September 2018
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Greenhouse gas emissions from Indian paddy fields Very High: NY based Study


Mains Paper 1: Environment | Climate Change

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Highlights of the Study, CO2 Equivalents, GHGs

Mains level: The article comprehensively shows how agriculture impacts climate change.



  1. Rice farming across the world could be responsible for up to twice the level of climate impact relative to what was previously estimated, according to a study conducted in India.
  2. The study, published in PNAS, found that intermittently flooded rice farms can emit 45 times more nitrous oxide as compared to the maximum from continuously flooded farms that predominantly emit methane.

Highlights of the Study

  1. According to a global analysis by Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) in the US, methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice farms could have the same long-term warming impact as about 600 coal plants.
  2. The full climate impact of rice farming has been underestimated because nitrous dioxide emissions from intermittently flooded farms have not been included.
  3. The researchers investigated GHGs emission from rice farms across southern India.
  4. They found that nitrous oxide emissions from rice can contribute up to 99 % of the total climate impact of rice cultivation at a variety of intermittently flooded farms.
  5. These contribute to global warming far more than the estimate of 10% previously suggested by multiple global rice research organizations.

Methane emissions

  1. The researchers found an inverse correlation between methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice farming.
  2. Water and organic matter management techniques that reduce methane emissions can increase nitrous oxide emissions.
  3. This is crucial because nitrous oxide is a long-lived greenhouse gas that traps several times more heat in the atmosphere than methane over both 20 and 100-year time frames.

Impact of Rice Cultivation

  1. Rice is a critical source of nutrition for the world’s rapidly growing population, providing more calories to humans than any other food.
  2. However, growing rice is also resource-intensive: rice cultivation covers 11 % of the Earth’s arable land, consumes one-third of irrigation water.
  3. The researchers found that carefully chosen farming techniques can reduce net GHG emissions by as much as 90% by integrating shallow (mild-intermittent) flooding with co-management of nitrogen and organic matter.
  4. If all irrigated rice farmers only used the proposed shallow flooding instead of intense forms of intermittent flooding, estimates shows that the rice farms with irrigation have the potential to reduce their global climate impact by 60%.


CO2 equivalents

  1. Each greenhouse gas (GHG) has a different global warming potential (GWP) and persists for a different length of time in the atmosphere.
  2. The three main greenhouse gases (along with water vapour) and their 100-year global warming potential (GWP) compared to carbon dioxide are:
  • 1 x – carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • 25 x – methane (CH4) – I.e. Releasing 1 kg of CH4into the atmosphere is about equivalent to releasing 25 kg of CO2
  • 298 x – nitrous oxide (N2O)
  1. Water vapour is not considered to be a cause of man-made global warming because it does not persist in the atmosphere for more than a few days.
  2. There are other greenhouse gases which have far greater global warming potential (GWP) but are much less prevalent. These are sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and perfluorocarbons (PFCs).
  3. There are a wide variety of uses for SF6, HFCs, and PFCs but they have been most commonly used as refrigerants and for fire suppression.
  4. Many of these compounds also have a depleting effect on ozone in the upper atmosphere.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

India’s first missile tracking ship is readying for sea trials


Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Indigenization of technology & developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: VC 11184

Mains level: Modernization of Indian Navy


VC 11184

  1. This will be the first of its kind ocean surveillance ship being built as part of the efforts to strengthen the country’s strategic weapons programme.
  2. Its induction will put India in the elite of club of a few countries that have such a sophisticated ocean surveillance ship.
  3. It has the capacity to carry 300-strong crew with hi-tech gadgets and communication equipment, powered by two diesel engines, and a large deck capable of helicopter landing.
  4. The keel of the ship which was laid on June 30, 2014, is being built for the National Technical Research Organisation.
  5. This technical intelligence agency working directly under the supervision of the Prime Minister’s Office and the National Security Adviser.

