June 2018
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[pib] Declaration by the Government of Republic of India relating to Article II and III of the Appendix to the Paris Act (1971)


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: World Intellectual Property Organization, Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works

Mains level: India’s IPR policy and its compliance with global norms


Ratification of the Berne Convention

  1. The World Intellectual Property Organization has notified a declaration referring to the deposit by the Government of India, on October 7, 1974, of its instrument of ratification on the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works of September 9, 1886
  2. The Government of India availed itself of the faculties provided for the Article II and III of the Appendix to the Berne Convention
  3. The said declaration shall enter into force, with respect to the territory of the Republic of India, on March 28, 2018

Benefits to India

  1. The Article II of the Appendix would enable the Republic of India to substitute for the exclusive right of translation of a work, which has been published in printed or analogous forms of reproduction, granted by the competent authority, only for the purpose of teaching, scholarship or research
  2. The Article III of the Appendix would enable the Republic of India to Substitute for the exclusive right of reproduction of a work, which has been published either in printed or analogous forms of reproduction, or in audio-visual form of lawfully made audio-visual fixations, to publish an edition which has not been distributed / on sale for a period of six months, except when either the translations is not published by the owner of the right of translation or with his authorization, or when the translation is not in a language general in use in India


Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works

  1. The Berne Convention deals with the protection of works and the rights of their authors
  2. It is based on three basic principles and contains a series of provisions determining the minimum protection to be granted, as well as special provisions available to developing countries that want to make use of them
  3. The three basic principles are the following:

    (a) Works originating in one of the Contracting States (that is, works the author of which is a national of such a State or works first published in such a State) must be given the same protection in each of the other Contracting States as the latter grants to the works of its own nationals (principle of “national treatment”)

    (b) Protection must not be conditional upon compliance with any formality (principle of “automatic” protection)

    (c) Protection is independent of the existence of protection in the country of origin of the work (principle of “independence” of protection). If, however, a Contracting State provides for a longer term of protection than the minimum prescribed by the Convention and the work ceases to be protected in the country of origin, protection may be denied once protection in the country of origin ceases

  4. India has been the Member of Berne Convention since 28th April 1928
Intellectual Property Rights in India

Dhanush artillery gun clears final test, ready for induction

Dhanush artillery gun clears final test, ready for induction: official


Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | indigenization of technology & developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Dhanush artillery gun

Mains level: Army’s need for new types of equipment and their development in India


Final tests for Dhanush

  1. India’s first indigenous, long-range artillery gun “Dhanush” has passed its final test at Pokhran
  2. It is now ready for its induction into the Army

About Dhanush

  1. Dhanush is a 155mm x 45mm calibre artillery gun and is also called the “desi Bofors”
  2. It has a strike range of 38 kilometres and 81 percent of its components are indigenously sourced
  3. It has features like electronic gun-laying and sighting systems
  4. The gun has passed tests under severe cold conditions in Sikkim and Leh and in hot and humid weather in Balasore, Odisha, Babina in Jhansi and in the desert of Pokhran in Rajasthan
  5. The gun has been developed by the Ordnance Factory Board (OFB), Kolkata
  6. It is manufactured by the Jabalpur-based Gun Carriage Factory (GCF)
Indian Army Updates

PM Rojgar Protsahan Yojana: Government adding 5.5 lakh beneficiaries a month under scheme


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies & interventions for development in various sectors & issues arising out of their design & implementation

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Protsahan Yojana (PMRPY), Employees’ Pension Scheme (EPS), Universal Account Number (UAN)

Mains level: Employment opportunities in the organized & unorganized sector and government interventions for it


Positive response from the PMRPY scheme

  1. The government is adding about 5.5 lakh beneficiaries a month under the Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Protsahan Yojana (PMRPY)
  2. In March this year, the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved enhancing the scope of PMRPY scheme

About the scheme

  1. PMRPY scheme was started to incentivise employers for generation of new employment wherein the Government of India pays the employer’s contribution of Employees’ Pension Scheme (EPS) for the new employment
  2. Under the scheme, the government was paying the employers’ contribution of 8.33 percent of wages to the Employees’ Pension Scheme (EPS) for new employees having a new Universal Account Number (UAN) and who joined on or after April 1, 2016 with salary up to Rs 15,000 per month — for first three years
  3. The PMRPY scheme was started in August 2016
  4.  The scheme is aimed at incentivising increasing the employment base of workers in the establishments and facilitate access to social security benefits of the organised sector
Industrial Sector Updates – Industrial Policy, Ease of Doing Business, etc.

