs across country to directly register their cases relating to delayed payments by Central Ministries, Departments, CPSEs, State Governments.The Samadhaan portal will give information about pending payment of MSEs with individual CPSEs/Central Ministries, State Governments, etc.   The CEO of PSEs and Secretary of Ministries concerned will also be able to monitor cases of delayed payment under their jurisdiction and issue necessary instructions to resolve the issues. The portal will facilitate monitoring of delayed payment in more effective manner. The information on portal will be available in public domain, thus exerting moral pressure on defaulting organisations. The MSEs will also be empowered to access portal and monitor their cases.

Zero Defect, Zero Effect

  • ZED Scheme aims to rate and handhold all MSMEs to deliver top quality products using clean technology.
  • It will have sector-specific parameters for each industry.
  • ZED Scheme is meant to raise quality levels in unregulated MSME sector which is an engine of growth for the Indian economy.
  • The scheme will be the cornerstone of the Central Government’s flagship Make in India programme, which is aimed at turning India into a global manufacturing hub, generating jobs, boosting growth and increase incomes.

National Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribes (SC/ST) Hub

  • Ministry of  Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) is implementing a scheme of  National Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribes (SC/ST) Hub.
  • The Hub is set up to provide professional support to SC/ST entrepreneurs to fulfil the obligations under the Central Government Public Procurement Policy for Micro and Small Enterprises Order 2012, adopt applicable business practices and leverage the Stand-Up India initiatives.
  • The functions of Hub include collection, collation and dissemination of information regarding SC/ST enterprises and entrepreneurs, capacity building among existing and prospective SC/ST entrepreneurs through skill training and EDPs, vendor development etc.
  • Four special subsidy schemes/programmes have been approved under National SC/ST Hub namely
    • Single Point Registration Scheme
    • Special Marketing Assistance Scheme (SMAS)
    • Performance & Credit Rating Scheme and
    • Special Credit Linked Capital Subsidy Scheme.

SFURTI

  • As per the revised guidelines, the following schemes are being merged into SFURTI:
  1. The Scheme for Enhancing Productivity and Competitiveness of Khadi Industry and Artisans
  2. The Scheme for Product Development, Design Intervention and Packaging (PRODIP)
  3. The Scheme for Rural Industries Service Center (RISC) and
  4. Other small interventions like Ready Warp Units, Ready to Wear Mission, etc.

Objectives of Scheme

  • To organize the traditional industries and artisans into clusters to make them competitive and provide support for their long term sustainability and economy of scale;
  • To provide sustained employment for traditional industry artisans and rural entrepreneurs;
  • To enhance the marketability of products of such clusters by providing support for new products, design intervention and improved packaging and also the improvement of marketing infrastructure;
  • To equip traditional artisans of the associated clusters with the improved skills and capabilities through training and exposure visits;
  • To make provision for common facilities and improved tools and equipment for artisans to promote optimum utilization of infrastructure facilities;
  • To strengthen the cluster governance systems with the active participation of the stakeholders, so that they are able to gauge the emerging challenges and opportunities and respond to them in a coherent manner;
  • To build up innovated and traditional skills, improved technologies, advanced processes, market intelligence and new models of public-private partnership s, so as to gradually replicate similar models of cluster-based regenerated traditional industries
  • To look for setting up of multi-product cluster with an integrated value chain and a strong market-driven approach for viability and long term sustainability of the cluster;
  • To ensure convergence from the design stage with each activity of the cluster formation and operations thereof.
  • To develop specific product lines out of the currently offered diversified basket of heterogeneous products based on the understanding of the target consumer segment. A brand unification exercise also needs to be done to maximize the value.

Trade-Related Entrepreneurship Development Assistance Scheme (TREAD) Women entrepreneurship programme

  • There is a provision of Govt of India Grant up to 30% of Loan/credit sanctioned subject to a maximum ceiling of 30 Lakhs to NGOs as appraised by Lending Institutes/Banks for undertaking capacity building activities such as Training, counselling, participation in exhibitions, the establishment of new SHGs etc and other components as approved by Bank/Steering Committee.
  • The non-farming activities taken up by women are Tailoring, Handicrafts, Embroidery, Toy making, Readymade garments, Candle making, Agarbatti making, paper cup and plate making, Masala powder making, Saree weaving, Coir mat making, Pickles making, Readymade garments, basketry and brooms making, Jute bag making etc.
  • The focus of the scheme is to promote self-employment and income generation activities for women mostly from SHG groups in the non-farm sector.

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Schemes, Project, and Policies Regarding Science and Technology

09th Oct 2021

 

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1. SATHI

The Department of Science & Technology has launched a unique scheme calledSophisticated Analytical & Technical Help Institutes(SATHI)”.

Objectives of the Scheme

  • SATHI will address the problems of accessibility, maintenance, redundancy and duplication of expensive equipment in the institutions.
  • This will also foster a strong culture of collaboration between institutions and across disciplines to take advantage of developments, innovations and expertise in diverse areas.

2. National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications (NM-QTA)

The Finance Minister in budget 2020 has announced a National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications (NM-QTA).

About NM-QTA

  • The mission will function under the Department of Science & Technology (DST).
  • It will be able to address the ever-increasing technological requirements of society and take into account the international technology trends.
  • The mission will help prepare next-generation skilled manpower, boost translational research and also encourage entrepreneurship and start-up ecosystem development.

3. Project MANAV: Human Atlas Initiative

  • For the first time, Indian scientists will be mapping every single tissue of the human body to have a deeper understanding of the roles of tissues and cells linked to various diseases.
  • Department of Biotechnology (DBT) launched MANAV: Human Atlas Initiative towards improving knowledge on human physiology.
  • It is a project funded by DBT, which aims at creating a database network of all tissues in the human body from the available scientific literature.
  • It is a project that involves scientific skill development for annotation, science outreach along with handling big data.
  • It will involve gaining better biological insights through physiological and molecular mapping, develop disease models through predictive computing and have a holistic analysis and finally drug discovery.
  • The student community, who will be the backbone on assimilating the information, will be trained and imparted with skills to perform annotation and curation of information that will ultimately form the online network.
  • DBT has invested funds shared between two institutions in Pune – National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS) and Indian Institute of Science, Education and Research (IISER), Pune.
  • Besides, Persistent Systems Limited has co-funded the project and is developing the platform.

4. Project Cosmic Microwave Background-Bharat

  • CMB stands for Cosmic Microwave Background, and the scientific space project CMB-Bharat has been presented as a proposal to ISRO and is under consideration.
  • In the workshop, project CMB-Bharat, which could help us listen to the faintest murmurs of the early universe, was discussed.
  • CMB-Bharat is a proposal for comprehensive next-generation Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) mission in international collaboration with major Indian contribution.
  • This referred to quantum gravitational waves, which are different from what LIGO detectors had observed that were classical in nature.

5. Phyto-Pharma Plant Mission

Objectives

  • Rs 50 crore Mission aimed at conservation and cultivation of endangered and threatened endemic medicinal plants, and discovery of new botanical drugs for unmet medical needs using the rich traditional ethnobotanical knowledge and biodiversity of these states and at the same time also improve the availability of authentic and quality botanical raw material on a sustainable basis for a boom in the phyto-pharmaceutical industry
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Science & Technology

6. Brahmaputra Biodiversity and Biology Boat

Objectives

  • B4 will establish a large barge on the river with a well-equipped laboratory for analysis of all components of the entire ecosystem of the river and surroundings. The B4 will link to all the local research institutions along the river, as well as national and international laboratories
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Science & Technology

7. INSPIRE (INNOVATION IN SCIENCE PURSUIT FOR INSPIRED RESEARCH)

Objectives

  • To attract talent to Science.
  • To communicate to the youth of the country the excitements of creative pursuit of science, attract talent to the study of science at an early age and thus build the required critical human resource pool for strengthening and expanding the Science & Technology system and R&D base.
  • It does not believe in conducting competitive exams for the identification of talent at any level.
  • It believes in and relies on the efficacy of the existing educational structure for the identification of talent.
  • INSPIRE has three components:
  • i. Scheme for Early Attraction of Talent (SEATS)
  • ii. Scholarship for Higher Education (SHE)
  • iii. Assured Opportunity for Research Careers (AORC)
  • The Inspire Awards have been renamed as MANAK

8. JIGYASA –

Objectives

  • Student-Scientist Connect Programme
  • Connecting school students and scientists so as to extend student’s classroom learning with that of a very well planned research laboratory-based learning.
  • CSIR + Kendriya Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS).

9. VAJRA

Objectives –

  • The Government of India recently launched VAJRA (Visiting Advanced Joint Research) Faculty scheme by the Department of Science and Technology which enables NRIs and overseas scientific community to participate and contribute to research and development in India. The Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), a statutory body of the Department will implement the Scheme.
  • International Faculty / scientists/technologists including Non-resident Indians (NRI) and Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) / Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) are offered adjunct / visiting faculty positions in Indian Institutions / Universities for a period of 1-3 months under this scheme. The faculty can also undertake the role of teaching /mentoring apart from R&D.
  • Public funded institutions and national laboratories are allowed to host the VAJRA faculty.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Science & Technology

10. National Initiative for Developing & Harnessing Innovation (NIDHI)

Objectives

A programme to address the complete chain of innovation ecosystem right from scouting to mentoring to scaling up innovations. launched by DST. Establishment of a research park at IIT Gandhinagar has been supported at a cost of Rs.90 cr.

11.Surya Jyoti

Objectives

  • In order to capture daylight and concentrate the same inside a dark room, particularly in the urban slum or rural areas which lack electricity supply, a low cost and energy-efficient Micro Solar Dome (Surya Jyoti) has been tested and developed. -Potential users of this device are10 million households.
  • According to preliminary estimates, if this technology is adopted in 10 million households only, it has the potential of saving 1750 million units of energy.
  • It would also lead to an emission reduction of about 12.5 million ton of CO2 equivalent, hence giving a fillip to the mission of ‘Clean India, Green India’.
  • The manufacturing process, being labour-intensive, would also generate huge job opportunities in the economy.
  • Nodal Ministry – Department of Science & Technology.

12. Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan

  • Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan is running successfully to motivate children to learn Science, Maths and Technology through observation and experimentation.
  • It was launched on 9th July 2015 by Late Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Former President of India.
  • Nodal Ministry-HRD Ministry.

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Mission Nikaalo Prelims

Major Tribes in India and PVTGs

07th Oct 2021

 

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Major Tribes in India: Arranged State-wise

Andhra Pradesh:  Andh, Sadhu Andh, Bhagata, Bhil, Chenchus (Chenchawar), Gadabas, Gond, Goundu, Jatapus, Kammara, Kattunayakan, Kolawar, Kolam, Konda, Manna Dhora, Pardhan, Rona, Savaras, Dabba Yerukula, Nakkala, Dhulia, Thoti, Sugalis, Banjara, Kondareddis, Koya, Mukha Dhora, Valmiki , Yenadis, Sugalis, Lambadis.

Arunachal Pradesh: Apatanis, Abor, Dafla, Galong, Momba, Sherdukpen, Singpho, Nyishi, Mishmi, Idu, Taroan, Tagin, Adi, Monpa, Wancho

Assam: Chakma, Chutiya, Dimasa, Hajong, Garos, Khasis, Gangte, Karbi, Boro, Borokachari, Kachari, Sonwal, Miri, Rabha, Garo

Bihar: Asur, Baiga, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Gond, Parhaiya, Santhals, Savar, Kharwar, Banjara, Oraon, Santal, Tharu

Chhattisgarh: Agariya, Bhaina, Bhattra, Biar, Khond, Mawasi, Nagasia, Gond, Binjhwar, Halba, Halbi, Kawar, Sawar,

Goa: Dhodia, Dubia, Naikda, Siddi,Varli, Gawda.

Gujarat: Barda, Bamcha, Bhil, Charan, Dhodia, Gamta, Paradhi, Patelia, Dhanka, Dubla, Talavia, Halpati, Kokna, Naikda, Patelia, Rathawa, Siddi.

Himachal Pradesh: Gaddis, Gujjars, Khas, Lamba, Lahaulas, Pangwala, Swangla, Beta, Beda Bhot, Bodh.

Jammu and Kashmir: Bakarwal, Balti, Beda, Gaddi, Garra, Mon, Purigpa, Sippi, Changpa, Gujjar.

Jharkhand:  Birhors, Bhumij, Gonds, Kharia, Mundas, Santhals, Savar, Bedia, Ho, Kharwar, Lohra, Mahli, Parhaiya, Santal, Kol, Banjara.

Karnataka: Adiyan, Barda, Gond, Bhil, Iruliga, Koraga, Patelia, Yerava, Hasalaru, Koli Dhor, Marati , Meda, Naikda, Soligaru.

Kerala: Adiyan, Arandan, Eravallan, Kurumbas, Malai arayan, Moplahs, Uralis, Irular, Kanikaran, Kattunayakan, Kurichchan, Muthuvan.

Madhya Pradesh: Baigas,  Bhils, Bharia, Birhors, Gonds, Katkari, kharia, Khond, Kol, Murias, Korku, Mawasi, Pardhan, Sahariya,

Maharashtra:  Bhaina, Bhunjia, Dhodia, Katkari, Khond, Rathawa, Warlis, Dhanka, Halba, Kathodi, Kokna, Koli Mahadev, Pardhi, Thakur,

Manipur: Naga, Kuki, Meitei, Aimol, Angami, Chiru, Maram, Monsang, Paite, Purum, Thadou, Anal, Mao, Tangkhul, Thadou, Poumai Naga.

Meghalaya: Chakma, Garos, Hajong, Jaintias Khasis, Lakher, Pawai, Raba, Mikir.

Mizoram: Chakma, Dimasa, Khasi, Kuki, Lakher, Pawi, Raba, Synteng, Lushai

Nagaland:  Angami, Garo, Kachari, Kuki, Mikir, Nagas, Sema, Ao, Chakhesang, Konyak, Lotha, Phom, Rengma, Sangtam.

Odisha:  Gadaba, Ghara, Kharia, Khond, Matya, Oraons, Rajuar, Santhals, Bathudi, Bathuri, Bhottada, Bhumij, Gond, Juang, Kisan, Kolha, Kora, Khayara, Koya, Munda, Paroja, Saora, Shabar, Lodha.

Rajasthan: Bhils, Damaria, Dhanka, Meenas(Minas), Patelia, Sahariya, Naikda, Nayaka, Kathodi.

Sikkim:  Bhutia, Khas, Lepchas, Limboo, Tamang

Tamil Nadu: Adiyan, Aranadan, Eravallan, Irular, Kadar, Kanikar, Kotas, Todas, Kurumans, Malayali,

Telangana: Chenchus.

Tripura: Bhil, Bhutia, Chaimal, Chakma, Halam, Khasia, Lushai, Mizel, Namte, Mag, Munda, Riang,

Uttarakhand: Bhotias, Buksa, Jannsari, Khas, Raji, Tharu.

Uttar Pradesh: Bhotia, Buksa, Jaunsari, Kol, Raji, Tharu, Gond, Kharwar, Saharya , Parahiya, Baiga, Agariya, Chero

West Bengal: Asur, Khond, Hajong, Ho, Parhaiya,  Rabha, Santhals, Savar, Bhumij, Bhutia, Chik Baraik, Kisan, Kora, Lodha, Kheria, Khariam, Mahali, Mal Pahariya, Oraon,

Andaman and Nicobar:  Oraons, Onges, Sentinelese, Shompens.

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups

The government of India follows the following criteria for the identification of PVTGs. 

  • Pre-agricultural level of technology
  • Low level of literacy
  • Economic backwardness
  • A declining or stagnant population.

Accordingly, 75 PTVGs have been identified in the country. 

State / UT NamePVTGs Name
Andhra Pradesh and Telangana1. Bodo Gadaba 2. Bondo Poroja 3. Chenchu 4. Dongria Khond 5. Gutob Gadaba 6. Khond Poroja 7. Kolam 8. Kondareddis 9. Konda Savaras 10. Kutia Khond 11. Parengi Poroja l2. Thoti
Bihar and Jharkhand13. Asurs 14. Birhor 15. Birjia 16. Hill Kharia 17. Konvas 18. Mal Paharia 19. Parhaiyas 20. Sauda Paharia 21. Savar
JharkhandSame as above
Gujarat22. Kathodi 23. Kohvalia 24. Padhar 25. Siddi 26. Kolgha
Karnataka27. Jenu Kuruba 28. Koraga
Kerala29. Cholanaikayan (a section of Kattunaickans) 30. Kadar 31. Kattunayakan 32. Kurumbas 33. Koraga
Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh34. Abujh Macias 35. Baigas 36. Bharias 37. Hill Korbas 38. Kamars 39. Saharias 40. Birhor
ChhattisgarhSame as above
Maharashtra41. Katkaria (Kathodia) 42. Kolam 43. Maria Gond
Manipur44. Marram Nagas
Odisha45. Birhor 46. Bondo 47. Didayi 48. Dongria-Khond 49. Juangs 50. Kharias 51. Kutia Kondh 52. Lanjia Sauras 53. Lodhas 54. Mankidias 55. Paudi Bhuyans 56. Soura 57. Chuktia Bhunjia
Rajasthan58. Seharias
Tamil Nadu59. Kattu Nayakans 60. Kotas 61. Kurumbas 62. Irulas 63. Paniyans 64. Todas
Tripura65. Reangs
Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand66. Buxas 67. Rajis
West Bengal68. Birhor 69. Lodhas 70. Totos
Andaman & Nicobar Islands71. Great Andamanese 72. Jarawas 73. Onges 74. Sentinelese 75. Shorn Pens

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Mission Nikaalo Prelims

Important Schemes related to depressed classes/SC/ST and Women

04th Oct 2021

 

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Nai Manzil Scheme

OBJECTIVES –

  • To address the educational and livelihood needs of minority communities lagging behind in terms of educational attainments.
  • It aims to provide educational intervention by giving the bridge courses to the trainees and getting them Certificates for Class XII and X from distance medium educational system.
  • It seeks to provide trade basis skill training in four courses at the same time of formal education, in field of (i) Manufacturing (ii) Engineering (iii) Services (iv) Soft skills. It intends to cover people in between 17 to 35 age group from all minority communities as well as Madrasa students.
  • Nodal Ministry –The Union Ministry of Minority Affairs

Nai Roshni

OBJECTIVES –

  • Empower and install confidence in women of minority communities by equipping them with knowledge, tools and techniques to interact with government systems, banks and intermediaries
  • Nodal Ministry –The Union Ministry of Minority Affairs

USTAAD Scheme

OBJECTIVES –

  • The scheme aims at preserving and promoting the rich heritage of the traditional arts & crafts of the Minority communities. 2.In the light of globalisation & competitive market, these crafts have gradually lost their employability. 3.It also envisages at boosting the skill of craftsmen, weavers and artisans who are already engaged in the traditional ancestral work.
  • Nodal Ministry –The Union Ministry of Minority Affairs

Hunar Haat

OBJECTIVES –

  • It is aimed at promoting and supporting artisans from Minority communities and providing them domestic as well as international market for display and sell their products.
  • The Hunar Haat exhibition has been organised by the National Minorities Development & Finance Corporation (NMDFC) under “USTTAD” scheme In it about 184 master artisans from across the country are showcasing their traditional art and skills at about 100 stalls at the international platform.
  • It seeks to provide an excellent platform to artisans belonging to Minority communities from across nation to display their art and skills before domestic and international visitors.
  • Nodal Ministry –The Union Ministry of Minority Affairs

Stanapan Suraksha Scheme

OBJECTIVES –

  • To promote breastfeeding and keep a tab on “inappropriate” promotion of baby food items. Stanpan Suraksha is first-of-its-kind app deveopled for promoting breastfeeding and baby food promotion reporting mechanism.
  • Using it any person can click a photograph of inappropriate baby food promotion around them and related equipment and send it to BPNI.
  • The app also has a city-wise database of trained breastfeeding counsellor to educate and provide assistance to mothers during antenatal and postnatal period. It has sign up option for mothers who wish to become a breastfeeding counsellor, pledging for petition and donation.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Tribal Affairs

Eklavya Model Residential Schools

  • Eklavya Model Residential School Scheme was started in 1998
  • First school was started in the year 2000 in Maharashtra.
  • EMRSs have been functioning as institutions of excellence for tribal students.
  • In order to further educational opportunities for more ST children, Government has sought to extend the facility of EMRSs in all the 672 Blocks where ST population is more than 50% of the total population in a span of next five years.
  • Funds for establishing the school are arranged by both Centre and State government together.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Tribal Affairs

Pre-Matric Scholarship Scheme

OBJECTIVES –

  • To decrease the dropout rate in the transition from elementary to the secondary stage. Given for Class 9th and 10th.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

Babu Jagjivan Ram Chhatrawas Yojana

OBJECTIVES –

  • Educational empowerment of Scheduled castes.
  • Central assistance is provided to the implementing agencies viz. State Governments/UT Administrations/ Central and State Universities/ Non-Governmental Organisations/Deemed Universities in the private sector, for construction of fresh hostels/expansion of existing hostel facilities for Scheduled Castes students.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

National Overseas Scholarship Scheme.

OBJECTIVES –

  • Financial support to SC and ST students pursuing Master’s level courses and PhD/Post-Doctoral courses abroad.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

Scheme for up-gradation of merit of SC students.