Strategic Weapons Programme

  1. Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL) is gearing up to undertake sea trials of India’s first missile tracking ship by the first week of October.
  2. Visakhapatnam is considered a strategic location on the East Coast for the Indian defence forces as it is home for Ship Building Centre to build nuclear powered submarine INS Arihant class.
Indian Navy Updates

[op-ed snap] Dial a service


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Citizens charters, transparency & accountability & institutional & other measures

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Right to services act

Mains level: Implementation of citizen charters and how they can change governance dynamics in India


Delhi government’s scheme of home delivery of services

  1. Delhi government’s ambitious phone-a-sahayak scheme to get doorstep delivery of government services within a limited time frame is set to be an eye-catching exercise in urban-centric administration
  2. The scheme promises to offer 40 services at Rs 50 each and has roped in VFS, a global outsourcing agency, to execute it

Efficacy of the scheme

  1. The test of this new initiative will not be the range of services it offers
  2. It will depend on how efficiently it guides consumers past administrative red tapes, that often straitjacket such application procedures

Right to services act

  1. Recently, the Manipur government announced a single-window services centre in Imphal, to be operational from November, that will also include door-to-door delivery of government services
  2. In August 2010, Madhya Pradesh had become the first state in India to enact the RSA
  3. Several other states enacted similar laws to ensure delivery of services to residents
  4. Most states, however, have failed to fully capitalise on the RSA’s potential, meeting with moderate to poor success rates

Way Forward

  1. In a country where policy-making has largely addressed itself to and focussed upon the rural electorate, the Delhi government’s endeavour indicates a recognition of the changing dynamics of new India, where urban migration is fast reworking the rules of engagement between the metropolitan and the rural
  2. The success of this new scheme could contribute to the still-evolving template of urban politics in a fast urbanising country

Small loans could turn bad: Rajan


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: PMMY

Mains level: Problem of NPAs 



  1. Former RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan has cautioned that the next crisis in India’s banking sector could come from loans given to the unorganised micro and small businesses, called MUDRA loans, and credit extended through the Kisan credit card.
  2. MUDRA loans are offered under the Prime Minister Mudra Yojana launched in 2015 by the NDA government.
  3. A total of Rs. 6.37 lakh crore has been disbursed under the scheme by public and private sector banks, regional rural banks and micro-finance institutions till date, as per data from the MUDRA website.

Other Suggestions

  1. In a note on NPAs, Rajan said the government should refrain from setting ambitious credit targets or from waiving loans.
  2. Both MUDRA loans as well as the Kisan Credit Card, while popular, have to be examined more closely for potential credit risk.
  3. He also flagged the Credit Guarantee Scheme for MSMEs, run by the SIDBI calling it “a growing contingent liability” that needs to be examined with urgency.
  4. A large number of bad loans originated in the period 2006-2008 when economic growth was strong the banks are more prone to make mistakes.


Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana

  1. PMMY is a flagship scheme of Government of India to enable a small enterprise come into the formal financial system and get affordable credit to run his/ her business.
  2. Any Indian Citizen who has a business plan for a non-farm sector income generating activity
  3. Credit need: Less than Rs 10 lakh
  4. Under the aegis of PMMY, MUDRA has already created the following products / schemes.
  • Shishu : covering loans upto 50,000/-
  • Kishor : covering loans above 50,000/- and upto 5 lakh
  • Tarun : covering loans above 5 lakh and upto 10 lakh
  1. There is no subsidy for the loan given under PMMY. However, if the loan proposal is linked some Government scheme, wherein the Government is providing capital subsidy, it will be eligible under PMMY also.