Archaeologists find pre-Columbian mass child sacrifice site in Peru

This June 8, 2018 picture shows the ongoing excavation at the “huaca” (temple), where a group of archaeologists has discovered the remains of over fifty children presumably sacrificed in a ritual of the pre-Columbian Chimu culture (900 AD to 1470 AD), on the northern coast of Peru in the district of Huanchaco, province of Trujillo.


Mains Paper 1: History | All syllabus

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Pre-Columbian Chimu culture

Mains level: Various civilizations across the world and their unique features


Pre Columbian remains

  1. A group of archaeologists has discovered the remains of more than 50 children who were ritually sacrificed by the pre-Columbian Chimu culture on the northern coast of what is now Peru
  2. The new sacrifice site was discovered in the Pamapa La Cruz area in Huanchaco, a coastal district of Trujillo, Peru’s third-largest city

Other similar places

  1. In Huanchaquito, the remains of over 140 children and 200 llamas slain some 550 years ago were discovered
  2. It reinforces the idea that Huanchaco was a place where massive sacrifices of children were made during the Chimu culture


Pre-Columbian Chimu culture

  1. The Chimú culture was centred on Chimor with the capital city of Chan Chan, a large adobe city in the Moche Valley of present-day Trujillo, Peru
  2. The culture arose about 900 AD, succeeding the Moche culture
  3. The Chimú people are best known for their distinctive monochromatic pottery and fine metal working of copper, gold, silver, bronze, and tumbaga (copper and gold)
  4. The pottery is often in the shape of a creature or has a human figure sitting or standing on a cuboid bottle
Historical and Archaeological Findings in News

Germany certain to win UN council seat, but contest in Asia


Mains Paper 2: IR | Important International institutions, agencies & fora, their structure, mandate

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: UNSC, Countries elected (mark on map)

Mains level: India’s claim for a permanent seat at UNSC and hurdles in it


UNSC elections

  1. Germany and Belgium are certain to win seats on the U.N. Security Council after Israel dropped out of the race last month
  2. The Maldives, a small island nation that has never been on the U.N.’s most powerful body, was vying for a seat against Indonesia, the world’s largest Muslim country, which has served on the council three times

UNSC structure

  1. The Security Council has five permanent members the United States, Russia, China, Britain and France
  2. 10 members are elected by the 193-member General Assembly for two-year terms
  3. Five countries are elected every year by secret ballot

Uncontested slates

  1. Candidates for non-permanent seats are chosen by regional groups
  2. The only contested race this year is for the Asia-Pacific group’s seat
  3. The other regions have uncontested slates, and their candidates are virtually assured of victory for two-year terms
  4. These are:
  • Belgium and Germany for the Western European and Others group of nations
  • South Africa for the Africa group
  • The Dominican Republic for the Latin America and Caribbean group
India’s Bid to a Permanent Seat at United Nations

U.S.-Japan-India-Australia Quad: New Delhi charts new line on Indo-Pacific policy

Image result for quad india us japan


Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional & global groupings & agreements involving India &/or affecting India’s interests

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Quad arrangement, Indo-pacific area (mark important places on map)

Mains level: India’s rising importance in Indo-pacific region to counter Chinese efforts of expansion


Different stand on Quad

  1. India does not consider the newly re-established quadrilateral format of U.S.-Japan-India-Australia as a part of its “Indo-Pacific” region policy
  2. The Quadrilateral format of U.S.-Japan-India-Australia is one of the many multilateral dialogues in the region, and not directed against any country


  1. The Quad arrangement came together in November 2017 in a joint effort to contain China’s aggressive actions in the South China Sea, and forays in India’s neighbourhood
Foreign Policy Watch: India-APEC