OBJECTIVES –

  • Upgrade the merit of SC students by providing them remedial and special coaching in classes IX to XII.
  • Income Ceiling: Rs. 3.00 Lakh per annum .
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (SRMS)

OBJECTIVES –

  • To rehabilitate all the remaining manual scavengers and their dependents in alternative occupations.The main features of the Scheme include one-time cash assistance, training with stipend and concessional loans with subsidy for taking up alternative occupations.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

Sugmay Bharat Abhiyaan

OBJECTIVES –

  • The target of this scheme is to make at least fifty government buildings disabled-friendly under the campaign in each of the state till the end of 2016 and make 25 per cent of the public transport vehicles under the government as disabled-friendly till mid-2017.
  • A remarkable feature of the scheme is that a website will also be made where the people can put their views on the accessibility of any building.
  • The international airports in the country and railway stations which come under A1, A and B categories will be made fully disabled-friendly.
  • Special set-top boxes will be made available to make watching TV more convenient for the visually impaired. In the next 5 years, almost 200 persons will be trained to speak in sign languages on government TV channels. Government websites will also be made friendlier by using text to speech option.
  • Under the scheme, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment will give free motorized tricycles to persons with 70-90% disability.
  • A Sugamya Bharat mobile app which can provide information on disabled-friendly public facilities in a city, will be launched under the scheme.
  • For awareness, a team of experts will conduct workshops for sensitizing the main parties including builders and activists.
  • Nodal Ministry – Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

Disha

OBJECTIVES –

  • Early Intervention and School Readiness Scheme.
  • This is an early intervention and school readiness scheme for children upto 10 years with the disabilities covered under the National Trust Act.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

VIKAASDay Care

OBJECTIVES –

  • A day care scheme for persons with autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and multiple disabilities, above 10 years for enhancing interpersonal and vocational skills.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

SAMARTH Respite Care

OBJECTIVES –

  • A scheme to provide respite home for orphans, families in crisis, Persons with Disabilities (PwD) from BPL, LIG families with at least one of the four disabilities covered under the National Trust Act.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

GHARAUNDA

OBJECTIVES –

  • Group Home for Adults.
  • This scheme provides housing and care services throughout the life of the person with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

NIRMAYA Health Insurance Scheme.

OBJECTIVES –

  • This scheme is to provide affordable Health Insurance to persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

SAHYOGI Caregiver training scheme

OBJECTIVES –

  • A scheme to set up Caregiver Cells (CGCs) for training and creating skilled workforce of caregivers to care for Person with Disabilities (PwD) and their families.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

GYAN PRABHA Educational support

OBJECTIVES –

  • Scheme to encourage people with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities for pursuing educational/ vocational courses.
  • Nodal Ministry –Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment.

PRERNA Marketing Assistance.

OBJECTIVES –

  • A marketing scheme to create viable & widespread channels for the sale of products and services produced by persons with autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and multiple disabilities
  • Nodal Ministry – Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

Schemes and Policies for Women

       SCHEME      OBJECTIVES             SALIENT                                   FEATURESMINISTRY
Nirbhaya Fund -Nirbhaya Fund is an Indian rupee 10 billion corpus announced by the Government of India in its 2013 Union Budget.
-According to the then Finance Minister P. Chidambaram, this fund is expected to support initiatives by the government and NGOs working towards protecting the dignity and ensuring the safety of women in India.
-Nirbhaya (fearless) was the pseudonym given to the 2012 Delhi gang-rape victim to hide her actual identity.
Earlier Ministry of Home Ministry, Now Ministry of Women & Child
ICDS-To prevent and reduce young child under-nutrition
(% underweight children 0- 3 years) by 10 percentage
points,
-Enhance early development and learning outcomes in
all children 0-6 years of age,
-improve the care and nutrition of girls and women and
reduce anaemia prevalence in young children, girls and
women by one fifth by the end of the 12th five-year plan.
-It is a centrally sponsored scheme
-The engagement of the Anganwadi worker and helper from the same village
-It is a universal and self-selecting scheme i.e. anyone can visit the Aanganwadi centre and
enrol these services.
-Package of six services i.e.
o SNP – supplementary nutrition programme
o Pre-school education
o Health and nutrition education,
o Immunization,
o Health check-up and
o Referral services to the beneficiaries
AEC-cum-crèche, AWC-cum counsellor.
Ministry of Women & Child
Mahila Police Volunteer It envisages the creation of a link between the police authorities and the local communities in villages through police volunteers who will be women specially trained for this purpose. Under this scheme, it is expected to have at least one such volunteer in every village whose primary job will be to keep an eye on situations where women in the village are harassed or their rights and entitlements are denied or their development is prevented. Joint initiative b/w Min. of WCD and Home Min.Ministry of Women & Child and Home Ministry
UJJAWALA Yojana A comprehensive scheme for prevention of trafficking and rescue, rehabilitation and reintegration of victims of trafficking and commercial sexual exploitationMinistry of Women & Child
One-Stop centre scheme1. To provide integrated support and assistance to women affected by violence, both in private and public spaces under one roof.
2. To facilitate immediate, emergency and non-emergency access to a range of … support under one roof to fight against any forms of violence against women
1. These centres will provide immediate access to a range of services including medical, legal, psychological and counselling support to the victims.
2. The OSC will support all women including girls below 18 years of age affected by violence, also for girls below 18 years of age, institutions and authorities established under Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 and the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 will be linked with the OSC.
3. In addition to this, a single uniform number –181 will provide 24-hour emergency response to all women affected by violence, through referral (linking with appropriate authorities such as Police, OSC or hospital); funding thru’ Nirbhaya fund
Ministry of Women & Child
Swadhar Grehs Homes for relief and rehabilitation of women in difficult circumstances including survivors of rape/assault etc.
Provision for food clothing, counselling. training, clinical and legal aid; long term
Ministry of Women & Child
She-Box Online complaint Management System for women working in both public and private organizations to ensure effective implementation of the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace ActMinistry of Women & Child
Universalization of Women Helpline  Ministry of Women & Child
The mission for Protection and Empowerment for Women: To achieve holistic empowerment of women through
the convergence of schemes/programmes of different Ministries/
Department of Government of India as well as State
Governments
-It aimed at improving the declining Child Sex Ratio; ensuring survival. & protection
of the girl child; ensuring her education, and empowering her to fulfil her potentials social sector welfare schemes for care, protection and development of
women.
-It will provide an interface for rural women to approach the government for availing their entitlements and for empowering them through training and capacity building.
Ministry of Women & Child
Mahila Shakti Kendra -Mahila Shakti Kendras will converge all Govt. Schemes for women at National, State, District and Block level
Skill Development, Employment, Digital Literacy, Health and Nutrition.
-Through this scheme, the government plans to reach 115 most backward districts in the country with 920 Mahila Shakti Kendra…
Ministry of Women & Child
PRIYADARSHINI SCHEME(discontinued in 2016) Women’s Empowerment and Livelihoods Programme in the Mid Gangetic PlainsMinistry of Women & Child
Sabla-Enable the adolescent girls for self-development and
empowerment
-Improve their nutrition and health status.
-Promote awareness about health, hygiene, nutrition, adolescent
reproductive and sexual health (ARSH) and family and child care.
-To educate, skill and make them ready for life’s challenges
Nutrition provision
– Iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation
– Health check-up and referral services
– Nutrition & health education (NHE)
-Counselling/guidance on family welfare, ARSH, child
care practices and home management.
-Upgrade home-based skills, life skills and integrate
with the national skill development program (NSDP)
for vocational skills.
-Mainstream out of school adolescent girls into
formal/non-formal education.
-Provide information/guidance about existing public
services such as PHC, CHC, post office, bank, police
the station, etc.
Ministry of Women & Child
Saksham  Ministry of Women & Child
Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana-Empower women in agriculture by making systematic investments to enhance their participation and productivity,
-Create and sustain agriculture-based livelihoods of rural women.
-a sub-component of the Deendayal Antodaya Yojana-NRLM (DAY-NRLM)
– Under the Pariyojana, projects are conceived in such a manner that the skill base of the women in agriculture is enhanced to enable them to pursue their livelihoods on a sustainable basis.
-Under MKSP sustainable agriculture, 58 projects from 14 States have been sanctioned which will benefit 24.5 lakhs Mahila Kisans during the period.
Ministry of Rural Development
Beti Bachao Beti Padhao 1.Prevent Female infanticide
2.Ensure Every Girl Child is Protected
3.Ensure every Girl Child is educated
Enforcement of PC & PNDT Act, nation-wide awareness and advocacy campaign and multi-sectoral action in select 100 districts (low on Child Sex Ratio) in the first phase.
-Under this scheme, there is a strong emphasis on mindset change through training, sensitization, awareness-raising and community mobilization on ground.
It is a tri-ministerial effort of Ministries of Women and Child Development, Health & Family Welfare and Human Resource Development.
Sukanya samriddhi yojana 1.(Minor) bank account for girl child below the age of 10.
2.She can withdraw 50% of the money after reaching the age of 18 e.g. for higher education. 18 years deadline will also help to prevent child-marriages.
For initial account opening, minimum deposit Rs.1000 required.
Later, any amount in multiples of 100 can be deposited, but maximum Rs. 1.5 lakh per year.
Interest rate: 9.1% compounded annually.
Ministry of Women & Child
Pocso-e Box 1, POCSO e-box is a unique endeavour by NCPCR for receiving an online complaint of Child Sexual Abuse directly from the victim.
2. Through a well-defined procedure, complaints are directly followed up by a team which counsels the victim, providing further guidance for required legal action. Through a short animation film embedded in the e-box, it assures the victim not to feel bad, helpless or confused as it’s not her fault. With the e-box, it is easy to register a complaint through a step-by-step guided process.
The Ministry of Women & Child
It is an initiative of the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), for Direct online Reporting of Child Sexual Abuse.
NARI Due to scattered information on various women-centric schemes/legislations, there is a lack of awareness
among people regarding the same. To address this problem the government launched NARI portal as a single
window access to information and services
Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology
e-samvaad Portal It is a platform for NGOs and civil society to interact with the Ministry of Women and Child Development
(MWCD) by providing their feedback, suggestions, put up grievances, share best practices etc.
• This will help in the formulation of effective policies and measures for the welfare of women and children.
Ministry of Women & Child
Stree Swabhiman -It aims to create a sustainable model for providing adolescent girls and women access to affordable sanitary products in rural areas.
-Under this project, sanitary napkin micro manufacturing units (semi-automatic and manual process
production unit) are being set up at CSCs across India, particularly those operated by women entrepreneurs.
-The product will be sold under the local brand name and marketed by village-level entrepreneurs.
-Each facility will employ 8-10 women and educate women of their society to overcome this social taboo.
-It also has a menstrual hygiene related awareness generation component and is also expected to reduce
drop-out rates in girls on reaching puberty.
Ministry of
Electronics and Information
technology (MeITY)
PROGRAM TO TRAIN ELECTED WOMEN REPRESENTATIVES OF
PANCHAYATI RAJ INSTITUTIONS
 -The program aimed at capacity building of EWRs is being organized by the National Institute of Public Cooperation and
Child Development (NIPCCD) of the MoWCD.
-It is the first-ever initiative which will train approximately twenty thousand EWRs covering nearly 50 EWRs
from each district (by March 2018) who will go out and administer the villages professionally.
– It will help in creating model villages, ensure their effective participation in the governance process and help
preparing women as political leaders of the future.
Ministry of women and Child
Support to Training and Employment
Programme for Women (STEP)
 -To provide competencies and skill that enable women to become self-employed/entrepreneurs.
-The scheme is intended to benefit women who are in the age group of 16 years and above across the country.
Ministry of women and Child
Rashtriya Mahila Kosh -RMK is a national credit fund for women under the aegis of the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
-It was established in 1993 for socio-economic empowerment of women.
-It aims to provide financial services with backward and forward linkages for women in the unorganized sector through Intermediary Micro Finance Organizations (IMOs) and Women Self Help Groups (SHGs) and to augment their capacities through multi-pronged efforts.
-RMK also extends micro-credit to the women in the informal sector through a client-friendly, without collateral and in a hassle-free manner for income generation activities
Ministry of women and child

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Categories
Mission Nikaalo Prelims

Global Space Missions and Telescopes in News

02th Oct 2021

 

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NASA’s ICESat-2 maps Antarctic ice sheet melting

ICESat-2 

  • NASA’s ICESat-2 launched less than three months ago has mapped melting ice sheets in Antarctica and the resulting sea level rise across the globe, which could help improve climate forecasts.
  • The ICESat-2 stands for Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 .
  • It is measuring the height of sea ice to within an inch, tracing the terrain of previously unmapped Antarctic valleys, surveying remote ice sheets, and peering through forest canopies and shallow coastal waters.
  • With each pass of the ICESat-2 satellite, the mission is adding to datasets tracking Earth’s rapidly changing ice.
  • As ICESat-2 orbits over the Antarctic Ice Sheet, the photon returns reflect from the surface and show high ice plateaus, crevasses in the ice 20 metres deep, and the sharp edges of ice shelves dropping into the ocean.

Unified Geologic Map of the Moon

  • The first-ever digital, unified, global, geological map of the moon was released virtually by the  United States Geological Survey (USGS), NASA and the Lunar Planetary Institute.
  • The UGM will serve as a blueprint for future human missions and a source of research and analysis for the educators and the general public interested in lunar geology.
  • The map is a ‘seamless, globally consistent, 1:5,000,000-scale geologic map’.
  • The mapped surface features of the moon included crater rim crests, buried crater rim crests, fissures, grabens, scarps, mare wrinkle ridges, faults, troughs, rilles, and lineaments.

Its’ significance

  • The moon’s South Pole is especially interesting because the area is much larger than the North Pole and there could be a possibility of the presence of water in these permanently shadowed areas.
  • Further, the South Pole region also contains the fossil record of the early Solar System.
  • These present and future moon missions’ success can be further helped by the digital map of the moon.
  • The Chandrayaan 2, an active mission also targets the Lunar South Pole for exploration

GRACE-FO Mission

  • The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission is a partnership between NASA and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ).
  • GRACE-FO is a successor to the original GRACE mission, which orbited Earth from 2002-2017.
  • It carries on the extremely successful work of its predecessor while testing a new technology designed to dramatically improve the already remarkable precision of its measurement system.

Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs)

  • FRBs are super intense, millisecond-long bursts of radio waves produced by unidentified sources in the space.
  • Their discovery in 2007 by American astronomer Duncan Lorimer led to the term ‘Lorimer Bursts’.
  • Since then, just a few dozen similar events have been observed in data collected by radio telescopes around the world, building evidence that points to a variety of potential causes.
  • Only a handful of emissions have been traced to specific areas of the sky, indicating sources in other galaxies.
  • The flash of radio waves is incredibly bright if distant, comparable to the power released by hundreds of millions of suns in just a few milliseconds.
  • This intensity suggests powerful objects like black holes and neutron stars could be involved.
  • The events were once considered to be largely transient – they seemed to happen once, without obvious signs of a repeat emission. However, a number of such bursts have been identified since then.

Why are they significant?

  • First noticed in 2018 by the Canadian observatory the waves have created ripples across the globe for one reason — they arrive in a pattern.
  • This gave birth to theories that they could be from an alien civilization.
  • Initially, it was believed that the collision of black holes or neutron stars triggers them.
  • But the discovery of repeating FRBs debunked the theory of colliding objects.

NASA’s new Mars rover: Perseverance

  • The Perseverance rover weighs less than 2,300 pounds and is managed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab.
  • The rover’s mission will be to search for signs of past microbial life. It will also collect samples of Martian rocks and dust, according to the release.
  • The rover will also be tasked with studying the red planet’s geology and climate.
  • All of NASA’s previous Mars rovers — including the Sojourner (1997), Spirit and Opportunity (2004) and Curiosity (exploring Mars since 2012) — were named in this way.

2020 CD3

  • The mini-moon was discovered by some astronomers at NASA-funded Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) in Arizona.
  • It is actually an asteroid, about the size of a car; its diameter is about 1.9-3.5 m.
  • And unlike our permanent Moon, the mini-moon is temporary; it will eventually break free of Earth’s orbit and go off on its own way.
  • Orbit integrations indicate that this object is temporarily bound to the Earth.
  • 2020 CD3 was captured into Earth’s orbit over three years ago.
  • For CSS, it is only the second such discovery. It previously discovered 2006 RH120, which orbited Earth for some time that year, before it escaped in 2007.

NASA’s InSight Mission

  • The Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport mission is a robotic lander designed to study the deep interior of the planet Mars.
  • It is the first mission dedicated to looking deep beneath the Martian surface.
  • Among its science tools are a seismometer for detecting quakes, sensors for gauging wind and air pressure, a magnetometer, and a heat flow probe designed to take the planet’s temperature.
  • The InSight mission is part of NASA’s Discovery Program.
  • It is being supported by a number of European partners, which include France’s Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES), the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA).

Habitable-zone Planet Finder

  • NASA’s Kepler mission observed a dip in the host star’s light, suggesting that the planet was crossing in front of the star during its orbit.
  • To confirm, researchers turned to an instrument called Habitable-zone Planet Finder (HPF). It has confirmed that there is indeed an exoplanet.
  • HPF is an astronomical spectrograph, built by Penn State University scientists, and recently installed on the 10m Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory in Texas.
  • The instrument is designed to detect and characterize planets in the habitable zone — the region around the star where a planet could sustain liquid water on its surface — around nearby low-mass stars.
  • The newly confirmed planet, called G 9-40b, is the first one validated by HPF. It is about twice the size of Earth and orbits its star once every six Earth-days.

 Betelgeuse

  • Using the European Space Organization’s (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT), astronomers have noticed the unprecedented dimming of Betelgeuse.
  • It is a red supergiant star (over 20 times bigger than the Sun) in the constellation Orion.
  • Along with the dimming, the star’s shape has been changing as well, as per recent photographs of the star taken using the VISIR instrument on the VLT.
  • Instead of appearing round, the star now appears to be “squashed into an ova”.

NASA announced it has selected four Discovery Program investigations to develop concept studies for possible new missions.

What are the new missions?

  • Two proposals are for trips to Venus, and one each is for Jupiter’s moon Io and Neptune’s moon Triton.
  • After the concept studies are completed in nine months, some missions ultimately may not be chosen to move forward.

DAVINCI+

  • DAVINCI+ stands for Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble gases, Chemistry, and Imaging Plus.
  • This will analyse Venus’s atmosphere to understand how it was formed and evolved, and if it ever had an ocean.
  • This will advance understanding of the formation of terrestrial planets.

IVO

  • Io Volcano Observer is a proposal to explore Jupiter’s moon Io, which is extremely volcanically active.
  • This will try to find out how tidal forces shape planetary bodies.
  • The findings could further knowledge about the formation and evolution of rocky, terrestrial bodies and icy ocean worlds in the Solar System.

TRIDENT

This aims to explore Neptune’s icy moon, Triton, so that scientists can understand the development of habitable worlds in the Solar System.

VERITAS

Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography, and Spectroscopy will aim to map Venus’s surface to find out why Venus developed so differently from Earth.

Pale Blue Dot

  • The ‘Pale Blue Dot’ is one of the most iconic images in the history of astronomy.
  • It shows Earth as a single bright blue pixel in empty space within a strand of sun rays, some of which are scattering from and enlightening the planet.
  • The original image was taken by the Voyager 1 mission spacecraft on February 14, 1990 when it was just beyond Saturn.
  • At the behest of astronomer Carl Sagan, the cameras were turned towards Earth one final time to capture the image.
  • After this, the cameras and other instruments on the craft were turned off to ensure its longevity.

About Voyager 1

  • Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
  • Having operated for more than 42 years, the spacecraft still communicates with the Deep Space Network to receive routine commands and to transmit data to Earth.
  • At a distance of 148.67 AU (22.2 billion km) from Earth as of January 19, 2020 it is the most distant man-made object from Earth.
  • The probe’s objectives included flybys of Jupiter, Saturn, and Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.

The Family Portrait of the Solar System

  • The Pale blue dot image was a part of a series of 60 images designed to produce what the mission called the ‘Family Portrait of the Solar System’.
  • This sequence of camera-pointing commands returned images of six of the solar system’s planets, as well as the Sun.

Solar Orbiter (SolO) Probe

  • The Solar Orbiter, a collaborative mission between the European Space Agency and NASA to study the Sun, took off from Cape Canaveral in Florida.
  • Carrying four in situ instruments and six remote-sensing imagers, the Solar Orbiter (called SolO) will face the sun at approximately 42 million kilometres from its surface.
  • Before SolO, all solar imaging instruments have been within the ecliptic plane, in which all planets orbit and which is aligned with the sun’s equator.
  • The new spacecraft will use the gravity of Venus and Earth to swing itself out of the ecliptic plane, passing inside the orbit of Mercury, and will be able to get a bird’s eye view of the sun’s poles for the first time.

Spitzer Space Telescope

  • The Spitzer Space Telescope is a space-borne observatory, one of the elements of NASA’s Great Observatories that include the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray.
  • Using different infrared wavelengths, Spitzer was able to see and reveal features of the universe including objects that were too cold to emit visible light.
  • Apart from enabling researchers to see distant cold objects, Spitzer could also see through large amounts of gas using infrared wavelengths to find objects that may otherwise have been invisible to human beings.
  • These included exoplanets, brown dwarfs and cold matter found in the space between stars.
  • Spitzer was originally built to last for a minimum of 2.5 years, but it lasted in the “cold” phase for over 5.5 years. On May 15, 2009 the coolant was finally depleted and the “warm mission” began.

Thirty Metre Telescope

  • The TMT is a proposed astronomical observatory with an extremely large telescope (ELT) that has become the source of controversy over its planned location on Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii in the US state of Hawaii.
  • It is being built by an international collaboration of government organisations and educational institutions, at a cost of $1.4 billion.
  • “Thirty Metre” refers to the 30-metre diameter of the mirror, with 492 segments of glass pieced together, which makes it three times as wide as the world’s largest existing visible-light telescope.
  • The larger the mirror, the more light a telescope can collect, which means, in turn, that it can “see” farther, fainter objects.
  • It would be more than 200 times more sensitive than current telescopes and would be able to resolve objects 12 times better than the Hubble Space Telescope.

Artemis Mission

  • In 2011, NASA began the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun) mission using a pair of repurposed spacecraft and in 2012 the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft studied the Moon’s gravity.
  • For the program, NASA’s new rocket called the Space Launch System (SLS) will send astronauts aboard the Orion spacecraft a quarter of a million miles away from Earth to the lunar orbit.
  • The astronauts going for the Artemis program will wear newly designed spacesuits, called Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit, or xEMU.
  • These spacesuits feature advanced mobility and communications and interchangeable parts that can be configured for spacewalks in microgravity or on a planetary surface.

Bhibha Constellation and Santamasa Planet

Bhibha

  • The star has been named in honour of a pioneering Indian woman scientist Bibha Choudhury, who discovered subatomic particle, pi-meson.
  • ‘Bhibha’ also means “a bright beam of light” in Bengali.
  • It is located in the constellation of Sextans. It is as hot as the sun, with a surface temperature of about 6,000 degrees Kelvin. It is 1.55 times bigger, 1.21 times massive, and 1.75 times brighter.
  • It is so far away that light from it takes 310.93 years to reach Earth and hence it is visible only with a telescope.