MUDRA Bank and its role in the MUDRA Yojana

  1. MUDRA Bank = Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency Bank
  2. The Rs 20,000 crore MUDRA Bank aims to provide refinancing to small and medium enterprises, particularly those from SC & ST
  3. The idea is to refinance micro-finance institutions through Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana
  4. This bank would be responsible for regulating and refinancing all MFIs which are in the business of lending to MSME
NPA Crisis

UN sees 70% chance of El Nino event this year

Image Source


Mains Paper 1: Geography | Salient features of World’s Physical Geography

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: El Nino, La Nino and ENSO

Mains level: Impact of El-Nino



  1. The UN said an El Nino event that could disrupt global weather is likely by the end of this year.
  2. The World Meteorological Organisation forecast a 70% chance of an El Nino developing by the end of this year.


  1. ENSO is nothing but El Nino Southern Oscillation.
  2. It is an irregular periodic variation of wind and sea surface temperature that occurs over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.
  3. ENSO affects the tropics (the regions surrounding the equator) and the subtropics (the regions adjacent to or bordering the tropics).
  4. This warming phase of ENSO is called El Nino, while the cooling phase is known as La Nina.
  5. An El Nino or La Nina episode lasts nine to 12 months. Some may prolong for years.
  6. Its average frequency is every 2 to 7 years. El Nino is more frequent than La Nina.

What characterizes El-Nino?

  1. El Nino is a climatic cycle characterized by high air pressure in the Western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern.
  2. In normal conditions, strong trade winds travel from east to west across the tropical Pacific, pushing the warm surface waters towards the western Pacific.
  3. The surface temperature could witness an increase of 8 degrees Celsius in Asian waters.
  4. At the same time, cooler waters rise up towards the surface in the eastern Pacific on the coasts of Ecuador, Peru, and Chile. This process called upwelling aids in the development of a rich ecosystem.

What are its causes?

  1. El Nino sets in when there is anomaly in the pattern.
  2. The westward-blowing trade winds weaken along the Equator and due to changes in air pressure, the surface water moves eastwards to the coast of northern South America.
  3. The central and eastern Pacific regions warm up for over six months and result in an El Nino condition and the temperature of the water could rise up to 10 degrees Fahrenheit above normal.
  4. Warmer surface waters increase precipitation and bring above-normal rainfall in South America, and droughts to Indonesia and Australia.

Effects of El-Nino

  1. El Nino favors eastern Pacific hurricanes and tropical storms. Record and unusual rainfall in Peru, Chile and Ecuador are linked to the climate pattern.
  2. El Nino reduces upwelling of cold water, decreasing the uplift of nutrients from the bottom of the ocean. This affects marine life and sea birds. The fishing industry is also affected.
  3. Drought and warming caused by El Nino can be widespread, affecting southern Africa, India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands.
  4. A recent WHO report on the health consequences of El Nino forecasts a rise in vector-borne diseases, including those spread by mosquitoes, in Central and South America.
  5. Cycles of malaria in India are also linked to El Nino.

Why is it a concern?

  1. From the current study, we learn that El Nino can exacerbate global warming and hence the process could become a vicious circle.
  2. A recent study that analysed data collected by NASA’s satellite, found that the massive event resulted in the release of over 3 billion tonnes of carbon into the atmosphere.
  3. This in turn pushed the carbon-dioxide concentration in the atmosphere to record levels.

La Nina

  1. La Nina is a climate pattern that describes the cooling of surface ocean waters along the tropical west coast of South America. It is considered to have the opposite effect of El Nino.
  2. It brings greater than normal rainfall in Southeast Asia and Australia, and causes drier-than-normal conditions in South America and the Gulf Coast of the United States.
  3. La Nina events sometimes follow El Nino events.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[pib] “Rail Sahyog” web portal


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways, etc.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Rail Sahyog Portal

Mains level: ICT initiatives by Indian Railways



The Minister of Railways and Coal has launched a web portal Rail Sahyog to provide a platform for the Corporates and PSUs to contribute to creation of amenities at/near Railway Stations through CSR funds.