Santamasa

  • The planet has been named S’antamasa’ to reflect the cloudy nature of its atmosphere. ‘Santamasa’ is the Sanskrit term for ‘clouded’.
  • ‘Santamasa’, which is its only planet, is estimated to have a mass of 1.5 times that of Jupiter, going around the central star in a nearly circular orbit just in 2.1375 days.
  • Revolving so near the host star, the planet is expected to be very hot.

Arrokoth

  • The International Astronomical Union and Minor Planets Center, the global body for naming Kuiper Belt objects have given this name.
  • It was discovered in 2014 with the Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore.
  • Nasa’s New Horizons spacecraft flew by the snowman figured ice mass in December 2018, some 1.6 billion kilometres beyond Pluto.
  • The New Horizons team of NASA proposed the name to the International Astronomical Union and Minor Planets Center.
  • For the New Horizons team it took some months to finalise this name. In the language of the Powhatan tribe, Arrokoth means “sky”.
  • The team got the approval from the elders of the Powhatan tribe to assign it to their newfound “baby”.

About New Horizons mission

  • NASA launched the New Horizons mission in January 2006.
  • After crossing by Pluto in 2015, in 2019 it flew by Arrokoth. This remains the “farthest flyby ever conducted.”

Maxwell

  • The Maxwell is the latest in a line of experimental aircraft the NASA.
  • It has been developed over many decades for many purposes, including the bullet-shaped Bell X-1 that first broke the sound barrier and the X-15 rocket plane flown by Neil Armstrong before he joined the Apollo moon team.
  • The two largest of 14 electric motors that will ultimately propel the plane are powered by specially designed lithium ion batteries.
  • The Maxwell will be the agency’s first crewed X-plane to be developed in two decades.
  • The lift propellers will be activated for take-off and landings, but retract during the flight’s cruise phase.

Voyager 2

  • Voyager 2 was launched in 1977, 16 days before Voyager 1, and both have travelled well beyond their original destinations.
  • The spacecraft were built to last five years and conduct close-up studies of Jupiter and Saturn.
  • As the spacecraft flew across the solar system, remote-control reprogramming was used to endow the Voyagers with greater capabilities than they possessed when they left Earth.
  • It carries a working instrument that will provide first-of-its-kind observations of the nature of this gateway into interstellar space.
  • It is slightly more than 18 billion kilometres from Earth. Its twin, Voyager 1, crossed this boundary in 2012.
  • Their five-year lifespans have stretched to 41 years, making Voyager 2 NASA’s longest-running mission.

Ionospheric Connection Explorer

  • NASA has launched a satellite to explore the mysterious, dynamic region where air meets space.
  • The satellite — called ICON, short for Ionospheric Connection Explorer — rocketed into orbit following a two-year delay.
  • The refrigerator-size ICON satellite will study the airglow formed from gases in the ionosphere and also measure the charged environment right around the spacecraft which is at a level of 580 kilometres above the Earth’s surface.
  • The ionosphere is the charged part of the upper atmosphere extending several hundred miles (kilometres) up.
  • It’s in constant flux as space weather bombards it from above and Earth weather from below, sometimes disrupting radio communications.

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)

  • The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite missions began on June 18, 2009.
  • It is a robotic spacecraft currently orbiting the Moon.
  • It studies the Moon’s surface, clicks pictures, and collects data that help in figuring out the presence and possibility of water ice and other resources on the Moon, as well as plan future missions to it.
  • The primary mission of the LRO, managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, located in Greenbelt, Maryland, was to measure the entire lunar surface to create a high-resolution 3-D map of the Moon.
  • The map with ~50-centimeter resolution images would aid in the planning of future robotic and crewed missions.
  • In addition, LRO would map the Polar Regions and search for the presence of water ice

K2-18b

  • About 110 light years from Earth, an exoplanet eight times the mass of Earth orbits a star. Called K2-18b, it was discovered in 2015 by NASA’s Kepler spacecraft.
  • The researchers used 2016-17 data from the Hubble Space Telescope and developed algorithms to analyse the starlight filtered through K2-18b’s atmosphere.
  • The results revealed the molecular signature of water vapour, also indicating the presence of hydrogen and helium in the planet’s atmosphere.
  • It resides in a habitable zone — the region around a star in which liquid water could potentially pool on the surface of a rocky planet.
  • Scientists have found signatures of water vapour in the atmosphere of K2-18b. The discovery of water vapour is not the final word on the possibility of life.
  • That makes it the only planet orbiting a star outside the Solar System that is known to have both water and temperatures that could support life.

Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA)

  • It is an ambitious double-spacecraft mission to deflect an asteroid in space, to prove the technique as a viable method of planetary defence.
  • The mission, which includes NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), is known as the Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA).
  • The target is the smaller of two bodies in the “double Didymos asteroids” that are in orbit between Earth and Mars.
  • Didymos is a near-Earth asteroid system. Its main body measures about 780 m across; the smaller body is a “moonlet” about 160 m in diameter.
  • The project aims to deflect the orbit of the smaller body through an impact by one spacecraft.
  • Then a second spacecraft will survey the crash site and gather the maximum possible data on the effect of this collision.

Parker Solar Probe

  • It is part of NASA’s “Living with a Star” programme that explores different aspects of the Sun-Earth system.
  • The probe seeks to gather information about the Sun’s atmosphere and NASA says that it “will revolutionise our understanding of the Sun”.
  • It is also the closest a human-made object has ever gone to the Sun.
  • During the spacecraft’s first two solar encounters, the instruments were turned on when Parker was about 0.25 AU from the Sun and powered off again at the same distance on the outbound side of the orbit.
  • For this third solar encounter, the mission team turned on the instruments when the spacecraft was around 0.45 AU from the Sun on the inbound side of its orbit.
  • It will turn them off when the spacecraft is about 0.5 AU from the Sun on the outbound side.

TOI 270

  • It is the name of the dwarf star and the planetary system recently discovered by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS).
  • TOI 270 is about 73 light years away from Earth, and is located in the constellation Pictor.
  • Its members include the dwarf star, which is 40 per cent smaller than the Sun in size and mass, and the three planets or exoplanets (planets outside the solar system) that have been named TOI 270 b, TOI 270 c, and TOI 270 d.
  • These three planets orbit the star every 3.4 days, 5.7 days, and 11.4 days respectively. In this system, TOI 270 b is the innermost planet.

About Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

  • TESS is NASA’s latest satellite to search for planets outside our solar system, known as exoplanets.
  • The mission will spend the next two years monitoring the nearest and brightest stars for periodic dips in their light.
  • TESS is expected to transmit its first series of science data back to Earth in August, and thereafter periodically every 13.5 days, once per orbit, as the spacecraft makes it closest approach to Earth.
  • These events, called transits, suggest that a planet may be passing in front of its star.
  • TESS is expected to find thousands of planets using this method, some of which could potentially support life.

Tiangong-2

  • Tiangong means “Heavenly Palace”. It was 10.4 metres long and 3.35 metres wide at its widest point, and weighed 8.6 metric tonnes.
  • It was launched on September 15, 2016 and, in late 2016, hosted two Chinese astronauts for 30 days in what was China’s longest manned space mission so far.
  • The recently decommissioned space lab followed the Tiangong-1, China’s first space station, which crashed into the southern Pacific Ocean on April 1, 2018 after Chinese scientists lost control of the spacecraft.
  • China had launched Tiangong-1 in 2011 as proof-of-concept of technologies for future stations. The lab was visited by two teams of Chinese astronauts for 11 days and 13 days respectively.

About Hayabusa2

  • Japan’s Hayabusa2 spacecraft, which successfully made its second touchdown on asteroid Ryugu has become the first ever space probe to gather material from beneath the surface of an asteroid.
  • Launched in December 2014, the probe is a follow-up of Hayabusa, which explored the asteroid Itokawa in 2005.
  • Hayabusa was the first mission to return an asteroid sample to Earth.
  • The asteroid mission first reached Ryugu — a kilometre-wide asteroid, with a relatively dark surface and almost zero gravity — in June 2018 and made its first touchdown on the surface in February 2019.
  • A month later the spacecraft hit the surface of Ryugu with a pellet and created a 10-metre-wide crater.
  • It also exposed the materials under the asteroid’s surface that were so far protected from the harsh effects of cosmic rays and charged particles of solar wind blasting through space.

About PUNCH Mission

  • NASA has selected an US-based Indian researcher to lead its PUNCH mission which will image the Sun.
  • PUNCH stands for “Polarimeter to Unify the Corona and Heliosphere,” is focused on understanding the transition of particles from the Sun’s outer corona to the solar wind that fills interplanetary space.
  • It will consist of a constellation of four microsatellites that through continuous 3D deep-field imaging, will observe the corona and heliosphere as elements of a single, connected system.
  • This is a landmark mission will image regions beyond the Sun’s outer corona.
  • The Sun and the solar wind are one interconnected system, but these have until recently been studied using entirely different technologies and scientific approaches.

Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) Telescope

  • The telescope will be launched into space on a Russian-built Proton-M rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan in June 2019.
  • The four-year mission will survey the entire sky eight times and track the evolution of the universe and dark energy, a mysterious repulsive force that is accelerating its expansion.
  • Besides, it also aims to detect up to three million supermassive black holes — many of which are unknown — and X-rays from as many as 700,000 stars in the Milky Way.
  • The telescope is the first to be sensitive to high-energy ‘hard’ X-rays and map the entire sky.
  • The SRG will also find how dark matter — the main engine of galaxy formation — is spread in the universe.
  • X-ray sky surveys have also been conducted by previous missions, but they were not able to map the entire sky, the report said.

MeerLICTH Optical Telescope

  • Scientists in South Africa have launched the world’s first optical telescope linked to a radio telescope, combining “eyes and ears” to try to unravel the secrets of the universe.
  • The latest move combines the new optical telescope MeerLITCH — Dutch for ‘more light’ — with the recently-completed 64-dish MeerKAT radio telescope, located 200 kilometres away.
  • This is the eye, with the MeerKAT being the ears as a radio telescope.
  • The MeerLITCH uses a main mirror just 65 cm in diameter and a single 100 megapixel detector measuring 10 cm x 10 cm.
  • Astronomers have previously had to wait for a cosmic incident to be picked up by a radio telescope and then carry out optic observations afterwards.
  • The project has been six years in the making by a joint-team of South African, Dutch and British scientists.

Ultima Thule

  • NASA has found evidence for a unique mixture of methanol, water ice, and organic molecules on Ultima Thule’s surface — the farthest world ever explored by mankind.
  • Ultima Thule is a contact binary, with two distinctly differently shaped lobes.
  • At about 36 kilometres long, it consists of a large, strangely flat lobe — nicknamed “Ultima” — connected to a smaller, somewhat rounder lobe — dubbed “Thule” — at a juncture.
  • Officially named (486958) 2014 MU69, it earned the nickname Ultima Thule following a public contest in 2018.
  • It is located in the Kuiper Belt, a disc in the outer Solar System (beyond Neptune) that consists of small bodies including Pluto.
  • 2014 MU69 was discovered in June 2014 by astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope but is so distant that many of its characteristics remain to be understood.

About the mission

  • New Horizons, a space probe that was launched in 2006, became the first mission to visit Pluto in 2015.
  • Travelling farther into the Kuiper Belt, the nuclear-powered space probe has come within 3,500 km of Ultima Thule.
  • Images taken revealed that the object may have a shape similar to a bowling pin, or a “snowman”, or a peanut spinning end over end, or could be two objects orbiting each other.
  • Flyby data showed that Ultima Thule is spinning like a propeller with the axis pointing approximately toward New Horizons.
  • NASA released a composite of two images taken by New Horizons’ high-resolution Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager.

Chang’e-4

  • In January, the Chinese spacecraft Chang’e-4 — named after the moon goddess in Chinese mythology — became the first ever craft to touch down on the far side of the lunar surface.
  • The team landed its probe in the Von Karmen Crater in the Aitken Basin at the Moon’s south pole — home to one of the largest impact craters known in the solar system.
  • Scientists have said they could be a step closer to solving the riddle behind the Moon’s formation, unveiling the most detailed survey yet of the far side of Earth’s satellite.

Cassini Mission

  • Launched in 1997, the Cassini mission is a cooperation between NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency.
  • It has sent back thousands of stunning images and made numerous discoveries about the ringed planet and its moons.
  • Cassini–Huygens is an unmanned spacecraft sent to the planet Saturn.
  • Cassini is the fourth space probe to visit Saturn and the first to enter orbit. Its design includes a Saturn orbiter and a lander for the moon Titan.
  • The lander, called Huygens, landed on Titan in 2005.

China’s BeiDou navigation satellite, a rival to US GPS, starts global services

  • China’s BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), touted as a rival to the widely-used American GPS, has started providing global services.

BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)

  • Named after the Chinese term for the ‘Big Dipper’, the BeiDou system started serving China in 2000 and the Asia-Pacific region in 2012.
  • It will be the fourth global satellite navigation system after the US GPS, Russia’s GLONASS and the European Union’s Galileo.
  • The positioning accuracy of the system has reached 10 metres globally and five metres in the Asia-Pacific region.
  • Its velocity accuracy is 0.2 metres per second, while its timing accuracy stands at 20 nanoseconds, he said.
  • Pakistan has become the first country to use the BeiDou system ending its reliance on the Global Positioning System (GPS).

GRAPES-3 Experiment

  • For the first time in the world, researchers at the GRAPES-3 muon telescope facility in Ooty have measured the electrical potential, size and height of a thundercloud that passed overhead on December 1, 2014.
  • GRAPES-3 (Gamma Ray Astronomy PeV EnergieS phase-3) is designed to study cosmic rays with an array of air shower detectors and a large area muon detector.
  • It aims to probe acceleration of cosmic rays in the following four astrophysical settings.
  • It is located at Ooty in India and started as a collaboration of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India and the Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan.

Asteroid ‘99942 Apophis’

  • On April 13, 2019, a near-Earth asteroid will cruise by Earth, about 31,000 km above the surface.
  • The asteroid, called 99942 Apophis, is 340 m wide.
  • At one point, it will travel more than the width of the full Moon within a minute and it will get as bright as the stars in the Little Dipper, according to NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • It is rare for an asteroid this size to pass by Earth so close.
  • Although scientists have spotted small asteroids, on the order of 5-10 metres, flying by Earth at a similar distance, asteroids the size of Apophis are far fewer in number and so do not pass this close to Earth as often.
  • Among potential lessons from Apophis, scientists are hoping they can use its flyby to learn about an asteroid’s interior.
  • Apophis is one of about 2,000 currently known Potentially Hazardous Asteroids, and scientists also hope their observations might help gain important scientific knowledge that could one day be used for planetary defence.

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Mission Nikaalo Prelims

ISRO and its Missions/Important Submarines in News

01st Oct 2021

 

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1. RISAT-2B: An all-seeing radar imaging satellite

  • The PSLV-C46 is set to launch RISAT-2B from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.

RISAT Constellation

  • RISAT-2B, short for “Radar Imaging Satellite-2B”, is the second in a series of satellites used to observe weather conditions on Earth using radar imagery.
  • RISAT-2 was the first satellite in the series, launched for the purpose of surveillance. RISAT-1 was launched later, to become India’s first all-weather radar imaging satellite.
  • RISAT-2B is to be followed by RISAT-2BR1, 2BR2, RISAT-1A, 1B, 2A and so on.
  • ISRO orbited its first two radar satellites in 2009 & 2012 and it plans to deploy four or five of them in 2019 alone.
  • A constellation of such space-based radars means a comprehensive vigil over the country.
  • Once operational, the satellite will be capable of monitoring weather day and night, in all weather conditions.

2.Phase 4 of Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV)

  • The Union Cabinet has approved ongoing GSLV continuation programme Phase-4 consisting of five GSLV flights during the period 2021-2024.
  • The will enable the launch of 2 tonne class of satellites for Geo-imaging, Navigation, Data Relay Communication and Space Sciences.
  • It will meet the demand for the launch of satellites at a frequency up to two launches per year, with maximal participation by the Indian industry.

About GSLV

  • GSLV Continuation Programme was initially sanctioned in 2003, and two phases have been completed and the third phase is in progress and expected to be completed by Q4 of 2020-21.
  • GSLV has enabled independent access to space for 2 tonne class of satellites to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).
  • One of the significant outcomes of the GSLV Continuation Programme is the mastering of the highly complex cryogenic propulsion technology, which is an essential technological capability to launch communication satellites to GTO.
  • This has also paved the way for the development of a high thrust Cryogenic engine & stage for the next-generation launch vehicle i.e. GSLV Mk-lll.
  • With the recent successful launch of GSLV-F11 on 19th December 2018, GSLV has successfully orbited 10 national satellites.
  • GSLV with the indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage has established itself as a reliable launch vehicle for communication, navigation and meteorological satellites and also to undertake future interplanetary missions.

3.Mission Shakti (Anti-Satellite Missile Test)

  • In an incremental advance, India has successfully conducted an Anti-Satellite (ASAT) missile test, named Mission Shakti.
  • India becomes the fourth country in the world to demonstrate the capability to shoot down satellites in orbit.
  • So far, only the United States, Russia and China have this prowess.

Mission Shakti

  • While Mission Shakti may have targeted an object in outer space, India has long developed the ability to intercept incoming missiles.
  • In 2011, a modified Prithvi missile mimicked the trajectory of a ballistic missile with a 600-km range.
  • The DRDO-developed Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) Interceptor Missile successfully engaged an Indian orbiting target satellite in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in a ‘Hit to Kill’ mode.
  • The interceptor missile was a three-stage missile with two solid rocket boosters.

4.Young Scientist Programme (YUVIKA)

Young Scientist Programme

  • ISRO has launched a special programme for School Children called “Young Scientist Programme” “YUva VIgyani KAryakram from this year.
  • The Program is primarily aimed at imparting basic knowledge on Space Technology, Space Science and Space Applications to the younger ones with the intent of arousing their interest in the emerging areas of Space activities.
  • The residential training programme will be of around two weeks duration during summer holidays and it is proposed to select 3 students each from each State/ UTs to participate in this programme covering state, CBSE, and ICSE syllabus.
  • Those who have just finished 9th standard (in the academic year 2018-19) and waiting to join 10th standard (or those who have started 10th Std just now) will be eligible for the programme.
  • The selection will be based on the 8th Std marks.
  • Students belonging to the rural area have been given special weightage in the selection criteria.

5.PSLV-C45/ Emisat Mission

  • For the sheer number of ‘firsts’ to its credit, the scheduled PSLV-C45/Emisat mission scheduled will be a memorable one for the ISRO.

PSLV-C45/Emisat

  • C-45, which is set for lift-off from the second launchpad at Sriharikota, will mark the 47th flight of the PSLV.
  • It is meant for electromagnetic spectrum measurements, according to the ISRO.
  • It will be released into an orbit at 749 km.
  • EMISAT is primarily based on on the famous Israeli spy satellite called SARAL or (Satellite with ARgos and ALtika), and inherits its SSB-2 bus protocol for conducting sharp electronic surveillance across the length and breadth of India.
  • The satellite would serve as the country’s roving device for detecting and gathering electronic intelligence from enemy radars across the borders as it circles the globe roughly pole to pole every 90 minutes or so.
  • For the third successive PSLV mission, the ISRO plans to reuse the rocket’s spent fourth stage or PS4 to host short experiments.

6.ISRO, French agency to set up a maritime surveillance system

  • ISRO and its French counterpart CNES has sealed an agreement to set up a joint maritime surveillance system in the country.
  • The two nations will explore putting up a constellation of low-Earth orbiting satellites.

Oceansat-3-Argos Mission

  • The system will be augmented with the launch of Oceansat-3-Argos mission in 2020 along with a joint infrared Earth-observation satellite.
  • These will identify and track the movement of ships globally – and in particular, those moving in the Indian Ocean region where France has its Reunion Islands.
  • Before that, they will initially share data from their present space systems and develop new algorithms to analyse them, according to the Paris based National Centre for Space Studies.
  • They work together for the design and development of joint products and techniques, including those involving Automatic Identification System (AIS), to monitor and protect the assets in land and sea.

7. Use of Space Technology in Agriculture Sector

  • The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has been pro-active in using the space technology in the agricultural sector. Take a look of various initiative in the aid of farmers:

Various institutional measures

  1. The Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare established a Centre, called Mahalanobis National Crop Forecast Centre, in 2012.
  2. It works for operationalization of the space technology developed in the Indian Space Research Organization, for crop production forecasting.
  3. The Soil and Land Use Survey of India uses satellite data for soil resources mapping.

8. India’s communication satellite GSAT-31 launched successfully

GSAT-31

  1. It was launched in an elliptical Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit with a perigee (nearest point to Earth) of 250 km and an apogee (farthest point to Earth) of 35,850 km, inclined at an angle of 3.0 degree to the equator.
  2. With a lift-off mass of 2536 kg, GSAT-31 will augment the Ku-band transponder capacity in Geostationary Orbit.
  3. The satellite will provide continuity to operational services on some of the in-orbit satellites.
  4. GSAT-31 will provide DTH Television Services, connectivity to VSATs for ATM, Stock-exchange, Digital Satellite News Gathering (DSNG) and e-governance applications.
  5. The satellite will also be used for bulk data transfer for a host of emerging telecommunication applications.
  6. It is India’s 40th communication satellite which is configured on ISRO’s enhanced ‘I-2K Bus’, utilising the maximum “bus capabilities” of this type.

9.ISRO launches Human Space Flight Centre in Bengaluru

Human Space Flight Centre (HSFC)

  1. The HSFC, the hub of ISRO’s future manned missions, was inaugurated at ISRO headquarters in Bengaluru.
  2. Announced on August 15 2018, the country’s first crewed mission is set to happen by 2022, the 75th year of Independence.
  3. HSFC shall be responsible for the implementation of Gaganyaan project — which involves mission planning, development of engineering systems for crew survival in space, crew selection and training and also pursue activities for sustained human space flight missions.
  4. HSFC will take the support of ISRO centres to implement the first developmental [crewed] flight.