Rail Sahyog Portal

  1. The portal has been envisaged as a platform for all including individuals as also private & public organisation to contribute towards CSR activities in association with Indian Railways.
  2. The companies desirous of contributing can show willingness on the portal by registering their requests which will be processed by Railway officials.
  3. This portal will provide an opportunity for Industry/ Companies/ Associations to collaborate with Railways. Individuals, Private companies have the freedom to execute projects in Railways.
  4. The main focus is on ensuring creation of good quality assets through this collaboration.

CSR Funded activities in Railways

  • Construction of toilets in circulating areas of all stations with provision of low cost sanitary pad vending machine & incinerator in female toilets and contraceptives vending machine in male toilets and initial one year maintenance.
  • Providing free Wi-Fi at stations through setting up Hotspots.
  • Provision of Benches at station Platforms as facility for senior citizens/disabled.
  • Bottle crushing machines at 2175 major stations for ensuring environmental sustainability.
  • Dustbins at all stations for Swachh Bharat will help in preventing littering around.
  • Separate dustbins for wet/dry waste need to be provided at circulating area of Station and Platforms.
Railway Reforms

[op-ed snap] A perilous edge


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Mobilization of resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Symptoms of Asian financial flu in Indian economy and measures that can be taken to stem it


More and more companies going bankrupt

  1. Indian industry is in meltdown
  2. Seventy-eight of the largest companies in India are facing dissolution under the Bankruptcy Code
  3. Twenty have been declared insolvent and sent to the National Company Law Tribunal for dissolution. Thirty more, all in the power sector, will also be sent to the guillotine
  4. Loan defaults by small companies have also doubled in the past year, signalling an imminent crisis in that sector as well

Is it only companies fault?

  1. Most of the companies on the chopping block had dared to invest in infrastructure projects
  2. The reason they did so was that the public sector was no longer doing it
  3. This concentration of failure in the most capital-intensive projects, and the sheer pervasiveness of the collapse shows that the cause is not confined to individual delinquents, but systemic
  4. A systemic collapse can only result from a systemic failure

RBI’s policy to be blamed

  1. In India, the RBI has dealt with it by imposing and then maintaining a regime of very high interest rates for industrial borrowers since 2010, regardless of the rate of inflation
  2. It did this when inflation measured by the time-honoured wholesale price index was 8 per cent
  3. It has persisted with this over the past four years when WPI inflation has been close to zero
  4. To justify this, three governors of the RBI in succession have argued that price stability will automatically lead to growth
  5. They have cited IMF staff papers and other studies that have claimed to show that high rates of inflation do not raise the rate of economic growth, but actually lower it

Need for inflation

  1. There is a compelling theoretical and empirical evidence that some inflation has to accompany industrialisation because it requires the diversion of a part of the income of the economy from producing consumer goods to capital goods
  2. South Korea had an average inflation rate of 21 per cent during the three decades in which it became an industrial powerhouse, and China has done so only with the help of stringent price controls on essentials

Why RBI targets inflation?

  1. A fundamental reason is imperative to keep the exchange rate stable
  2. This quest has not only killed the real economy but created an imbalance between India’s foreign exchange debt and its reserves that has brought international hedge funds into the Indian money market
  3. This has arisen because when the RBI raised the average domestic borrowing rate by 3 per cent in 2007-8 and did so a second time in 2010-11, it drove heavy industry and infrastructure companies to foreign capital markets, where unhedged loans were available for as little as 3 per cent
  4. Between 2008 and March 2015, around 300 of India’s largest companies borrowed Rs 4.5 lakh crore ($680 billion) abroad, mostly with maturity periods ranging from three to 20 years

Effect on Indian economy

  1. Between March 2014 and March 2015, borrowings increased by $181.9 billion
  2. This raised India’s outstanding external debt by 38 per cent to $580 billion
  3. A large part of the new debt was not hedged against the risk of a fall in the value of the rupee
  4. As a result, in 2015, 59 per cent of the $580 billion was vulnerable to devaluation
  5. What India is experiencing is a mild version of Thailand’s economic collapse in 1997, which triggered the “Asian financial flu”