10.ISRO’s first mission of 2019 to put military satellite Microsat-R in space

  • ISRO’s first mission of 2019 will put into space a 130-kg military imaging satellite, Microsat-R.
  • C-44 will be launched from the older First Launch Pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota.

 Details of Launch

  1. The satellite would be placed within 15 minutes after take-off in a polar orbit 274 km away from Earth.
  2. This is much lower than any of its civil Earth observation spacecraft, which fly pole to pole over the globe at between 400 km and 700 km.

Payload Details

Microsat-R

  1. Microsat-R and its payload come assembled from a handful of laboratories of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
  2. It is meant for military use.
  3. The satellite was assembled outside and ISRO only interfaced it” with its own systems and the launch vehicle, just as it treats any customer satellite.

11.Unispace Nanosatellite Assembly & Training Programme of ISRO

NNATI Programme

  1. It is a capacity-building programme on Nanosatellite development.
  2. It is an initiative by ISRO to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the first United Nations conference on the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space (UNISPACE-50).
  3. The programme provides opportunities to the participating developing countries to strengthen in assembling, integrating and testing of Nanosatellite.
  4. UNNATI programme is planned to be conducted for 3 years by U.R. Rao Satellite Centre of ISRO in 3 batches and will target to benefit officials of 45 countries.

About UNISPACE+50

  1. It is an event marking the 50th year of the first UN Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.
  2. It is an initiative of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA).
  3. Three such conferences held earlier recognized the potential of space and laid the guidelines for human activities and international cooperation related to outer space.

11.ISRO successfully launches hyperspectral imaging satellite HysIS

HysIS

  1. HysIS stands for Hyper Spectral Imaging Satellite.
  2. The objective of the probe is to provide observations within the visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared bands of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  3. The imaging tools will help the HysIS satellite monitor atmospheric activity and climate change, while also assisting studies of Earth’s magnetic field.
  4. These observations will have a host of applications, prime among which relate to agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal patterns.
  5. The satellite’s payload also consists of a 730W power backup, and a 64Ah Li-ion battery.
  6. It will continue to make observations until 2023 when the mission ends.
  7. After this launch, the next big event for the Indian space organisation will be its awaited mission to the moon – Chandrayaan-2 – in early 2019.

12.GROWTH-India telescope’s first science observation

GROWTH-India Telescope

  1. The GROWTH-India telescope was commissioned six months ago soon after which it saw first light, on the night of June 12.
  2. It is part of a multi-country collaborative initiative – known as the Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen (GROWTH) – to observe transient events in the universe.
  3. The fully robotic telescope is designed to capture cosmic events occurring over relatively shorter periods of the cosmological timescale: years, days and even hours.
  4. Universities and research institutes from the US, the UK, Japan, India, Germany, Taiwan and Israel are part of the initiative.
  5. Their primary research objective is time-domain astronomy, which entails the study of explosive transients and variable sources (of light and other radiation) in the universe.

13.ISRO telemedicine nodes for soldiers in high-altitude areas

Telemedicine Nodes by ISRO

  1. In a major effort to improve emergency medical support to soldiers posted in high-altitude areas, especially Siachen, the Integrated Defence Staff of the Defence Ministry and the ISRO signed an MoU to set up telemedicine nodes in critical places across the country.
  2. ISRO will establish 53 more nodes in the first phase over and above the existing 20, in various establishments of the Army, Navy and Air Force across the country.

14.Chandrayaan-1 data confirms the presence of ice on Moon: NASA

NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is testimony

  1. M3, aboard the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, launched in 2008 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), was uniquely equipped to confirm the presence of solid ice on the Moon.
  2. Scientists used data from NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument to identify three specific signatures that definitively prove there is water ice at the surface of the Moon.
  3. It collected data that not only picked up the reflective properties we would expect from ice, but was also able to directly measure the distinctive way its molecules absorb infrared light, so it can differentiate between liquid water or vapour and solid ice.
  4. Most of the new-found water ice lies in the shadows of craters near the poles, where the warmest temperatures never reach above minus 156 degrees Celsius.
  5. Due to the very small tilt of the Moon’s rotation axis, sunlight never reaches these regions.

15.ISRO set to launch its TV channel

  1. The ISRO is all set for a year-long Vikram Sarabhai centenary celebration starting in August 2019 to honour the visionary scientist and its legendary founding father.
  2. In a few months’ time, it plans to roll out a dedicated ISRO TV channel showcasing space applications, developments and science issues, targeting young viewers and people in remote areas in their language.

Satellite launches now open to public

  1. As it strengthens its public outreach, ISRO will shortly start allowing the public to watch satellite launches from its Sriharikota launch centre.
  2. Selected students of classes 8 to 10 will be trained at ISRO for a month and taken to various laboratories and centres across the country.

Vikram Sarabhai- the legend

  1. Sarabhai, the architect of the Indian space programme, the first ISRO chief and renowned cosmic ray scientist, was born on August 12, 1919.
  2. ISRO’s tributes to Sarabhai start with naming the first Indian moon landing spacecraft of the Chandrayaan-2 mission ‘Vikram’.
  3. Sarabhai was only 28 when he sowed the seeds of a space agency around the late 1940s and 1950s.

16. Upgraded Vikas engine will soon boost ISRO’s rockets

Adding more thrust

  1. The Vikas engine will improve the payload capability of PSLV, GSLV and GSLV Mk-III launch vehicles.
  2. The space agency has improved the thrust of the Vikas engine that powers all of them.

Main beneficiary: GSLV Mk III

  1. The main beneficiary of the high-thrust Vikas engine is said to be the heavy-lifting GSLV-Mark III launcher, which ISRO expects will now put 4,000-kg satellites to space.
  2. This would be the third Mk-III and the first working one to be designated Mk III Mission-1 or M1.
  3. The first MkIII of June 2017 started with a 3,200-kg satellite and the second one is being readied for lifting a 3,500-kg spacecraft.
  4. The Vikas engine is used in the second stage of the light lifting PSLV; the second stage and the four add-on stages of the medium-lift GSLV; and the twin-engine core liquid stage of Mk-III.

17.ISRO’s PRL scientists discover an ‘EPIC’ planet

India in elite planet-spotting club

  1. A team from the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, has spotted for the first time a distant planet six times bigger than Earth and revolving around a Sun-like star about 600 light-years away.
  2. EPIC 211945201b (or K2-236b) is the name given to the planet by the discovery team. The host star is named EPIC 211945201 or K2-236.
  3. With this discovery, India has joined a handful of countries which have discovered planets around stars,” PRL’s parent ISRO has announced.
  4. The discovery was made using a PRL-designed spectrograph, PARAS, to measure and confirm the mass of the new planet.

About EPIC

  1. EPIC was found circling very close to the Sun-like star, going around it once in about 19.5 days and unlikely to be inhabitable because of its high surface temperature of around 600°C.
  2. The team found the planet to be smaller in size than Saturn and bigger than Neptune.
  3. Its mass is about 27 times Earth’s and six times that of Earth at the radius.
  4. The scientists estimate that over 60% of its mass could be made up of heavy elements like ice, silicates and iron.

GSAT-30 spacecraft

  1. India’s telecommunication satellite GSAT-30 was successfully launched into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) on January 17, 2020, from Kourou launch base, French Guiana by Ariane-5 VA-251.
  2. GSAT-30 is configured on ISRO’s enhanced I-3K Bus structure to provide communication services from Geostationary orbit in C and Ku bands. The satellite derives its heritage from ISRO’s earlier INSAT/GSAT satellite series.
  3. Weighing 3357 kg, GSAT-30 is to serve as a replacement to INSAT-4A spacecraft services with enhanced coverage. The satellite provides Indian mainland and islands coverage in Ku-band and extended coverage in C-band covering Gulf countries, a large number of Asian countries and Australia.
  4. The designed in-orbit operational life of GSAT-30 is more than 15 years.

Important Submarines in News:

1. Indian Naval ship Sahyadri reaches Darwin, Australia for exercise KAKADU 2018

Exercise KAKADU

  1. After having been deployed to the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean for over four months, which included representing Indian Navy in multinational exercises MALABAR 18 at Guam and RIMPAC 18 at Hawaii, INS Sahyadri entered the Port of Darwin, Australia to participate in Exercise KAKADU 2018
  2. Indian Navy’s participation in KAKADU 18 provides an excellent opportunity to engage with regional partners and undertake multinational maritime activities ranging from constabulary operations to high-end maritime warfare in a combined environment
  3. It is aimed at enhancing interoperability and development of common understanding of procedures for maritime operations

About the exercise

  1. Exercise KAKADU, which started in 1993, is the premier multilateral regional maritime engagement exercise hosted by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) and supported by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF)
  2. The exercise is held biennially in Darwin and the Northern Australian Exercise Areas (NAXA)
  3. Exercise KAKADU derives its name from Kakadu National Park, which is a protected area in the northern territory of Australia, 171 km south-east of Darwin
  4. KAKADU 2018 is the 14th edition of the exercise
  5. During the exercise, professional exchanges in harbour and diverse range of activities at sea, including complex surface, sub-surface and air operations would enable sharing of best practices and honing of operational skills.

2.Operation NISTAR Successfully Culminates with Safe Disembarkations of 38 Indian Nationals at Porbandar

Operation NISTAR

  • INS Sunayana successfully evacuated 38 Indian Nationals at/ off Socotra Islands during a swift Humanitarian and Disaster Relief Operation (HADR), code named Operation NISTAR.
  • The Indian Nationals were stranded after severe Cyclonic Storm – Mekunu devastated the area around Socotra Island.
  • INS Sunayana was diverted from Gulf of Aden deployment to Socotra Island for search and rescue operations.

Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) in India’s National Strategy

  • HADR operations have attracted the attention of the global community in recent years.
  • The Indian armed forces have a wide experience of disaster relief operations both at home and abroad, where they have been the core of relief operations.
  • Due to its sub-continental size, geographical location and its vulnerability to disasters, India has kept its forces ready to render assistance at short notice.
  • In the six decades since independence, India has experienced a number of natural and man-made disasters such as floods, earthquakes, famines, industrial accidents etc.
  • At the same time, India has partnered the global community in providing relief in affected regions.

3.INS Karanj boosts Navy’s firepower

Third Scorpene class submarine joins Naval fleet

  1. The Navy’s third state-of-the-art Scorpene class submarine, INS Karanj, has been launched
  2. The new submarine is named after the earlier Kalvari class INS Karanj, which was decommissioned in 2003
  3. This launch follows the launch of the first two Scorpene submarines — INS Kalavari and INS Khanderi.

4.Indian Navy inducts its first Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle

  • The Indian Navy has inducted its first Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV) System at the Naval Dockyard in Mumbai.

About DSRV

  1. DSRV is used to rescue crew members stranded in submarines that get disabled. The Indian Navy joins a select group of naval forces in the world that boasts of this niche capability.
  2. The DSRV can be operated at a depth of 650 meters and can hold around 15 people.
  3. The Indian Navy in March 2016 had commissioned two DSRVs, the second will deployed at the Eastern Naval Command in Visakhapatnam.
  4. The induction of the DSRV marks the culmination of years of effort of the Indian Navy in acquiring this niche submarine rescue capability.

Why need DSRV System?

  1. The Indian Navy currently operates submarines of the Sindhughosh, Shishumar, Kalvari Classes as well as nuclear powered submarines.
  2. The operating medium and the nature of operations undertaken by submarines expose them to high degree of inherent risk.
  3. In such an eventuality, traditional methods of search and rescue at sea are ineffective for a disabled submarine.
  4. To overcome this capability gap the Navy has acquired a third generation, advanced Submarine Rescue System considering of a Non-tethered Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV) and its associated equipment.

What makes Indian DSRV special?

  1. The Indian Navy’s DSRV System is considered to be the most advanced system currently in operation globally for its capability of undertaking rescue from a disabled Submarine upto 650 m depth.
  2. It is operated by a crew of three, can rescue 14 personnel from a disabled Submarine at one time and can operate in extreme sea conditions.

5.Indian Navy’s Deep Submergence Rescue Vessel (DSRV) Capability

Context

  • The Indian Navy has inducted a Submarine Rescue System with a Deep Submergence Rescue Vessel (DSRV) along with associated equipment.

Deep Submergence Rescue Vessel (DSRV)

  1. The Indian DSRV has the capability to rescue personnel from a distressed submarine (DISSUB) up to a depth of 650 m and it is the latest in terms of technology and capabilities.
  2. It has been designed and supplied to meet unique requirements of our submarines by M/s James Fishes Defence, UK.
  3. This System has a Side Scan Sonar for locating the position of the submarine in distress at sea.
  4. It will be providing immediate relief by way of posting Emergency Life Support Containers with the help of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) for the rescue.
  5. To ensure early mobilization, the System permits rapid transportation of the Rescue System from the base to the exact location of the distressed submarine by transportation using air/land/sea vessels.

5.INS Tarangini returns after Vogage across the World

Context

  • The sail training ship of Indian Navy, INS Tarangini based at Kochi, returned after a seven month long sailing across the world.

Lokayan 18

  1. The Voyage named “Lokayan 18” was flagged off on 10 Apr 18 from Kochi in INS Tarangini.
  2. During the voyage, the ship has proudly ‘shown the flag’ and highlighted the diverse culture of India across 15 ports in 13 countries.
  3. The ship sailed across the Arabian Sea, Red Sea, Suez Canal, Mediterranean Sea, Strait of Gibraltar, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, English Channel and North Sea, right up to Norway before commencing her homeward passage back to Kochi.
  4. The ship also participated in the culminating event of the ‘Three Festival Tall Ships Regatta’ at Bordeaux, France.
  5. Over the years, INS Tarangini has been extensively deployed for long voyages away from her base port of Kochi, which includes one circumnavigation of the globe (2003-04) and three previous ‘Lokayans’ (2005, 2007 and 2015).

About INS Tarangini

  1. INS Tarangini is a three masted ‘square rigged’ barque which carries a total of 20 sails.
  2. She is the First Sail Training Ship in Indian Navy and was commissioned on 11 Nov 1997.
  3. In her 21 years of glorious service, she has sailed over 2,20,000 nautical miles to date across the world’s oceans.
  4. She is the first of two Sail Training Ships in the First Training Squadron, the other being INS Sudarshini.
  5. The primary role of these Sail Training Ships is to develop character and professionalism, as well as inculcate the qualities of initiative, courage, resilience and spirit amongst the Sea Trainees.
  6. The ship also imparts practical training to them, primarily on navigation, sailing and seamanship.

6.EyeROV TUNA: India’s first Underwater Robotic Drone

India’s first Underwater Drone

  1. India’s first underwater robotic drone was launched and handed over to the Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) of DRDO.
  2. The Remotedly Operated Vehicle (ROV)/underwater drone, named EyeROV TUNA, was developed by EyeROV Technologies, a company incubating at Kalamassery-based Maker Village, Kochi.
  3. NPOL, a laboratory of Delhi-headquartered Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), made the first order of the product.
  4. The drone will be used by NPOL for research and development activities which in turn would result in a commercial product for defense purposes.

Features of EyeROV TUNA

  1. It can be navigated up to a depth of 50 metres to take real-time HD video images to examine ship hulls or undersea cables or bridge moorings, eliminating the need for costlier and riskier manual inspection by divers.
  2. It weighs less than 10 kilogram and can be used for inspection of ship hulls, ports, dams and nuclear power plants
  3. EyeROV is a light rover which can be easily accessed and controlled with the supporting attached and connected hardware such as laptops and joysticks.
  4. It can be used for inspection of ship hulls, ports, dams and nuclear power plants.

7.India’s first missile tracking ship is readying for sea trials

VC 11184

  1. This will be the first of its kind ocean surveillance ship being built as part of the efforts to strengthen the country’s strategic weapons programme.
  2. Its induction will put India in the elite of club of a few countries that have such a sophisticated ocean surveillance ship.
  3. It has the capacity to carry 300-strong crew with hi-tech gadgets and communication equipment, powered by two diesel engines, and a large deck capable of helicopter landing.
  4. The keel of the ship which was laid on June 30, 2014, is being built for the National Technical Research Organisation.
  5. This technical intelligence agency working directly under the supervision of the Prime Minister’s Office and the National Security Adviser.

Strategic Weapons Programme

  1. Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) is gearing up to undertake sea trials of India’s first missile tracking ship by the first week of October.
  2. Visakhapatnam is considered a strategic location on the East Coast for the Indian defence forces as it is home for Ship Building Centre to build nuclear powered submarine INS Arihant class.

INS Chakra

  • Nuclear powered submarine under a 10-year lease from Russia since 2012.
  • Negotiations are underway to lease an additional Akula-class attack submarine

Arihant Class Submarine

  • A class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines being built for the Indian Navy
  • The lead vessel of the class, INS Arihant was launched in 2009
  • Arihant is the first ballistic missile submarine to have been built by a country other than one of the five permanent members of the UNSC
  • The 6,000 tonne vessel was built under the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project at the Ship Building Centre in the port city of Visakhapatnam
  • INS Arihant is to be the first of the expected five in the class of submarines designed and constructed as a part of the Indian Navy’s secretive Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project

Project 17 – Shivalik class Frigate

  • The Shivalik class or Project 17 class is a class of multi-role frigates in service with the Indian Navy.
  • They are the first stealth warships built in India – built by Mazagon Dock Limited
  • A total of three ships were built between 2000 and 2010, and all three were in commission by 2012

Project 15 – Delhi Class destroyers

  • Delhi-class destroyers are guided-missile destroyers of the Indian Navy
  • Three ships of this class are in active service – INS Delhi, INS Mysore, INS Mumbai
  • The Delhi-class vessels are the third-largest warships to be fully designed and built in India, after the Kolkata-class destroyers and the Shivalik-class frigates

Project 15A – Kolkata Class Destroyer

  • The Kolkata class (Project 15A) are a class of stealth guided missile destroyers
  • The class comprises three ships – Kolkata, Kochi and Chennai – built by Mazagon Dock Limited
  • The destroyers are a follow-on of the Project 15 Delhi-class destroyers, but are considerably more capable than them

Project 15B – Visakhapatnam Class Destroyer

  • The Visakhapatnam class (Project 15B) is a class of stealth guided missile destroyers currently being built for the Indian Navy.
  • Based on the Kolkata-class design, the Visakhapatnam class will be an extensively improved version.
  • 1st ship of Project 15B, a Guided Missile Destroyer Visakhapatnam– largest missile destroyer commissioned in India till now
  • Will carry 8 BrahMos missiles
  • Future Ships under this project – Porbandar, Mormugao, Paradip

Project 17A

  • The Project 17A-class frigate is follow-on of the Project 17 Shivalik-class frigate for the Indian Navy.
  • A future project aimed at building country’s most advanced warships
  • Seven frigates will be built indigenously with stealth features to avoid easy detection by Mazagon Dock and GRSE

Project 75I

  • 6 Diesel submarines with Air Independent Propulsion System (AIP) technology for Indian Navy by 2022
  • Conventional diesel-electric submarines have to surface every few days to get oxygen to recharge their batteries.
  • With AIP systems, they can stay submerged for much longer periods.
  • Will have both anti-surface and anti-submarine warfare viz. vertical launched BrahMos for the sea & land targets + Tube-launched torpedoes for anti-submarine warfare
  • AIP significantly improves stealth, as it enables a submarine to generate electricity for services and battery charging and propulsion while completely submerged.

Scorpene submarine to carry AIP

  • A class of diesel-electric submarine jointly developed by the French DCN and the Spanish company Navantia & now by DCNS under Project 75.
  • It features diesel-electric propulsion and an additional air-independent propulsion (AIP) system.
  • A DRDO-developed critical propulsion system will go into the last two of the six Scorpene submarines, being built under technology transfer at Mazagon Dock, Mumbai.

Aircraft Carriers –  INS Vikrant

  • Maiden indigenous aircraft carrier in India
  • Largest aircraft carrier after induction
  • Previous aircraft carriers in India – INS Vikramaditya from Russia & INS Viraat from UK
  • Puts India in the elite group of four nations – the US, Russia, the UK and France – in the world capable of designing and constructing aircraft carriers

INS Alleppey Decommissioned

  • Was one of the six Ponchicherry class coastal minesweepers, designed to detect and destroy underwater mines

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Categories
Mission Nikaalo Prelims

Important Summits, Conventions, and Declarations

30th Sept 2021

 

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1.RAMSAR Convention on Wetlands

Brief Intro

  • The Convention was adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971 and came into force in 1975 after UNESCO, the Convention’s depositary received the instruments of accession from the countries.
  • The RAMSAR Secretariat is based at the headquarters of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in Gland, Switzerland.
  • World Wetlands Day is celebrated on February 2nd.

Key Objectives-

  • An intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.

Year-1971

Place – Ramasar

Key Terms-The Montreux Record – a register of wetland sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character are of concern. It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List.

India specific – India currently has 27 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites).

2.The World Heritage Convention

Brief Intro

The Convention recognizes the way in which people interact with nature, and the fundamental need to preserve the balance between the two.

Key Objectives-

The Convention defines the kind of natural or cultural sites which can be considered for inscription on the World Heritage List under UNESCO

Year-1972

3.Stockholm Conference

Brief Intro

Stockholm Declaration contains 26 principles. These principles provide the basis of an International Policy for the Protection and improvement of the environment.

Key Point-The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has been established by the UNGA in pursuance of the Stockholm Conference.

Year-1972

4.CITES

Brief Intro

To ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild, and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants.

Key Objectives-

  • It is a multilateral treaty drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
  • Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – it does not take the place of national laws.

India Specific –

The Government of India signed the Convention in July 1976, which was ratified in October 1976

5.Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC)

Brief Intro

Seeks to establish a uniform global legal regime for compensation to victims in the unlikely event of a nuclear accident. It was adopted on 12 September 1997. It can enter into force after ratification by at least 5 countries having a minimum of 400,000 units of installed nuclear capacity.

Key Objectives-

  • It provides a uniform framework for channelling liability and providing speedy compensation after the nuclear accident.
  • Seeks to encourage regional and global co-operation to promote a higher level of nuclear safety in accordance with the principles of international partnership and solidarity.
  • All states are free to participate in it regardless of their presence of nuclear installations on their territories or involvement in existing nuclear liability conventions.
  • It has been framed inconsistent with the principles of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (1963) and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (1960).

India Specific –

India has ratified Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC), 1997 which sets parameters on a nuclear operator’s financial liability.

6.Nuclear security summit

Brief Intro

The Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) is a world summit, aimed at preventing nuclear terrorism around the globe. The first summit was held in Washington, D.C., United States, on April 12–13, 2010. The second summit was held in Seoul, South Korea, in 2012. The third summit was held in The Hague, Netherlands, on March 24–25, 2014. The fourth summit was held in Washington, D.C. on March 31–April 1, 2016.

Key Objectives-

Aimed at preventing nuclear terrorism around the globe.

India specific-

Prime Minister Narendra Modi attended the NSS 2016 in Washington

7.Ashgabat Agreement

Brief Intro

Ashgabat Agreement is an international transport and transit corridor facilitating transportation of goods between Central Asia and the Persian Gulf.

Key Objectives-

  • The transit agreement provides for a transit corridor across Central Asia and the Middle East through the continuous landmass between Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Iran before reaching the Persian Gulf and into Oman.
  • The objective of this agreement is to enhance connectivity within Eurasian region and synchronize it with other transport corridors within that region including the International North–South Transport Corridor (INSTC).

8.The Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA)

Brief Intro

The Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) is an inter-governmental forum for enhancing cooperation towards promoting peace, security and stability in Asia.

Key Objectives-

It is a forum based on the recognition that there is close link between peace, security and stability in Asia and in the rest of the world.enhancing cooperation towards promoting peace, security and stability in Asia.

India Specific-

India is a member of CICA

9.Beijing declaration

Brief Intro

The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (BPfA) is an international declaration of women’s rights set up at the UN’s landmark Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995.

Key Objectives-

  • The BPfA covers 12 key critical matters of concern and areas for action including women and poverty, violence against women and access to power and decision- making.
  • It was supported by 189 countries, including the UK, at the 1995 World Conference.gender equality and the empowerment of all women, everywhere.1995.
  • It was the outcome of The Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace convened by UN.

12.The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC)

Brief Intro

The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is a treaty adopted by the 56th World Health Assembly held in Geneva,Switzerland on 21 May 2003.

Key Objectives-

  • It became the first World Health Organization treaty adopted under article 19 of the WHO constitution.To protect present and future generations from the devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke” by enacting a set of universal standards stating the dangers of tobacco and limiting its use in all forms worldwide.
  • The FCTC established two principal bodies to oversee the functioning of the treaty: the Conference of the parties and the permanent Secretariat. In addition, there are over 50 different intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations who are official observers to the Conference of the Parties.

India Specific-

India has hosted 7th Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC).

10.G-7

Brief Intro

  • The Group of Seven (G7) is an informal bloc of industrialized democracies—Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States—that meets annually to discuss issues such as global economic governance, international security, and energy policy.
  • Russia belonged to the forum from 1998 through 2014—then the Group of Eight (G8)—but was suspended after its annexation of Crimea in March of that year.

11.G-20

Brief Intro– It was started in 1999 as a meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors in the aftermath of the Southeast Asian (Tiger economies) financial crisis.

Key Objectives-

  • The Group of Twenty (G20) is the premier forum for its members’ international economic cooperation and decision-making.
  • It is deliberating forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies on economic issues and other important development challenges.
  • In 2008, the first G20 Leaders’ Summit was held in Washington DC, US. The group had played a key role in responding to the global financial crisis. It comprises total 19 countries plus the European Union (EU), representing 85% of global GDP, 80% of international trade, 65% of world’s population. Its members include Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, India, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Turkey, South Africa, UK, US and EU. 4.The 2016 summit was held in Hangzhou China.
  • It was established for studying, reviewing, and promoting high-level discussion of policy issues pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability.

India Specific-

India is a founding member of G-20

12.International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

Brief Intro

It is a comprehensive international agreement in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity, which aims at guaranteeing food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA), as well as the fair and equitable benefit sharing arising from its use.

Key Objectives-

  • It also recognises Farmers’ Rights, subject to national laws the protection of traditional knowledge relevant to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
  • The right to equitably participate in sharing benefits arising from the utilisation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture;
  • The right to participate in making decisions, at the national level, on matters related to the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
  • It is a comprehensive international agreement in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity.

India Specific-

India has signed the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.

13.Marrakesh treaty

Brief Intro

  • The treaty requires signatories to introduce national law provisions that facilitate the availability of published works in formats like Braille that are accessible to the blind and allow their exchange across borders by organizations working for the visually impaired.

Key Objectives-

  • The pact will help import of accessible format copies from the member countries by the Indian authorized entities such as educational institutions, libraries and other institutions working for the welfare of the visually impaired.
  • The treaty will also ease translation of imported accessible format copies and export of accessible format copies in Indian languages.To create a set of mandatory limitations and exceptions for the benefit of the blind, visually impaired and otherwise print disabled (VIPs).

14.London Declaration

Brief Intro

  • The London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases is a collaborative disease eradication programme launched on 30 January 2012 in London.
  • It was inspired by the World Health Organization 2020 roadmap to eradicate or negate transmission for neglected tropical diseases.
  • Officials from WHO, the World Bank, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the world’s 13 leading pharmaceutical companies, and government representatives from US, UK, United Arab Emirate, Bangladesh, Brazil, Mozambique and Tanzania participated in a joint meeting at the Royal College of Physicians to launch this project.

15.Declaration of Montreal

Brief Intro

The Declaration of Montreal on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Human Rights is a document adopted in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, on July 29, 2006, by the International Conference on LGBT Human Rights which formed part of the first World Outgames.

Key Objectives-

  • The Declaration outlines a number of rights and freedoms pertaining to LGBT and intersex people that it is proposed to be universally guaranteed.
  • It encompasses all aspects of human rights, from the guarantee of fundamental freedoms to the prevention of discrimination against LGBT people in healthcare, education and immigration.
  • The Declaration also addresses various issues that impinge on the global promotion of LGBT rights and intersex human rights.

16. Istanbul Convention

Brief Intro

  • The Istanbul Convention is the first legally-binding instrument which “creates a comprehensive legal framework and approach to combat violence against women” and is focussed on preventing domestic violence, protecting victims and prosecuting accused offenders. The convention aims at prevention of violence, victim protection and “to end with the impunity of perpetrators.
  • The Council of Europe. Only European countries have signed this convention.

17.vienna convention on diplomatic relations

Brief Intro

It is a treaty that came into force in 1964 2.It lays out the rules and regulations for diplomatic relations between countries as well as the various privileges that diplomats and diplomatic missions enjoy.

Key Objectives-

  • One of these privileges is legal immunity for diplomats so that they don’t have to face prosecution as per their host country’s laws.
  • The Vienna Convention classifies diplomats according to their posting in the embassy, consular or international organisations such as the UN. A nation has only one embassy per foreign country, usually in the capital, but may have multiple consulate offices, generally in locations where many of its citizens live or visit.
  • Diplomats posted in an embassy get immunity, along with his or her family members. While diplomats posted in consulates too get immunity, they can be prosecuted in case of serious crimes, that is, when a warrant is issued.
  • Besides, their families don’t share that immunity.It has been ratified by 187 countries, including India.

18.Jaipur Summit

Brief Intro

  • The Forum for India–Pacific Islands Cooperation (FIPIC) was launched during Hon’ble Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi’s visit to Fiji in November 2014.
  • FIPIC includes 14 of the island countries – Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.
  • The second summit of the Forum for India Pacific Cooperation (FIPIC-2) in Jaipur on 21-22 August 2015 has made significant progress in strengthening India’s engagement with the 14 Pacific Island countries. Increase Cooperation Between India and 14 Pacific Countries.

Key Objectives-

  • Though these countries are relatively small in land area and distant from India, many have large exclusive economic zones (EEZs), and offer promising possibilities for fruitful cooperation.
  • India’s focus has largely been on the Indian Ocean where it has sought to play a major role and protect its strategic and commercial interests. The FIPIC initiative marks a serious effort to expand India’s engagement in the Pacific region.
  • At this moment, total annual trade of about $300 million between the Indian and Pacific Island countries, where as exports are around $200 million and imports are around $100 million.

19.NPT

Brief Intro

The NPT is a landmark international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.

Key Objectives-

  • The Treaty represents the only binding commitment in a multilateral treaty to the goal of disarmament by the nuclear-weapon States. Opened for signature in 1968, the Treaty entered into force in 1970.
  • To prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.

India Specific-

India has not signed the treaty as India argues that the NPT creates a club of “nuclear haves” and a larger group of “nuclear have-nots” by restricting the legal possession of nuclear weapons to those states that tested them before 1967, but the treaty never explains on what ethical grounds such a distinction is valid.

20.CTBT

Brief Intro

  • The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear explosions, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments.
  • It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996 but has not entered into force as eight specific states have not ratified the treaty. Nuclear weapon-free
  • The treaty thus awaits signature and ratification from India, Pakistan, and North Korea and in addition requires the United States, China, Israel, Iran and Egypt (which have already signed) to formally ratify it.

India Specific-

Even though it is yet to sign the CTBT, India has supported the treaty’s basic principle of banning nuclear explosions by declaring a unilateral moratorium on nuclear testing. India’s expressed support to the essential requirement of the treaty makes it a de facto member of the CTBT.

21.Convention on biological diversity

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), a legally binding treaty to conserve biodiversity has been in force since 1993.

Objectives-

  • It has 3 main objectives: The conservation of biological diversity.
  • The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity.,fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.
  • The CBD, one of the key agreements adopted during the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, is the first comprehensive global agreement which addresses all aspects relating to biodiversity.

22.Asia Lpg summit 2019

The summit will offer a unique opportunity to the global LPG industry to interact with development agencies, NGOs and non-profit organizations who have facilitated last-mile access to LPG for the beneficiaries.

Objectives-

  • The summit will also bring together academia and private sector to exchange their views on the use of LPG and how pathbreaking initiatives such as ‘Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana’ can bring remarkable socio-economic transformation.
  • The WLPGA promotes the use of LPG to foster a cleaner, healthier and more prosperous world.
  • With over 200 members and presence in more than 125 countries, the WLPGA represents the interests of private and public companies from the entire LPG value chain under one umbrella.
  • The WLPGA provides a platform for the exchange of best practices, facts and figures among its members.
  • The Association regularly organises interactive meetings between technical experts, members and key stakeholders to demonstrate the benefits of LPG.

23.Global Digital Health Partnership Summit

The Global Digital Health Partnership (GDHP) is an international collaboration of governments, government agencies and multinational organisations dedicated to improving the health and well-being of their citizens through the best use of evidence-based digital technologies.

Objectives-

  • Governments are making significant investments to harness the power of technology and foster innovation and public-private partnerships that support high quality, sustainable health and care for all. The GDHP facilitates global collaboration and co-operation in the implementation of digital health services.The GDHP is committed to improving health and care through promoting its principles of equality, co-operation, transparency and responsibility.
  • Equality: All participants will have an equal opportunity to participate and contribute to the development of the GDHP deliverables and share in the lessons learnt and outputs of the GDHP.
  • Co-operation: Participants are helpful and supportive and participate in debates thoughtfully, constructively and respectfully.
  • Transparency: Participants act with openness in their engagement with fellow participants to contribute to improved health services, promote innovation and create safer and healthier communities.
  • Responsibility: Participants are responsible for their country’s input through their active contribution to GDHP activities that are guided by the annual work plan. Each participant shall endeavour to ensure that outcomes from meetings, such as tasks appointed to them or in general, are carried out effectively and efficiently. Participants will make decisions and participate in discussions in a transparent and fair manner, using evidence, and without discrimination or bias, ensuring they act in the public interest and not for commercial purposes.

24.TIR

The Convention on International Transport of Goods Under Cover of TIR Carnets is a multilateral treaty that was concluded at Geneva on 14 November 1975 to simplify and harmonise the administrative formalities of international road transport.

Objectives-

  • The TIR Convention establishes an international customs transit system with maximum facility to move goods:in sealed vehicles or containers;
  • from a customs office of departure in one country to a customs office of destination in another country;
  • without requiring extensive and time-consuming border checks at intermediate borders;
  • while, at the same time, providing customs authorities with the required security and guarantees.

25.International Workshop on Disaster Resilient Infrastructure

The workshop aims to i) identify good practices of disaster risk management in key infrastructure sectors, ii) identify specific areas and pathways for collaborative research on DRI (Transport, Energy, Telecom and Water), iii) discuss and co-create the broad contours of the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) as well as a notional roll-out plan for the next three years, and iv) build a forum for members to work on areas of common interest and make specific commitments.Various international agreements have also reiterated the importance and long-term benefits of investing in resilient infrastructure.

Objectives-

  • The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR), 2015-2030, which is the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda, identifies investing in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) for resilience and to build back better in reconstruction as priorities for action towards reducing disaster risk.
  • Similarly, Goal 9 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognizes disaster resilient infrastructure as a crucial driver of economic growth and development.
  • Besides reducing infrastructure losses, disaster resilient infrastructure will also help achieve targets pertaining to reduction in mortality, number of affected people and economic losses due to disasters.

26.International Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.

Key points of the Convention

Objectives-

  • Prohibition of production and use of chemical weapons
  • Destruction (or monitored conversion to other functions) of chemical weapons production facilities
  • Destruction of all chemical weapons (including chemical weapons abandoned outside the state parties territory)
  • Assistance between State Parties and the OPCW in the case of use of chemical weapons
  • An OPCW inspection regime for the production of chemicals which might be converted to chemical weapons
  • International cooperation in the peaceful use of chemistry in relevant areas

27.Convention on Supplementary Compensation for nuclear Damage (CSC)

The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage is a 1963 treaty that governs issues of liability in cases of a nuclear accident. It was concluded at Vienna on 21 May 1963 and entered into force on 12 November 1977. The convention has been amended by a 1997 protocol. The depository is the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Objectives-

  • The Convention on Supplementary Compensation (CSC) aims at establishing a minimum national compensation amount and at further increasing the amount of compensation through public funds to be made available by the Contracting Parties should the national amount be insufficient to compensate the damage caused by a nuclear incident.
  • The Convention is open not only to States that are party to either the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage or the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (including any amendments to either) but also to other States provided that their national legislation is consistent with uniform rules on civil liability laid down in the Annex to the Convention.

28.Hague Code of Conduct

The International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation, also known as the Hague Code of Conduct (HCOC), was established on 25 November 2002 as an arrangement to prevent the proliferation of ballistic missiles.

Objectives-

  • The HCOC is the result of international efforts to regulate access to ballistic missiles which can potentially deliver weapons of mass destruction. The HCOC is the only multilateral code in the area of disarmament which has been adopted over the last years.
  • It is the only normative instrument to verify the spread of ballistic missiles.
  • The HCOC does not ban ballistic missiles, but it does call for restraint in their production, testing, and export.

29.Refugee Convention

The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, also known as the 1951 Refugee Convention, is a United Nations multilateral treaty that defines who is a refugee and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum. In the general principle of international law, treaties in force are binding upon the parties to it and must be performed in good faith. Countries that have ratified the Refugee Convention are obliged to protect refugees that are on their territory, in accordance with its terms. There are a number of provisions that States parties to the Refugee Convention must adhere to.

30.Biological weapons convention

The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons.

Objectives-

  • Each State Party to this Convention undertakes never in any circumstances to develop, produce, stockpile or otherwise acquire or retain:
  • Microbial or other biological agents, or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes;
  • Weapons, equipment or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict.”
  • The United States Congress passed the Bioweapons Anti-Terrorism Act in 1989 to implement the Convention. The law applies the Convention’s convent to countries and private citizens, and criminalizes violations of the Convention.

31.Sendai Framework

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030) is an international document which was adopted by UN member states between 14th and 18th of March 2015 at the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Sendai, Japan and endorsed by the UN General Assembly in June 2015. It is the successor agreement to the Hyogo Framework for Action (2005–2015), which had been the most encompassing international accord to date on disaster risk reduction.

Objectives-

  • The Sendai Framework sets four specific priorities for action:
  • Understanding disaster risk;
  • Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk;
  • Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience;
  • Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

32.Outer Space Treaty

The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law. The 1967 Outer Space Treaty bans the stationing of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in outer space, prohibits military activities on celestial bodies, and details legally binding rules governing the peaceful exploration and use of space.

33.Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 UNFCCC that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the premise that

(a) global warming exists and (b) human-made CO2 emissions have caused it.

Objectives-

  • The main feature of the Protocol is that it established legally binding commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases for parties that ratified the Protocol.
  • The commitments were based on the Berlin Mandate, which was a part of UNFCCC negotiations leading up to the Protocol.
  • Minimizing Impacts on Developing Countries by establishing an adaptation fund for climate change.

34.U.N. Frame Work Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

Objectives-

  • A framework for international cooperation to combat climate change by limiting average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and coping with impacts that were inevitable.
  • The primary goals of the UNFCCC were to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at levels that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the global climate.
  • The convention embraced the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities which has guided the adoption of a regulatory structure.

35.Basel Convention

  • The industrialized world in the 1980s had led to increasing public resistance to the disposal of hazardous wastes, in accordance with what became known as the NIMBY (Not in My Back Yard) syndrome, and to an increase of disposal costs.
  • This, in turn, led some operators to seek cheap disposal options for hazardous wastes in the developing countries.
  • Environmental awareness was much less developed and regulations and enforcement mechanisms were lacking. The objectives of the convention are to reduce trans-boundary movements of hazardous wastes, to minimize the creation of such wastes and to prohibit their shipment from developed countries to the LDCs.

36.Montreal Protocol

Objectives-

  • The protocol set targets for reducing the consumption and production of a range of ozone-depleting substances.
  • In a major innovation, the protocol recognized that all nations should not be treated equally.
  • The agreement acknowledges that certain countries have contributed to ozone depletion more than others.
  • It also recognizes that a nation‘s obligation to reduce current emissions should reflect its technological and financial ability to do so.
  • Because of this, the agreement sets more stringent standards and accelerated phase-out time tables to countries that have contributed most to ozone depletion

37.World Conservation Strategy

Objectives-

  • It set out fundamental principles and objectives for conservation worldwide and identified priorities for national and international action.
  • It is considered one of the most influential documents in 20th-century nature conservation and one of the first official documents to introduce the concept of sustainable development.

38.Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn Convention)

Objectives-

  • Aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range.
  • The Convention facilitates the adoption of strict protection measures for endangered migratory species, the conclusion of multilateral agreements for the conservation and management of migratory species, and co-operative research activities.

39.World Sustainable Development summit

  • WSDS has replaced TERI’s earlier called Delhi Sustainable Development Summit (DSDS). The first DSDS was organised in 2005. It underscored the need for businesses and the private sector to take lead in poverty reduction and to ensure rapid and sustained adoption of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • It had brought together Nobel laureates, decision-makers political leaders from around the world to deliberate on issues related to sustainable development.
  • The aim of the summit is to provide various stakeholders with a single platform in order to provide long-term solutions for the benefit of the global community.

40.Kigali Agreement

The Kigali Amendment amends the 1987 Montreal Protocol to now include gases responsible for global warming and will be binding on countries from 2019.

Objectives-

  • It also has provisions for penalties for non-compliance.
  • It is considered absolutely vital for reaching the Paris Agreement target of keeping global temperature rise to below 2-degree Celsius compared to pre-industrial times.
  • Under it, developed countries will also provide enhanced funding support estimated at billions of dollars globally. The exact amount of additional funding from developed countries will be agreed at the next
  • Meeting of the Parties in Montreal in 2017 to reduce the emissions of category of greenhouse gases (GHGs) which leads to hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs)

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Various Defence Exercises in News

29th Sept 2021

 

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Various Defence Exercises in News

The defence is a major part of any country. Thus, every country tries and devotes half of its budget to defence. So, there are joint military exercises happening which benefits both the participating nations. Thus, in this article, we will discuss some of the important joint exercises in India like Indra and Maitree. Also, these exercises are important from learning as well as the strategic point of view for both the nations.

India + XYZArmyNavyAir Force
ASEAN +Force 18  
AustraliaAUSTRA HINDAUSINDEX / KAKADU 
BangladeshSampritiCORPAT 
ChinaHand in hand Chang Thang
FranceShaktiVarunaGARUDA
IndonesiaGARUDA SHAKTIIND-INDO CORPAT   And Samudra Shakti 
JapanDharma GuardianMalabar (India, Japan, and the USA), Sahyog-KaijinSHINYUU MAITRI
KazakhstanPrabal Dostyk and KAZIND  
KyrgyzstanKhanjar  
MaldivesEkuverin  
MongoliaNomadic Elephant / KHAN QUEST  
NepalSurya Kiran (BIANNUAL)  
OmanAL NAGAH (SUCCESS)Naseem Al BahrEastern Bridge-IV
RussiaIndraINDRA NAVYAVIAINDRA-14
SeychellesLAMITYE  
SingaporeEx AGNI WARRIOR and Ex BOLD KURUKSHETRASIMBEXJOINT MILITARY TRAINING
South Africa, Brazil IBSAMAR 
Sri LankaMitra ShaktiSLINEX 
ThailandMaitree /  COBRA GOLD (Observer Plus)INDO-THAI CORPAT (Bi-annual)SIAM BHARAT
UAE  Desert Eagle-II
UKAjeya WarriorKonkanIndraDhanush -IV
or “Rainbow”.
USAYudhAbhyas/ Cope/   Tiger Triumph VAJRA PRAHARMalabar RIMPAC (Multilateral)Red Flag
Brunei ADMM+ Exercise (Multilateral) 
MalaysiaMAITREEARF DIREx 
MyanmarIMBEXIMCOR 
QatarZa’ir-Al-Bahr (Roar of the Sea)
UzbekistanDustlik

Other Important Exercise

Exercise TSENTR 2019China, Tajikistan, India, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan and UzbekistanRussia(Host)

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Important Regional Organizations and Blocs

28th Sept 2021

 

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1.ASEAN ( Association of South-East Asian Nations)

  • It is a political and economic organisation of 10 South-East Asian nations
  • Formed in 1967
  • Founding members: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand
  • HQ: Jakarta, Indonesia

Current members are:
1. Indonesia
2. Malaysia
3. Philippines
4. Singapore
5. Thailand
6. Brunei
7. Cambodia
8. Laos
9. Myanmar (Burma)
10. Vietnam

AiM:

  • Accelerating economic growth, social progress, and socio-cultural evolution among its members, Protection of regional stability
  • Providing a mechanism for member countries to resolve differences peacefully
  • ‘The ASEAN Way’ means : Doctrine that the member countries will largely mind their own business when it comes to internal matters of member countries
  • ASEAN Plus Three: Was created to improve existing ties with the China, Japan and South Korea.
  • If the ASEAN nations were a single country, their combined economy would rank the 7th largest in the world

India:

  • Has and FTA with ASEAN (operational since 2010)

2.APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)

  • It is a regional economic forum of 21 Pacific Rim countries
  • Established in 1989
  • HQ: Singapore
  • APEC’s 21 members aim to promote free trade throughout the Asia- Pacific region.
  • APEC account for about half the world’s trade and almost 60% of global trade
  • · It established in response to the growing interdependence of Asia-Pacific economies and the advent of regional trade blocs in other parts of the world
  • To fears that highly industrialized Japan (a member of G8 ) would come to dominate economic activity in the Asia-Pacific region
  • To establish new markets for agricultural products and raw materials beyond Europe
  • India has requested membership in APEC, and received initial support from the United States, Japan, Australia and Papua New Guinea. Officials have decided not to allow India to join for various reasons, considering that India does not border the Pacific Ocean, which all current members do. However, India was invited to be an observer for the first time in November 2011.

3. BBIN ( Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal)

  • It is a sub-regional architecture of these four countries.
  • Aims to formulate, implement and review quadrilateral agreements across areas such as water resources management, connectivity of power, transport, and infrastructure.

4. BCIM Bangladesh-China-Inida-Myanmar

  • Aim:  greater integration of trade and investment between the four countries
  • BCIM economic corridor is an initiative conceptualised for significant gains through sub-regional economic co-operation with BCIM
  • The multi-modal corridor will be the first expressway between India and China and will pass through Myanmar and Bangladesh
  • BCIM evolved from ‘Kunming Initiative’


5.BIMSTEC ( Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation)

·

  • It is an international organisation involving a group of countries in South Asia and South East Asia. Established in 1997 in Bangkok. Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand were founding members. Now it has seven members.
    Headquarters is in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Present members :
1.  Bangladesh
2.  India
3.  Myanmar
4.  Sri Lanka
5.  Thailand
6.  Bhutan
7.  Nepal

  • The main objective of BIMSTEC is technological and economic cooperation among south Asian and south-east Asian countries along the coast of the Bay of Bengal. Commerce, investment, technology, tourism, human resource development, agriculture, fisheries, transport and communication, textiles, leather etc. have been included in it
  • BIMSTEC uses the alphabetical order for chairmanship

6.BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa )

  • Originally the first four were grouped as “BRIC” (or “the BRICs”), before the induction of South Africa in 2010.
  • The BRICS members are all leading developing or newly industrialized countries, but they are distinguished by their large, sometimes fast-growing economies and significant influence on regional affairs; all five are G-20 members.
  • The five BRICS countries represent half of the world population; all five members are in the top 25 of the world by population.
  • The New Development Bank (NDB), formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank, is a multilateral development bank established by the BRICS states.
  • The bank is headquartered in Shanghai, China. The first regional office of the NDB will be opened in Johannesburg, South Africa.

7. G4

  • Members : India, Brazil, Germany and Japan
    All members support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council
  • Each of these four countries have figured among the elected non-permanent members of the council since the UN’s establishment.
  • Their economic and political influence has grown significantly in the last decades, reaching a scope comparable to the permanent members (P5)
  • G4 campaigns for U.N. Reforms, including more representation for developing countries, both in the permanent and non-permanent categories, in the UNSC

8.IBSA (for India-Brazil-South Africa )

  • All are Developing Democracies.
  • The forum provides the three countries with a platform to engage in discussions for cooperation in the field of agriculture, trade, culture, and defence among others.
  • IBSA was formalised and launched through the adopti on of the “Brasilia Declaration.
  • Brasilia Declaration (2003) : Approved urgent need for reforms in the United Nations, especially the Security Council.

9. G7

  • The Group of 7 (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • The European Union is also represented within the G7.
  • These countries are the seven major advanced economies as reported by the International Monetary Fund.
  • G7 countries represent more than 64% of the net global wealth
    common denominator among members is the economy and long-term political motives

10.The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA)

  • The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), formerly known as the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative and Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC), is an international organisation consisting of coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean.
  • The IORA is a regional forum, tripartite in nature, bringing together representatives of Government, Business and Academia, for promoting co-operation and closer interaction among them.
  • It is based on the principles of Open Regionalism for strengthening Economic Cooperation particularly on Trade Facilitation and Investment, Promotion as well as Social Development of the region. The Coordinating Secretariat of IORA is located at Ebene, Mauritius.
  • 21 member states : South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius,
    Seychelles, Iran, Oman, UAE, Yemen, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Australia and Somalia.
  • Maldives, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Myanmar are not members
  • The organisation was first established as Indian Ocean Rim Initiative in Mauritius on March 1995 and formally launched in 1997 by the conclusion of a multilateral treaty known as the Charter of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-operation.

11.The Mekong-Ganga Cooperation

  • The Mekong-Ganga Cooperation (MGC) is an initiative by six countries – India and five ASEAN countries, namely, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam for cooperation in tourism, culture, education, as well as transport and communications.
  • It was launched in 2000 at Vientiane, Lao PDR.

12.Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)

  • The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) is an ambitious, comprehensive, and high-standard trade and investment agreement being negotiated between the United States and the European Union (EU).
  • TTIP will help unlock opportunity for American families, workers, businesses, farmers and ranchers through increased access to European markets for Made-in-America goods and services. This will help to promote U.S. international competitiveness, jobs and growth.
  • Its main three broad areas are:
    • market access;
    • specific regulation; and
    • broader rules and principle s and modes of co-operation

13.Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

  • The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
  • These countries, except for Uzbekistan had been members of the Shanghai Five, founded in 1996; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in 2001, the members renamed the organisation. On July 10, 2015, the SCO decided to admit India and Pakistan as full members.

14.SAARC

  • The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional international organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia. Its member states include.

Afghanistan,

Bhutan

Pakistan,

Bangladesh,

India,

Nepal,

Maldives,

Pakistan

Sri Lanka.

  • SAARC comprises 3% of the world’s area, 21% of the world's population and 3.8% of the global economy. SAARC was founded in Dhaka, Bangladesh on 8th December, 1985.
  • Its secretariat is based in Kathmandu Nepal. The organization promotes development of economic and regional integration.
  • It launched the South Asian free trade area in 2006. SAARC maintains permanent diplomatic relations at the United Nations as an observer and has developed links with multilateral entities, including the European Union.

15.OECD

  • The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organization with 35 member countries, founded in 1960 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
  • The mission of the OECD is to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world.
  • It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members.
  • Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries.
  • The OECD headquarter at Paris, France. The OECD is funded by contributions from member states.

LIST OF  MEMBER COUNTRIES

Australia

Austria

Belgium

Canada

Chile

Czech Republic

Denmark

Estonia

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Israel

Italy

Japan

Korea

Latvia

Luxembourg

Mexico

Netherlands

New Zealand

Norway

Poland

Portugal

Slovak Republic

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

United Kingdom

United States

16.G20

  • The G20 or Group of Twenty is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.
  • It was founded in 1999 with the aim of studying, reviewing, and promoting high-level discussion of policy issues pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability.
  • It seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization. The G20 heads of government or heads of state have periodically conferred at summits since their initial meeting in 2008, and the group also hosts separate meetings of finance ministers and central bank governors.
  • The G20 membership comprises a mix of the world’s largest advanced and emerging economies, representing about two-thirds of the world’s population, 85 per cent of global gross domestic product and over 75 per cent of global trade.
  • The work of G20 members is supported by several international organisations that provide policy advice. The G20 also regularly engages with non-government sectors. Engagement groups from business (B20), civil society (C20), labour (L20), think tanks (T20) and youth (Y20) are holding major events during the year, the outcomes of which will contribute to the deliberations of G20 leaders.
  • The heads of the G20 nations met semi-annually at G20 summits between 2009 and 2010.
  • Since the November 2011 Cannes summit, all G20 summits have been held annually.

17.OPEC

  • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an intergovernmental organization of 13 nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna.
  • Countries accounted for an estimated 42 % of global oil production and 73 % of the world’s oil reserves, giving OPEC a major influence on global oil prices that were previously determined by American-dominated multinational oil companies.
  • Two-thirds of OPEC’s oil production and reserves are in its six Middle Eastern countries that surround the oil-rich Persian Gulf.
  • The formation of OPEC marked a turning point toward national sovereignty over natural resources, and OPEC decisions have come to play a prominent role in the global oil market and international relations.

18.TPP

  • The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), or the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA), is a trade agreement between Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States (until January 23, 2017) and Vietnam.
  • The finalized proposal was signed on 4 February 2016 in Auckland, New Zealand, concluding seven years of negotiations.
  • It currently cannot be ratified due to U.S. withdrawal from the agreement on 23 January 2017. The former Obama administration claimed that the agreement aimed to "promote economic growth; support the creation and retention of jobs; enhance innovation, productivity and competitiveness; raise living standards; reduce poverty in the signatories; countries; and promote transparency, good governance, and enhanced labour and environmental protections.
  • The TPP contains measures to lower both non-tariff and tariff barriers to trade, and establish an investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS)  mechanism.

19.RCEP

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is a proposed free trade agreement (FTA) between the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

 Brunei

 Cambodia

 Indonesia

 Laos

 Malaysia

 Myanmar

 Philippines

 Singapore

 Thailand

 Vietnam and the six states with which ASEAN has existing free trade agreements:

(Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand).

RCEP negotiations were formally launched in November 2012 at the ASEAN Summit in Cambodia. The agreement is scheduled to be finalized by the end of 2017. RCEP is viewed as an alternative to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a proposed trade agreement which includes several Asian and American nations but excludes China and India.

20. Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

  • Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to nuclear weapon development and by improving safeguards and protection on existing materials.
  • The NSG was set up in 1974 as a reaction to India’s nuclear tests to stop what it called the  misuse of nuclear material meant for peaceful purposes.
  • Currently, it has 48 members and works by consensus.
  • In 2008, the NSG participating governments agreed to grant India a “clean waiver” from its  existing rules, which forbid nuclear trade with a country which has not signed the Nuclear Non-ProliferationTreaty (NPT).

Background:

  • India sought membership of the NSG in 2008, but its application hasn’t been decided on,  primarily because signing the NPT or other nuclear moratoriums on testing is a pre-requisite.
  • The NSG works under the principle of unanimity and even one country’s vote against India will scuttle its bid.
  • However, India has received a special waiver to conduct nuclear trade with all nuclear exporters.
  • India, Pakistan, Israel and South Sudan are among the four UN member states which have not signed the NPT, the international pact aimed at preventing the spread of nuclear weapons.

21. Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR):

  • It was established in April 1987 by G-7 countries – USA, UK, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, and Japan, to check the spread of unmanned delivery systems capable of carrying nuclear weapons of above 500kg for more than 300km.
  • In 1992, it was extended for all types of weapons of mass destruction.
  • Now, it has 35 full members including India and 4 “non-adherent members” – Israel, Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia.
  • China is not a member of this regime but it had verbally pledged to adhere to its original guidelines but not to the subsequent additions.
  • It is not a legally-binding treaty. Hence, no punitive measures could be taken against non-compliance to the guidelines of the regime.
  • It is a multilateral, consensus–based grouping of 35 member countries who are voluntarily committed to the non-proliferation of missiles capable of carrying chemical, biological and nuclear weapons of mass destruction (WMDs).
  • It controls the export of the technologies and materials involved in ballistic missile systems and unmanned aerial vehicles particularly capable of carrying nuclear warheads of above 500kg  payload for more than 300 km.
  • This is a non–treaty association of member countries with certain guidelines about the information sharing, national control laws and export policies for missile systems and a rule-based regulation mechanism to limit the transfer of such critical technologies of these missile systems.

22. Australia Group

  • The Australia Group (AG) is an informal forum of countries which, through the harmonisation of export controls, seeks to ensure that exports do not contribute to the development of chemical  or biological weapons.
  • Coordination of national export control measures assists Australia Group participants to fulfil their obligations under the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention to the fullest extent possible.
  • This is achieved by members through the harmonisation of export controls like using licensing measures.
  • It was established in the background of use of chemical weapons (in the form of nerve agents and sulphur mustard) by Iraq in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s.
  • Members: 42 countries + European Union
  • All member countries are members of the Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention (BTWC) and Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

23. WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT

  • The Wassenaar Arrangement was established to contribute to regional and international security and stability by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilizing accumulations.
  • It was established in 1996 in Wassenaar, the Netherlands, which is near The Hague.
  • Members: 42 member states.
  • All permanent members of UN Security Council except China are its members.
  • Participating States seek, through their national policies, to ensure that transfers of these items do not contribute to the development or enhancement of military capabilities which undermine these goals, and are not diverted to support such capabilities.

24. International Organization for Migration (IOM)

  • As of September 2016, it became a related organization of the United Nations.
    Its headquarters is in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • IOM is the leading inter-governmental organization in the field of migration and works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners.
  • With 169 member states, a further 8 states holding observer status and offices in over 100 countries,IOM is dedicated to promoting humane and orderly migration for the benefit of all.
  • It does so by providing services and advice to governments and migrants.
    India is a member of IOM.
  • IOM works to help ensure the orderly and humane management of migration, to promote international cooperation on migration issues, to assist in the search for practical solutions to migration problems and to provide humanitarian assistance to migrants in need, including
    refugees and internally displaced people.
  • IOM works in the four broad areas of migration management:
    Migration and development.
    Facilitating migration.
    Regulating migration.
    Forced migration.

25. International Economic Association (IEA)

  • The IEA was founded in 1950 as a Non-Governmental Organization, at the instigation of the Social Sciences Department of UNESCO.
  • It has since its creation maintained information and consultative relations with UNESCO and is since 1973 a federated member of the International Social Science Council.
  • Its aim has been to promote personal contacts and mutual understanding among economists in different parts of the world through the organization of scientific meetings, through common research programs and by means of publications of an international character on problems of current importance.
  • The IEA is governed by a Council, composed of representatives of all Member Associations as well as a limited number of co-opted members.
  • The Council meets triennially when it reviews the general policy of the Association and elects the President and other Officers and members of the Executive Committee for a three-year term of office.
  • Amongst the past presidents of IEA were the Nobel Laureates Robert Solow, Amartya Sen and Joseph Stiglitz.

26. INDIA-BRAZIL-SOUTH AFRICA (IBSA)

  • Established in June 2003, INDIA-BRAZIL-SOUTH AFRICA (IBSA) is a coordinating mechanism amongst three emerging countries, three multi-ethnic and multicultural democracies, which are
    determined to:
     Contribute to the construction of a new international architecture.
     Bring their voice together on global issues.
     Deepen their ties in various areas.
     It brings together three large democracies and major economies from three different continents namely, Africa, Asia and South America that represents three important poles for galvanizing South-  South cooperation.
  • IBSA also opens itself to concrete projects of cooperation and partnership with less developed countries.
  • The establishment of IBSA was formalized by the Brasilia Declaration of 6 June 2003.

27. International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)

  • ICAN, a coalition of hundreds of non-governmental organisations (NGOs), was launched in 20017 and is based in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ICAN seeks to shift the disarmament debate to focus on the humanitarian threat posed by nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their unique destructive capacity, their catastrophic health and environmental consequences, their indiscriminate targeting, the debilitating impact
    of a detonation on medical infrastructure and relief measures, and the long-lasting effects of radiation on the surrounding area.
  • In September 2006, the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, itself awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985, adopted a proposal at its biennial congress in Helsinki, Finland, to launch ICAN globally.

28. International Energy Forum (IEF)

  • IEF is the largest inter-governmental organisation in the field of oil and gas comprising 72 member countries, accounting for 90% of global supply and demand of the oil and gas.
  • Members include developing, developed, OPEC, Non-OPEC and G20 countries.
  • 18 of the G20 countries are members of IEF.
  • India is also a member of the forum.
  • The IEF is promoted by a permanent Secretariat based in the Diplomatic Quarter of Riyadh, Saudi.

29. International Energy Agency (IEA)

  • Founded in 1974, the IEA was initially designed to help countries co-ordinate a collective response to major disruptions in the supply of oil, such as the crisis of 1973/4.
  • Members: Presently it has 30 member countries. India is the associate member of IAE.
  • Headquarters (Secretariat): Paris, France.
  • Publications: World Energy Outlook report.
  • The four main areas of IEA focus are:
  1. Energy Security: Promoting diversity, efficiency, flexibility and reliability for all fuels and  energy sources;
  2. Economic Development: Supporting free markets to foster economic growth and eliminate energy poverty;
  3. Environmental Awareness: Analyzing policy options to offset the impact of energy production and use on the environment, especially for tackling climate change and air pollution; and
  4. Engagement Worldwide: Working closely with partner countries, especially major emerging economies, to find solutions to shared energy and environmental concerns.

30. Financial Action Task Force (FATF):

  • The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) was set up in 1989 by the western G7 countries, with headquarters in Paris.
  • The objectives are to set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system.
  • It is therefore a ―policy-making body‖ which works to generate the necessary political will to bring about national legislative and regulatory reforms in these areas.
  • It is empowered to curtail financing of UN-designated terrorist groups.
    It can publicly sensor countries that are not abiding by it’s norms.
  • FATF has 37 members that include all 5 permanent members of the Security Council, and other countries with economic influence.
  • Two regional organisations, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and the European Commission (EC) are also its members.
  • Saudi Arabia and Israel are observer countries (partial membership).
    India became a full member in 2010.

What are Regional Trading Blocs?

A regional trading bloc (RTB) is a co-operative union or group of countries within a specific geographical boundary. RTB protects its member nations within that region from imports from the non-members. Trading blocs are a special type of economic integration. There are four types of trading blocs −

Preferential Trade Area − Preferential Trade Areas (PTAs), the first step towards making a full-fledged RTB, exist when countries of a particular geographical region agree to decrease or eliminate tariffs on selected goods and services imported from other members of the area.

Free Trade Area − Free Trade Areas (FTAs) are like PTAs but in FTAs, the participating countries agree to remove or reduce barriers to trade on all goods coming from the participating members.

Customs Union − A customs union has no tariff barriers between members, plus they agree to a common (unified) external tariff against non-members. Effectively, the members are allowed to negotiate as a single bloc with third parties, including other trading blocs, or with the WTO.

Common Market − A ‘common market’ is an exclusive economic integration. The member countries trade freely all types of economic resources – not just tangible goods. All barriers to trade in goods, services, capital, and labour are removed in common markets. In addition to tariffs, non-tariff barriers are also diminished or removed in common markets.


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Mission Nikaalo Prelims

Important Groupings Related to India

27th Sept 2021

 

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Trans-Pacific Partnership

  • The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), or the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), is a trade agreement between Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States (until 23 January 2017) and Vietnam
  • The TPP began as an expansion of the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPSEP or P4) signed by Brunei Darussalam, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore in 2005
  • The TPP contains measures to lower both non-tariff and tariff barriers to trade and establish an investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism
  • The agreement will enter into force after ratification by all signatories if this occurs within two years
  • APEC members may accede to the TPP, as may any other jurisdiction to which existing TPP members agree. After an application for membership is received, a commission of parties to the treaty negotiates conditions for accession.

BRICS

  • BRICS is the acronym coined for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
  • Originally the first four were grouped as “BRIC” (or “the BRICs”), before the induction of South Africa in 2010.
  • The BRICS members are known for their significant influence on regional affairs; all are members of G20.
  • Since 2009, the BRICS nations have met annually at formal summits. China hosted the 9th BRICS summit in Xiamen on September 2017, while Brazil hosted the most recent 11th BRICS summit on 13-14 November 2019.

New Development Bank and the Fortaleza Declaration

  • During the sixth BRICS Summit in Fortaleza (2014), the leaders signed the Agreement establishing the New Development Bank (NDB).
  • In the Fortaleza Declaration, the leaders stressed that the NDB will strengthen cooperation among BRICS and will supplement the efforts of multilateral and regional financial institutions for global development, thus contributing to collective commitments for achieving the goal of strong, sustainable and balanced growth.
  • The bank was established in July 2015 by the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa).
  • The aim of the bank is to mobilize funding for infrastructure and sustainable development.
  • Its ownership structure is unique, as the BRICS countries each have an equal share and no country has any veto power.
  • In this sense, the bank is a physical expression of the desire of emerging markets to play a bigger role in global governance.
  • NDB was created to help fill the funding gap in the BRICS economies and was intended to grow its global scope over time.
  • The bank, with its subscribed capital base of US$50bn, is now poised to become a meaningful additional source of long-term finance for infrastructure in its member countries.

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)

  • The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is a trade deal that was being negotiated between 16 countries.
  • They include the 10 ASEAN members and the six countries with which the bloc has free trade agreements (FTAs) — India, Australia, China, Korea, Japan, and New Zealand.
  • The purpose of the deal is to create an “integrated market” spanning all 16 countries.
  • This means that it would be easier for the products and services of each of these countries to be available across the entire region.

RCEP – India

  • It comprises half of the world population and accounts for nearly 40% of the global commerce and 35% of the GDP. RCEP would have become the world’s largest FTA after finalisation, with India being the third-biggest economy in it.
  • Without India, the RCEP does not look as attractive as it had seemed during negotiations.
  • Divided ASEAN – ASEAN has been keen on a diversified portfolio so that member states can deal with major powers and maintain their strategic autonomy. ASEAN member states have tried to keep the U.S. engaged in the region.
  • Act East policy has been well received. With China’s rise in the region, ASEAN member states have been keen on Indian involvement in the region.
  • Indo-Pacific – India’s entire Indo-Pacific strategy might be open to question if steps are not taken to restore India’s profile in the region.
  • Rejected China’s dominance – India signalled that, despite the costs, China’s rise has to be tackled both politically and economically.

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

  • After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the then security and economic architecture in the Eurasian region dissolved and new structures had to come up.
  • The original Shanghai Five were China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan.
  • The SCO was formed in 2001, with Uzbekistan included. It expanded in 2017 to include India and Pakistan.
  • Since its formation, the SCO has focused on regional non-traditional security, with counter-terrorism as a priority:
  • The fight against the “three evils” of terrorism, separatism and extremism has become its mantra.
  • Today, areas of cooperation include themes such as economics and culture.

India’s entry to the SCO

  • India and Pakistan both were observer countries.
  • While Central Asian countries and China were not in favour of expansion initially, the main supporter — of India’s entry in particular — was Russia.
  • A widely held view is that Russia’s growing unease about an increasingly powerful China prompted it to push for its expansion.
  • From 2009 onwards, Russia officially supported India’s ambition to join the SCO. China then asked for its all-weather friend Pakistan’s entry.

The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)

  • The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is a regional organization comprising seven Member States lying in the littoral and adjacent areas of the Bay of Bengal constituting a contiguous regional unity. This sub-regional organization came into being on 6 June 1997 through the Bangkok Declaration.
  • The regional group constitutes a bridge between South and South-East Asia and represents a reinforcement of relations among these countries.
  • BIMSTEC has also established a platform for intra-regional cooperation between SAARC and ASEAN members.  The BIMSTEC region is home to around 1.5 billion people which constitute around 22% of the global population with a combined gross domestic product (GDP) of 2.7 trillion economies. In the last five years, BIMSTEC Member States have been able to sustain an average 6.5% economic growth trajectory despite a global financial meltdown.

SAARC & SAARC Countries

  • The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is a regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union in South Asia.  Its member states include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.  SAARC was founded in Dhaka in 1985.
  • Its secretariat is based in Kathmandu.
  • The organization promotes the development of economic and regional integration.
  • It launched the South Asian Free Trade Area in 2006.
  • SAARC maintains permanent diplomatic relations at the United Nation as an observer and has developed links with multilateral entities.
  • Observers Of SAARC: – States with observer status include Australia, China, the European Union, Iran, Japan, Mauritius Myanmar, South Korea and the United States.

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

  • The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries
  • It promotes Pan-Asianism and intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational and socio-cultural integration amongst its members and other Asian countries
  • It members are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam
  • ASEAN shares land and maritime borders with India, China
  • ASEAN is an official United Nations Observer.

The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

  • The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a group of nuclear supplier countries that seeks to contribute to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons through the implementation of two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports.
  • One of the critical elements for inclusion into the NSG is that the member countries need to signatories of the NPT, a proposal which India has categorically disagreed.
  • However considering India’s history of nuclear non-proliferation, the US and subsequently the NSG have shown some recognition and granted India with the waiver of dealing with other countries for nuclear technology.

Recent Developments

  • Present Indian government embarked to pursue the ambitious goal of NSG membership aggressively.
  • The prime minister visited countries like the USA, Netherlands, Mexico, and Portugal to secure support from these countries.
  • US administration under Obama and Donald trump reiterated their support for Indian entry to the NSG. Russia also extended its support.
  • NSG takes a decision based on a consensus of the member countries. So it is important to secure the support of each and every member country.
  • China is against the granting membership. Insisted on a criteria-based approach for the non-NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) signatory countries.
  • China has also maintained that for non-NPT members some definite criteria should be evolved rather than granting country-specific waivers. At other times, it has stated that Pakistan also has similar credentials to join the NSG; and that if India is admitted; Pakistan should also be admitted simultaneously.
  • Some other countries, including Turkey, Switzerland, Mexico and New Zealand, were among those which have stressed on the criteria-based approach, without opposing India’s application outright.

Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

  • OPCW is an intergovernmental organization and the implementing body for the Chemical Weapons Convention, which entered into force on 29 April 1997
  • The OPCW, with its 193 member states, has its seat in The Hague, Netherlands, and oversees the global endeavour for the permanent and verifiable elimination of chemical weapons
  • The organization promotes and verifies the adherence to the Chemical Weapons Convention, which prohibits the use of chemical weapons and requires their destruction
  • Verification consists both of evaluation of declarations by member states and onsite inspections
  • The OPCW has the power to say whether chemical weapons were used in an attack it has investigated
  • The organization was awarded the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize “for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons”

The Australian Group

  • The Australia Group is a multilateral export control regime (MECR) and an informal group of countries (now joined by the European Commission) established in 1985 (after the use of chemical weapons by Iraq in 1984) to help member countries to identify those exports which need to be controlled so as not to contribute to the spread of chemical and biological weapons
  • The group, initially consisting of 15 members, held its first meeting in Brussels, Belgium, in September 1989. With the incorporation of India on January 19, 2018, it now has 43 members, including Australia, the European Commission, all 28 member states of the European Union, Ukraine, and Argentina
  • The name comes from Australia’s initiative to create the group. Australia manages the secretariat
  • The initial members of the group had different assessments of which chemical precursors should be subject to export control
  • Later adherents initially had no such controls
  • Today, members of the group maintain export controls on a uniform list of 54 compounds, including several that are not prohibited for export under the Chemical Weapons Convention but can be used in the manufacture of chemical weapons
  • In 2002, the group took two important steps to strengthen export control
  • The first was the “no-undercut” requirement, which stated that any member of the group considering making an export to another state that had already been denied an export by any other member of the group must first consult with that member state before approving the export
  • The second was the “catch-all” provision, which requires member states to halt all exports that could be used by importers in chemical or biological weapons programs, regardless of whether the export is on the group’s control lists.
  • Delegations representing the members meet every year in Paris, France

WTO

  • US, UK and a few other countries set up, an interim organisation about trade named GATT (General Agreement on Tariff and Trade) in 1947
  • GATT was biased in favour of the developed countries and was called informally as the Rich men’s club.
  • So, the developing countries insisted on setting up the International Trade Organisation (ITO)
  • That’s the reason, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was set up in 1964 as an alternative, on the recommendation of the UN committee
  • Next development comes in Uruguay Round of GATT, it sought to expand the scope of the organisation by including, services, investment and intellectual property rights (IPR)
  • Agreements were ratified by the legislatures of 85 member-countries by year-end 1994.
  • On such rectification, the WTO started functioning from Jan 1, 1995, Marrakesh Agreement>

Functions of WTO

  • The WTO deals with regulation of trade in goods, services and intellectual property between participating countries.
  • It provides a framework for negotiating trade agreements and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants’ adherence to WTO agreements, which are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified by their parliaments.

G20

  • Formed in 1999, the G20 is an international forum of the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.
  • Collectively, the G20 economies account for around 85 percent of the Gross World Product (GWP), 80 percent of world trade.
  • To tackle the problems or the address issues that plague the world, the heads of governments of the G20 nations periodically participate in summits.
  • In addition to it, the group also hosts separate meetings of the finance ministers and foreign ministers.
  • The G20 has no permanent staff of its own and its chairmanship rotates annually between nations divided into regional groupings.

Aims and objectives

  • The Group was formed with the aim of studying, reviewing, and promoting high-level discussion of policy issues pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability.
  • The forum aims to pre-empt the balance of payments problems and turmoil on financial markets by improved coordination of monetary, fiscal, and financial policies.
  • It seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organisation.

Member Countries

The members of the G20 consist of 19 individual countries plus the European Union (EU).

  • The 19 member countries of the forum are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States.
  • The European Union is represented by the European Commission and by the European Central Bank.

 Who are the G20 Sherpas?

  • A Sherpa is the personal representative of a head of state or government who prepares an international summit, particularly the annual G7 and G20 summits.
  • Between the summits, there are multiple Sherpa conferences where possible agreements are laid out.
  • This reduces the amount of time and resources required at the negotiations of the heads of state at the final summit.
  • The Sherpa is generally quite influential, although they do not have the authority to make a final decision about any given agreement.
  • The name is derived from the Sherpa people, a Nepalese ethnic group, who serve as guides and porters in the Himalayas, a reference to the fact that the Sherpa clears the way for a head of state at a major summit.

G7

  • The G7 or the Group of Seven is a group of the seven most advanced economies as per the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
  • The seven countries are Canada, USA, UK, France, Germany, Japan and Italy. The EU is also represented in the G7.
  • These countries, with the seven largest IMF-described advanced economies in the world, represent 58% of the global net wealth ($317 trillion).
  • The G7 countries also represent more than 46% of the global gross domestic product (GDP) based on nominal values, and more than 32% of the global GDP based on purchasing power parity.
  • The requirements to be a member of the G7 are a high net national wealth and a high HDI (Human Development Index).

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Categories
Mission Nikaalo Prelims

Important Schemes regarding Agriculture & Allied Sectors

25th Sept 2021

 

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1.1 Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana

Objective

  • To achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level.
  • To enhance the recharge of aquifers and introduce sustainable water conservation practices.
  • To explore the feasibility of reusing treated municipal wastewater for peri-urban agriculture.
  • To attract greater private investments in irrigation.
  • To promote extension activities relating to water harvesting, water management and crop alignment for farmers and grass root level field functionaries.

Salient features

  • Decentralized State level planning and projectized execution’ structure, in order to allow States to draw up a District Irrigation Plan (DIP) and a State Irrigation Plan (SIP). These plans need to be prepared in order to access the PMKSY fund.
  • It will be supervised and monitored by the Inter-Ministerial National Steering Committee (NSC) under PM with Union Ministers of all concerned Ministries. A National Executive Committee (NEC) is to be constituted under the Chairmanship of the Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog to oversee programme implementation.
  • PMKSY has been formulated amalgamation ongoing schemes viz. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP); Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP); and On-Farm Water Management (OFWM) component of National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).
  • Water budgeting is done for all sectors namely, household, agriculture and industries.
  • Investments will happen at farm level. So, farmers know what is happening and can provide valuable feedback.
  • Recently, the Long Term Irrigation Fund has been instituted under PMKSY in NABARD for funding and fast-tracking the implementation of incomplete major and medium irrigation projects.

 

1.2 Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana – RAFTAAR (RKVY-RAFTAAR)

 Objective

  • To make farming a remunerative economic activity through strengthening the farmer’s efforts, risk mitigation and promoting agribusiness entrepreneurship.
  • To attend national priorities through several sub-schemes.
  • To empower youth through skill development, innovation and agri entrepreneurship based business models.

 Salient features

  • RKVY, initiated in 2007 as an umbrella scheme for holistic development of agriculture and allied sectors, has been recently revamped as RKVY-RAFTAAR – Remunerative Approaches for Agriculture and Allied sector Rejuvenation for 2017-19 and 2019-20.
  • It provided states with considerable flexibility and autonomy for planning and executing Programs.
  • The decentralized planning for agriculture and allied sectors is initiated by the states through District Agriculture Plan and State Agriculture
  • Plan based on agro-climatic conditions, availability of appropriate technology and natural priorities.
  • It will incentivize states to increase allocations for agriculture and allied sectors and help in creation of post-harvest infrastructure and promotion of private investment in the farm sector across the country.
  • Fund Allocation – 60:40 grants between Centre and States in states and 90:10 for North Eastern States and Himalayan States through following streams –
    • Infrastructure & Assets and Production Growth o RKVY-RAFTAAR special sub-schemes of National Priorities
    • Innovation and agri-entrepreneur development.

 Sub-schemes include

  • Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India
  • Crop Diversification Program – It is being implemented in the Original Green Revolution States of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh to diversify area from water-guzzling crop
  • Reclamation of Problem Soil
  • Foot & Mouth Disease – Control Program (FMD-CP)
  • Saffron Mission
  • Accelerated Fodder Development Programme (AFDP)

 

1.3 NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY MISSION

Objective

  • Increasing production of rice, wheat, pulses, coarse cereals and commercial crops through area expansion and productivity enhancement in a sustainable manner.
  • Restore soil fertility and productivity at the individual farm level.
  • Enhancing farm level economy.

Salient features

  • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme which was launched in 2007.
  • The approach of the scheme is to bridge the yield gap in respect of these crops through dissemination of improved technologies and farm management practices while focusing on districts which have high potential but relatively low level of productivity at present.
  • Major Components – National Food Security Mission – Rice, National Food Security Mission – Wheat, National Food Security Mission – Pulses,
  • National Food Security Mission – Coarse Cereals and National Food Security Mission –Commercial Crops.

 

1.4 National Horticulture Mission

  1. To provide holistic growth of the horticulture sector through an area based regionally differentiated strategies, to enhance horticulture production, improve nutritional security and income support to farm households
  2. To establish convergence and synergy among multiple ongoing and planned programmes for horticulture development
  3. To promote, develop and disseminate technologies, through a seamless blend of traditional wisdom and modern scientific knowledge
  4. To create opportunities for employment generation for skilled and unskilled persons, especially unemployed youth.

Scheme:

A National Horticulture Mission was launched in 2005-06 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme to promote holistic growth of the horticulture sector through an area based regionally differentiated strategies. The scheme has been subsumed as a part of Mission for Integration Development of Horticulture (MIDH) during 2014-15.

What is the National Horticulture Mission?

The National Horticulture Mission is a government mission to support horticultural production in the country. NHM is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme in which the Government of India contributes 85%, and 15% is met by the State Governments.

Factual Information:

  • India ranks second in the global production of fruits and vegetables next to China.
  • Started in 2005-06.

 

1.5 SOIL HEALTH CARD SCHEME

Objective

  • To issue soil health cards every 3 years, to all farmers of the country, so as to provide a basis to address nutrient deficiencies in fertilization practices.
  • To strengthen the functioning of Soil Testing Laboratories (STLs) through capacity building, the involvement of agriculture students and effective linkage with Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) / State Agricultural Universities (SAUs).
  • To diagnose soil fertility related constraints with standardized procedures for sampling uniformly across states.
  • To build capacities of district and state level staff and of progressive farmers for promotion of nutrient management practices.

Salient features

  • It is a centrally sponsored scheme launched by the Government of India in 2015.
  • It is being implemented through the Department of Agriculture of all the State and Union Territory Governments.
  • Assistance is provided to the State Government to issue Soil Health Card and also develop a database to improve service delivery.
  • Soil Health Card issued to farmers carry crop-wise recommendations of nutrients and fertilizers required for the individual farms.
  • The experts will analyze the strength and weaknesses (micronutrients deficiency) of the soil collected from farms and suggest measures to deal with it.
  • It will contain the status of his soil with respect to 12 parameters, namely N,P,K (Macronutrients); S (Secondary nutrient); Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo (Micro – nutrients); and pH, EC, OC (Physical parameters).

 

1.6 PM FASAL BIMA YOJANA

Objective

  • To provide insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of natural calamities, pests & diseases.
  • To stabilise the income of farmers to ensure their continuance in farming.
  • To encourage farmers to adopt innovative and modern agricultural practices.
  • To ensure flow of credit to the agriculture sector.
  • Intended beneficiary – All farmers including sharecroppers and tenant farmers growing notified crops in a notified area during the season who have insurable interest in the crop are eligible.

Salient features

  • It replaced all other existing insurance schemes except the Restructured Weather-Based Crop Insurance Scheme (uses weather parameters as proxy for crop yield in compensating the cultivators for deemed crop loses).
  • A uniform premium of only 2% to be paid by farmers for all Kharif crops and 1.5% for all Rabi crops.
  • In case of annual commercial and horticultural crops, the premium to be paid by farmers will be only 5%.
  • There is no upper limit on Government subsidy so farmers will get claim against full sum insured without any reduction.
  • The difference between the premium paid by farmers and the actuarial premium charged was paid by the Centre and state government in the ratio of 50:50.
  • It is compulsory for loanee farmers availing crop loans for notified crops in notified areas and voluntary for non-loanee farmers.
  • Yield Losses: due to non-preventable risks, such as Natural Fire and Lightning, Storm, Hailstorm, Cyclone, Typhoon, Tempest, Hurricane, Tornado.
  • Risks due to Flood, Inundation and Landslide, Drought, Dry spells, Pests/ Diseases also will be covered.
  • Post-harvest losses are also covered.
  • Mandatory use of technology: Smart phones, drones etc., will be used to capture and upload data of crop cutting to reduce the delays in claim payment to farmers. Remote sensing will be used to reduce the number of crop cutting experiments.
  • The Scheme shall be implemented on an ‘Area Approach basis’. Defined Area (i.e., unit area of insurance) is Village or above. It can be a Geo-Fenced/Geo-mapped region having homogenous Risk Profile for the notified crop.
  • Presently, 5 public sector insurers (Agriculture Insurance Company of India, United India Insurance Company etc.) and 13 private insurance companies are empanelled for implementation of the scheme.
  • Recently, states have been allowed to set up their own insurance companies for implementing the scheme.

 

1.7 National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) has been formulated for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rainfed areas focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management and synergizing resource conservation.

Objectives

  • To make agriculture more productive, sustainable, remunerative and climate resilient by promoting location specific Integrated/Composite Farming Systems
  • To conserve natural resources through appropriate soil and moisture conservation measures
  • To adopt comprehensive soil health management practices based on soil fertility maps, soil test based application of macro & micro nutrients, judicious use of fertilizers etc.
  • To optimize utilization of water resources through efficient water management to expand coverage for achieving ‘more crop per drop’.
  • To develop capacity of farmers & stakeholders, in conjunction with other on going missions e.g. National Mission on Agriculture Extension & Technology, National Food Security Mission, National Initiative for Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) etc., in the domain of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.
  • To pilot models in select blocks for improving productivity of rainfed farming by mainstreaming rainfed technologies refined through NICRA and by leveraging resources  from other schemes/Missions like Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP), RKVY etc.; and
  • To establish an effective inter and intra Departmental/Ministerial coordination for accomplishing key deliverables of National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture under the aegis of National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).

 

1.8 PARAMPARAGAT KRISHI VIKAS YOJANA

Objective

  • Promotion of commercial organic production through certified organic farming.
  • pesticide residue free produce and improved health of consumer
  • Raise farmer’s income and create potential markets for traders.
  • Motivate the farmers for natural resource mobilization for input production.
  • Increase domestic production and certification of organic produce by involving farmers.

Intended beneficiary

  • Farmers doing organic farming
  • Farmers from NE India such as Sikkim
  • Food processing industries
  • Organic foods – export industry

Salient features

  • “Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana” is an elaborated component of Soil Health Management (SHM) under National Mission of Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).
  • Cluster Approach: Fifty or more farmers form a cluster having 50 acre land to take organic farming. Each farmer will be provided Rs. 20000 per acre in three years for seed to harvesting crops and to transport them to market.
  • Government plans to form around 10 thousand clusters in three years and cover an area of 5 Lakh hectares under organic farming.

Components –

  • Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) certification through cluster approach – mobilization of farmers, form clusters, identification of land resources and training on organic farming and PGS Certification and quality control.
  • Adoption of organic village for manure management and biological nitrogen harvesting through cluster approach –action plan for Organic Farming, Integrated Manure Management, Packing, Labelling and Branding of organic products of cluster.

 

1.9 NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL MARKET (NAM)

Objective

  • To promote genuine price discovery
  • Increases farmers’ options for sale and access to markets
  • Liberal licensing of traders / buyers and commission agents. One license for a trader valid across all markets in the State
  • Harmonisation of quality standards of agricultural produce
  • Single point levy of market fees, i.e on the first wholesale purchase from the farmer.
  • Provision of Soil Testing Laboratories in/ or near the selected mandi to facilitate visiting farmers to access this facility in the mandi itself

Intended beneficiary

  • 585 regulated wholesale markets in states/union territories (UTs).
  • Farmers
  • Local traders
  • Bulk buyers, processors
  • Farm produce exporters
  • Overall economy of the nation

Salient features

  • NAM is a pan-India electronic trading portal which seeks to network the existing APMCs and other market yards to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.
  • Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) has been selected as the lead agency to implement it.
  • Central government will provide the software free of cost to the states and in addition, a grant of up to Rs. 30 lakhs per mandi or market or private mandis will be given for related equipment and infrastructure requirements.
  • New Features added to the scheme such as E-NAM Mobile App, BHIM Payment facility, MIS dashboard for better analysis and insights, grievance redressal mechanism for Mandi Secretaries and integration with Farmer Database to ease the registration and identification process will further strengthen e-NAM.
  • Fund Allocation – The Scheme is being funded through AgriTech Infrastructure Fund (AITF).

 

1.10 KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRAS

Objective

  • To be a frontline extension in agriculture, and to serve as a single window mechanism for addressing the technology needs of farmers
  • To demonstrate location specific technologies and build capacity of farmers
  • To serve as links between research and extension and also with farmers

Intended beneficiary

  • Rural youth, farm women and Farmers (skill development training)
  • Salient features
  • Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)has created a network of 645 Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) in the country and 106 more KVKs will be established.
  • Directorate of Extension in State Agriculture Universities also helps KVKs in its activities.
  • KVKs lay strong emphasis on skill development training of rural youth, farm women and farmers
  • Provide latest technological inputs like seeds,planting materials and bio-products.
  • Advise farmers on timely crop/enterprise related recommendations, including climate resilient technologies.
  • Diagnose and solve problems emerging from district agro-ecosystems and lead in adoption of innovations.

 

1.11 MERA GAON-MERA GAURAV

Objective

  • To promote direct interface of scientists withthe farmers and hasten the land to lab process.
  • To imbibe a sense of ownership among the agricultural scientists
  • To provide farmers with required information, knowledge and advisories on regular basis by adopting villages.

Intended beneficiary

  • Scientists with ground level experience
  • Farmers

 Salient features

  • This scheme involves scientists of the Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) and state agricultural universities.
  • Groups of four multidisciplinary scientists each will be constituted at these institutes and universities. Each group will “adopt” five villages within a radius of maximum 100 km.

 

1.12 Price Stabilization Fund

Objective: to safeguard the interest of the growers and provide them financial relief when prices fall below a specified level.

Scheme:

  • Central Sector Scheme.
  • To support market interventions for price control of perishable agri-horticultural commodities.
  • PSF will be used to advance interest free loan to State Governments and Central agencies to support their working capital and other expenses on procurement and distribution interventions for such commodities.
  • Procurement of the commodities will be undertaken directly from farmers or farmers’ organizations at farm gate/mandi and made available at a more reasonable price to the consumers.
  • Initially the fund is proposed to be used for onion and potato only. Losses incurred, if any, in the operations will be shared between the Centre and the States.

Framework and Funding:

  • States will set up a revolving fund to which theCentre and State will contribute equally, i.e. 50:50.
  • The ratio of Centre-State contribution to the State-level corpus in respect of Northeast States will, however, be 75:25.

 

1.13 Mission Fingerling

  • It is a programme to enable holistic development and management of the fisheries sector in India.
  • The mission aims to achieve the target to enhance fisheries production from 10.79 mmt (2014-15) to 15 mmt by 2020-21 under the Blue Revolution.

Programme:

  • Government has identified 20 States based ontheir potential and other relevant factors to strengthen the Fish Fingerling production and Fish Seed infrastructure in the country.
  • This program will facilitate the establishment of Fingerling rearing pond and hatcheries.
  • This will converge in the production of 20 lakh tonnes of fish annually, which will in turn benefit about 4 million families.
  • The implementation of this program will supplement the requirement of stocking materials in the country up to a large extent, which is a much needed input to achieve the enhanced fish production.

 

1.14 Umbrella Scheme Green Revolution — Krishonnati Yojana

Aim

These schemes look to develop the agriculture and allied sector in a holistic and scientific manner to increase the income of farmers by enhancing production, productivity and better returns on produce.

The Schemes that are part of the Umbrella Schemes are :-

  1. Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH)
  2. National Food Security Mission (NFSM)
  3. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
  4. Submission on Agriculture Extension (SMAE)
  5. Sub-Mission on Seeds and Planting Material (SMSP)
  6. Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanisation (SMAM)
  7. Sub Mission on Plant Protection and Plan Quarantine (SMPPQ)
  8. Integrated Scheme on Agriculture Census, Economics and Statistics (ISACES)
  9. Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Cooperation (ISAC)
  10. Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Marketing (ISAM)
  11. National e-Governance Plan (NeGP-A) The Schemes/Missions focus on creating/strengthening of infrastructure of production, reducing production cost and marketing of agriculture and allied produce.

 

1.15 Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay SanraksHan Abhiyan (PM-AASHA)

  1. The Scheme is aimed at ensuring remunerative prices to the farmers for their produce as announced in the Union Budget for 2018.
  2. It is expected that the increase in MSP will be translated to farmers’ income by way of robust procurement mechanism in coordination with the State Governments.

The three schemes that are part of AASHA are:

  1. the Price Support Scheme (PSS)
  2. the Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS)
  3. the Pilot of Private Procurement and Stockist Scheme (PPPS)
  • These three components will complement the existing schemes of the Department of Food and Public Distribution.
  • They relate to paddy, wheat and other cereals and coarse grains where procurement is at MSP now.
  • PSS – Under the PSS, physical procurement of pulses, oilseeds and copra will be done by Central Nodal Agencies.
  • Besides, NAFED and Food Corporation of India will also take up procurement of crops under PSS.
  • The expenditure and losses due to procurement will be borne by the Centre.
  • PDPS – Under the PDPS, the Centre proposes to cover all oilseeds.
  • The difference between the MSP and actual selling/modal price will be directly paid into the farmer’s bank account.
  • Farmers who sell their crops in recognised mandis within the notified period can benefit from it.
  • PPSS – In the case of oilseeds, States will have the option to roll out PPSS in select districts.
  • Under this, a private player can procure crops at MSP when market prices drop below MSP.
  • The private player will then be compensated through a service charge up to a maximum of 15% of the MSP.

 

1.16 Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)

What is the news:

  • The Central Government notified a decision to extend the benefit of ₹6,000 per year under the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi scheme to all 14.5 crore farmers in the country, irrespective of the size of their landholding.
  • Central sector scheme

Objective

○ To provide income support to all farmer families having cultivable land.

○ To supplement the financial needs of the farmers in procuring various inputs to ensure proper crop health and appropriate yields, commensurate with the anticipated farm income.

Salient Features:

  • The revised Scheme is expected to coveraround 2 crore more farmers, increasing the coverage of PM-KISAN to around 14.5 crore beneficiaries.
  • Responsibility of identifying the landholder farmer family eligible for benefit under the scheme shall be of the State/UT Government.
  • The lists of eligible beneficiaries would be published at the village level to ensure transparency.
  • Exclusions: Certain categories of beneficiaries of higher economic status such as institutional landholders, former and present holder of constitutional posts, persons who paid income tax in the last assessment year etc. shall not be eligible for benefit under the scheme.
    • Professionals like doctors, engineers and lawyers as well as retired pensioners with a monthly pension of over ₹10,000 and those who paid income tax in the last assessment year are also not eligible for the benefits.
    • For the purpose of exclusion State/UT Government can certify the eligibility of the beneficiary based on self-declaration by the beneficiaries.
  • A dedicated PM Kisan Portal will be launched for the implementation of the scheme.
  • This is a Central Sector Scheme and will be funded fully by the Government of India

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Categories
Mission Nikaalo Prelims

National Parks, Biosphere Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries in India

23th Sept 2021

 

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NATIONAL PARKS AND WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES IN INDIA

NATIONAL PARKSSTATES
Papikonda National ParkAndhra Pradesh
Rajiv Gandhi National ParkAndhra Pradesh
Lanjamadugu Wildlife SanctuaryAndhra Pradesh
Namdapha National ParkArunachal Pradesh
Dibang Wildlife SanctuaryArunachal Pradesh
Manas National Park (UNESCO)Assam
Nameri National ParkAssam
Rajiv Gandhi Orang National ParkAssam
Kaziranga National Park (UNESCO)Assam
Dibru Sai Khowa National ParkAssam
Gautam Budha Wildlife SanctuaryBihar
Valmild National ParkBihar
Rajgir Wildlife SanctuaryBihar
Indravati National ParkChhattisgarh
Achanakmar Wildlife SanctuaryChhattisgarh
Kanger Valley National ParkChhattisgarh
Tamor Pingla Wildlife SanctuaryChhattisgarh
Guru Ghasi Das (Sanjay) National ParkChhattisgarh
Gomarda Wildlife SanctuaryChhattisgarh
Bhagwan Mahavir National ParkGoa
Vansda National ParkGujarat
Kutch Desert Wildlife SanctuaryGujarat
Indian Wild Ass SanctuaryGujarat
Marine National Park (First Marine National Park)Gujarat
Black Buck National ParkGujarat
Gir Forest National ParkGujarat
Kalesar National ParkHaryana
Sultanpur National ParkHaryana
Lippa Asrang Wildlife SanctuaryHimachal Pradesh
Tundah Wildlife SanctuaryHimachal Pradesh
Inderkilla National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Great Himalayan National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Pin Valley National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Khirganga National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Simbalbara National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Sechu Tuan Nala Wildlife SanctuaryHimachal Pradesh
Salim All National ParkJammu & Kashmir
Kishtwar National ParkJammu & Kashmir
Hemis National Park (Largest in Area)Jammu & Kashmir
Changtang Wildlife SanctuaryJammu & Kashmir
Dachigam National ParkJammu & Kashmir
Kara Koram Wildlife SanctuaryJammu & Kashmir
Hirpora Wildlife SanctuaryJammu & Kashmir
Lachipora Wildlife SanctuaryJammu & Kashmir
Betla National ParkJharkhand
Hazaribagh National ParkJharkhand
Lawalong Wildlife SanctuaryJharkhand
Nagarhole National ParkKarnataka
Cauvery Wildlife SanctuaryKarnataka
Kudremukh National ParkKarnataka
Bannerghatta National ParkKarnataka
Bandipur National ParkKarnataka
Arabithittu Wildlife SanctuaryKarnataka
Nugu Wildlife SanctuaryKarnataka
Pushpagiri Wildlife SanctuaryKarnataka
Chinnar Wild Life SanctuaryKerala
Idukki Wildlife SanctuaryKerala
Periyar National ParkKerala
Silent Valley National ParkKerala
Eravikulam National ParkKerala
Parambikulam Wildlife SanctuaryKerala
Malabar Wildlife SanctuaryKerala
Anamudi Shola National ParkKerala
Pampadum Shola National ParkKerala
Pench National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Bandhavgarh National Park (Highest Numbers of Tigers)Madhya Pradesh
Kanha National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Madhav National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Panna National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Satpura National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Van Vihar National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Gandhi Sagar SanctuaryMadhya Pradesh
National Chambal SanctuaryMadhya Pradesh
Mandla Plant Fossils National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Pachmari Wildlife SanctuaryMadhya Pradesh
Phen Wildlife SanctuaryMadhya Pradesh
Ratapani Tiger ReserveMadhya Pradesh
Sanjay National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Chandoli National ParkMaharashtra
Gugamal National ParkMaharashtra
Sanjay Gandhi (Borivilli) National ParkMaharashtra
Koyna Wildlife SanctuaryMaharashtra
Navegaon National ParkMaharashtra
Tadoba National ParkMaharashtra
Dhakna Kolkaz Wildlife SanctuaryMaharashtra
Phansad Wildlife SanctuaryMaharashtra
Wain Ganga Wildlife SanctuaryMaharashtra
Keibul Lamjao National ParkManipur
Yagoupokpi Lokchao Wildlife SanctuaryManipur
Nokrek National ParkMeghalaya
Nongkhyllem Wildlife SanctuaryMeghalaya
Balphakram National ParkMeghalaya
Khawnglung Wildlife SanctuaryMizoram
Murlen National ParkMizoram
Ngengpui Wildlife SanctuaryMizoram
Phawngpui Blue Mountain National ParkMizoram
Pulebarze Wildlife SanctuaryNagaland
Intanki National ParkNagaland
Simplipal National ParkOrissa
Chilka Wild Life SanctuaryOrissa
Baisipalli Wildlife SanctuaryOrissa
Bhitarkanika National ParkOrissa
Debrigarh Wildlife SanctuaryOrissa
Kuldiha Wildlife SanctuaryOrissa
Ranthambore National ParkRajasthan
Sariska National ParkRajasthan
First National Park in the world, which was successfully adapted by Royal Bengal Tiger] 
Darrah National ParkRajasthan
Desert National ParkRajasthan
Keoladeo National Park (UNESCO)Rajasthan
Mount Abu Wildlife SanctuaryRajasthan
Jawaharsagar Wildlife SanctuaryRajasthan
Phulwari Wildlife SanctuaryRajasthan
 Keladevi Wildlife SanctuaryRajasthan
Fambonglho Wildlife SanctuarySikkim
Khangchendzonga National ParkSikkim
Kyongnosla Alpine SanctuarySikkim
Pangolakha Wildlife SanctuarySikkim
Shingba Rhododendron SanctuarySikkim
Mukurthi National ParkTamilnadu
Shenbagathoppu Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife SanctuaryTamilnadu
Satyamanglam wild Life SanctuaryTamilnadu
Indira Gandhi (Annamalai) National ParkTamilnadu
Guindy National ParkTamilnadu
Mudumalai National ParkTamilnadu
Vettangundi Wildlife SanctuaryTamilnadu
Gulf of Mannar Marine National ParkTamilnadu
Mrugavani National ParkTelangana
Sipahijola Wildlife SanctuaryTripura
Bisan (Rajbari) National ParkTripura
Gumti Wildlife SanctuaryTripura
Clouded Leopard National ParkTripura
Chandra Prabha Wildlife SanctuaryUttar Pradesh
Dudhwa National ParkUttar Pradesh
Ranipur SanctuaryUttar Pradesh
Rajaji National ParkUttarakhand
Gangotri National ParkUttarakhand
Nanda Devi National Park (UNESCO)Uttarakhand
Jim Corbett National Park (Oldest Park)Uttarakhand
Valley of Flowers National Park (UNESCO)Uttarakhand
Askot Musk Deer SanctuaryUttarakhand
Govind Pashu ViharUttarakhand
Kedarnath Wildlife SanctuaryUttarakhand
Sundarbans National ParkWest Bengal
Gorumara National ParkWest Bengal
Buxa National ParkWest Bengal
Jaldapara National ParkWest Bengal
Neora Valley National ParkWest Bengal
Singalila National ParkWest Bengal
Mahatma Gandhi Marine National ParkAndaman & Nicobar Islands
Rani Jhansi Marine National ParkAndaman & Nicobar Islands
Saddle Peak National ParkAndaman & Nicobar Islands
Middle Button Island National ParkAndaman & Nicobar Islands
South Button Island National ParkAndaman &Nicobar Islands
Mount Harriet National ParkAndaman &Nicobar Islands
North Button Island National ParkAndaman & Nicobar Islands
Campbell Bay National ParkAndaman & Nicobar Islands
Galathea National ParkAndaman & Nicobar Islands

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Categories
Mission Nikaalo Prelims

Laws Related To Environment Conservantion In India

08th Sept 2021

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1. Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1981

  • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 an Act of the Parliament of India to control and prevent air pollution in India
  • It was amended in 1987
  • The Government passed this Act in 1981 to clean up our air by controlling pollution.
  • It states that sources of air pollution such as industry, vehicles, power plants, etc., are not permitted to release particulate matter, lead, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or other toxic substances beyond a prescribed level

Key Features

The Act specifically empowers State Government to designate air pollution areas and to prescribe the type of fuel to be used in these designated areas.

According to this Act, no person can operate certain types of industries including the asbestos, cement, fertilizer and petroleum industries without consent of the State Board.

The main objectives of the Act are as follows:

(a) To provide for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution

(b) To provide for the establishment of central and State Boards with a view to implement the Act(Central Pollution Control Board and State Pollution Control Board)

(c) To confer on the Boards the powers to implement the provisions of the Act and assign to the Boards functions relating to pollution

2.Environmental (Protection) Act of 1986

  • Environment Protection Act, 1986 is an Act of the Parliament of India
  • In the wake of the Bhopal Tragedy, the Government of India enacted the Environment Protection Act of 1986 under Article 253 of the Constitution
  • Passed in March 1986, it came into force on 19 November 1986
  • The Act is an “umbrella” for legislations designed to provide a framework for Central Government, coordination of the activities of various central and state authorities established under previous Acts, such as the Water Act and the Air Act.
  • In this Act, main emphasis is given to “Environment”, defined to include water, air and land and the inter-relationships which exist among water, air and land and human beings and other

Objective of the Act

The purpose of the Act is to implement the decisions of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment of 1972, in so far as they relate to the protection and improvement of the human environment and the prevention of hazards to human beings, other living creatures, plants and property.

3.The Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Rules, 17 July 2000

The rules are framed under the jurisdiction of Environment (Protection) Act.

Objectives and Key Features

  • These Rules set the deadlines for phasing out of various ODSs, besides regulating production, trade import and export of ODSs and the product containing ODS.
  • These Rules prohibit the use of CFCs in manufacturing various products beyond 1st January 2003 except in metered dose inhaler and for other medical purposes.
  • Similarly, use of halons is prohibited after 1st January 2001 except for essential use.
  • Other ODSs such as carbon tetrachloride and methylchoroform and CFC for metered dose inhalers can be used upto 1st January 2010.
  • Since HCFCs are used as interim substitute to replace CFC, these are allowed up to 1st January 2040.

4.The Energy Conservation Act of 2001

As a step towards improving energy efficiency, the Government of India has enacted the Energy Conservation Act in 2001.

Objective

The Energy Conservation Act, 2001 is the most important multi-sectoral legislation in India and is intended to promote efficient use of energy in India.

Key Features

The Act specifies energy consumption standards for equipment and appliances, prescribes energy consumption norms and standards for consumers, prescribes energy conservation building codes for commercial buildings and establishes a compliance mechanism for energy consumption norms and standards.

5.Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)

  • In order to implement the various provisions of the EC Act, Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) was operationalised with effect from 1st March, 2002. The EC Act provides a legal framework for energy efficiency initiatives in the country. The Act has mandatory as well as promotional initiatives.
  • The Bureau is spearheading the task of improving the energy efficiency in various sectors of the economy through the regulatory and promotional mechanism. The primary objective of BEE is to reduce energy intensity in the Indian economy.
  • This is to be demonstrated by providing policy framework as well as through public-private partnership.

6.Forest Conservation Act of 1980

Background

First Forest Act was enacted in 1927.

Alarmed at India’s rapid deforestation and resulting environmental degradation, Centre Government enacted the Forest (Conservation) Act in1980.

Objective

It was enacted to consolidate the law related to forest, the transit of forest produce and the duty livable on timber and other forest produce.

Key Features

  • Under the provisions of this Act, prior approval of the Central Government is required for diversion of forestlands for non-forest purposes.
  • Forest officers and their staff administer the Forest Act.
  • An Advisory Committee constituted under the Act advises the Centre on these approvals.
  • The Act deals with the four categories of the forests, namely reserved forests, village forests, protected forests and private forests.

7.The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010

Background

During the Rio de Janeiro summit of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in June 1992, India vowed the participating states to provide judicial and administrative remedies for the victims of the pollutants and other environmental damage.

Key Features

It was enacted under India’s constitutional provision of Article 21, which assures the citizens of India the right to a healthy environment.

The specialized architecture of the NGT will facilitate fast track resolution of environmental cases and provide a boost to the implementation of many sustainable development measures.

NGT is mandated to dispose the cases within six months of their respective appeals.

Enabling Provision

It is an Act of the Parliament of India which enable the creation of NGT to handle the expeditious disposal of the cases pertaining to environmental issues.

Members

The sanctioned strength of the tribunal is currently 10 expert members and 10 judicial members although the act allows for up to 20 of each.

The Chairman of the tribunal who is the administrative head of the tribunal also serves as a judicial member.

Every bench of the tribunal must consist of at least one expert member and one judicial member.

The Chairman of the tribunal is required to be a serving or retired Chief Justice of a High Court or a judge of the Supreme Court of India.

Jurisdiction

The Tribunal has Original Jurisdiction on matters of “substantial question relating to environment” (i.e. a community at large is affected, damage to public health at broader level) & “damage to environment due to specific activity” (such as pollution).

The term “substantial” is not clearly defined in the act.

8.The Coastal Regulation Zone Notifications

Background

The coastal stretches of seas, bays, estuaries, creeks, rivers and back waters which are influenced by tidal action are declared “Coastal Regulation Zone” (CRZ) in 1991.

CRZ notifications

India has created institutional mechanisms such as National Coastal Zone Management Authority (NCZMA) and State Coastal Zone Management Authority (SCZMA) for enforcement and monitoring of the CRZ Notification.

These authorities have been delegated powers under Section 5 of the Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986 to take various measures for protecting and improving the quality of the coastal environment and preventing, abating and controlling environmental pollution in coastal areas.

Key Features

Under this coastal areas have been classified as CRZ-1, CRZ-2, CRZ-3, CRZ-4. And the same they retained for CRZ in 2003 notifications as well.

CRZ-1: these are ecologically sensitive areas these are essential in maintaining the ecosystem of the coast. They lie between low and high tide line. Exploration of natural gas and extraction of salt are permitted

CRZ-2: these areas form up to the shoreline of the coast. Unauthorised structures are not allowed to construct in this zone.

CRZ-3: rural and urban localities which fall outside the 1 and 2. Only certain activities related to agriculture even some public facilities are allowed in this zone

CRZ-4: this lies in the aquatic area up to territorial limits. Fishing and allied activities are permitted in this zone. Solid waste should be let off in this zone.

9.Wildlife Protection Act, 1972

Background

In 1972, Parliament enacted the Wild Life Act (Protection) Act.

Objective

The Wild Life Act provides for

  1. state wildlife advisory boards,
  2. regulations for hunting wild animals and birds,
  3. establishment of sanctuaries and national parks, tiger reserves
  4. regulations for trade in wild animals, animal products and trophies, and
  5. judicially imposed penalties for violating the Act.

Key Features

  • Harming endangered species listed in Schedule 1 of the Act is prohibited throughout India.
  • Hunting species, like those requiring special protection (Schedule II), big game (Schedule III), and small game (Schedule IV), is regulated through licensing.
  • A few species classified as vermin (Schedule V), may be hunted without restrictions.
  • Wildlife wardens and their staff administer the act.
  • An amendment to the Act in 1982, introduced a provision permitting the capture and transportation of wild animals for the scientific management of animal population.

10.Biological Diversity Act, 2002

Background

The Biological Diversity Bill was introduced in the Parliament in 2000 and was passed in 2002.

Objective:

India’s richness in biological resources and indigenous knowledge relating to them is well recognized

The legislation aims at regulating access to biological resources so as to ensure equitable sharing of benefits arising from their use

Key Features

  • The main intent of this legislation is to protect India’s rich biodiversity and associated knowledge against their use by foreign individuals and organizations without sharing the benefits arising out of such use, and to check biopiracy.
  • This bill seeks to check biopiracy, protect biological diversity and local growers through a three-tier structure of central and state boards and local committees.
  • The Act provides for setting up of a National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), State Biodiversity Boards (SBBs) and Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs) in local bodies. The NBA will enjoy the power of a civil court.
  • BMCs promote conservation, sustainable use and documentation of biodiversity.
  • NBA and SBB are required to consult BMCs in decisions relating to use of biological resources.
  • All foreign nationals or organizations require prior approval of NBA for obtaining biological resources and associated knowledge for any use.
  • Indian individuals/entities require approval of NBA for transferring results of research with respect to any biological resources to foreign nationals/organizations.

11.Recycled Plastics Manufacture and Usage Rules, 1999

Objective

A rule notified in exercise of the powers conferred by clause (viii) of Sub Section (2) of Section 3 read with Section 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986) with the objective to regulate the manufacture and use of recycled plastics, carry bags and containers;

Key Features

  1. Thickness of the carry bags made of virgin plastics or recycled plastics shall not be less than 20 microns.
  2. Carry bags and containers made of virgin plastic shall be in natural shade or white.
  3. Carry bags and containers made of recycled plastic and used for purposes other than storing and packaging food stuffs shall be manufactured using pigments and colorants as per IS:9833:1981 entitled “List of Pigments and Colorants” for use in Plastics in contact with food stuffs, pharmaceuticals and drinking water.
  4. Recycling of plastics shall be under taken strictly in accordance with the Bureau of Indian Standards specifications IS:14534:1988 entitled “The Guidelines for Recycling of Plastics”.

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