How to stop further decline 

  1. The only way to stem the collapse is to lower the borrowing rate for loans with five or more years’ maturity to 4 per cent or less
  2. This will allow embattled infrastructure and heavy industries to refinance their loans and revive the demand for consumer durables and office equipment
  3. The revival of these sectors, and of housing, will greatly improve the viability of the massive restructuring of debt by the public sector banks in the past three years

Way Forward

  1. Every day that the rupee depreciates, increases the repayment obligations of companies loaded with foreign debt and weakens their capacity to respond positively to measures designed to revive economic growth
  2. One more attempt to avoid domestic collapse by propping up interest rates will bring on the foreign exchange crisis that the government is mistakenly trying to avert through monetary policy alone
NPA Crisis

[pib] Health Ministry issues a notification for bringing the HIV/AIDS Act, 2017 in force


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the Act

Mains level: Preventing discrimination against HIV/AIDS positive persons.



  1. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has issued a notification for bringing the HIV AIDS (Prevention and Control) Act, 2017 in force from 10th September, 2018.
  2. The Act safeguards the rights of people living with HIV and affected by HIV.

Provisions of the Act

  1. The provisions of the Act address HIV-related discrimination, strengthen the existing programme by bringing in legal accountability, and establish formal mechanisms for inquiring into complaints and redressing grievances.
  2. The Act lists various grounds on which discrimination against HIV positive persons and those living with them is prohibited.
  3. These include the denial, termination, discontinuation or unfair treatment with regard to:
  • employment
  • educational establishments
  • health care services
  • residing or renting property
  • standing for public or private office
  • provision of insurance
  1. The requirement for HIV testing as a pre-requisite for obtaining employment or accessing health care or education is also prohibited.

Other Provisions

  1. Every HIV infected or affected person below the age of 18 years has the right to reside in a shared household and enjoy the facilities of the household.
  2. The Act also prohibits any individual from publishing information or advocating feelings of hatred against HIV positive persons and those living with them.
  3. A person between the age of 12 to 18 years who has sufficient maturity in understanding and managing the affairs of his HIV or AIDS affected family shall be competent to act as a guardian of another sibling below 18 years of age.
  4. Every person in the care and custody of the state shall have right to HIV prevention, testing, treatment and counseling services.


Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

[pib] Model International Center for Transformative AI (ICTAI)


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: International Center for Transformative Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI)

Mains level: Building AI ecosystem in India


Private Collaboration for AI Projects

  1. NITI Aayog, Intel, and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) has the collaboration to set up a Model International Center for Transformative Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI) towards developing and deploying AI-led application-based research projects.
  2. This initiative is part of NITI Aayog’s ‘National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence’ Discussion Paper that focuses on establishing ICTAI in the country through private sector collaboration.

International Center for Transformative Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI)

  1. Based in Bengaluru, the Model ICTAI aims to conduct advanced research to incubate AI-led solutions in three important areas – healthcare, agriculture and smart mobility – by bringing together the expertise of Intel and TIFR.
  2. It aims to experiment, discover and establish best practices in the domains of ICTAI governance, fundamental research, physical infrastructure, compute and service infrastructure needs, and talent acquisition.
  3. The model ICTAI is chartered to develop AI foundational frameworks, tools and assets, including curated datasets and unique AI algorithms.
  4. The intent is to develop standards and support policy development related to information technology such as data-storage, information security, privacy, and ethics for data capture and use.

Other focus areas

  1. Another key area of its focus will be collaboration with industry leaders, startups, and AI services and product companies to productize technologies and IP that are developed at the model ICTAI.
  2. And finally, the goal is to support skilling and talent development for world-class AI talent.
  3. The learning and best practices developed through this model ICTAI will be used by NITI Aayog to set up the future ICTAIs across country.

[pib] India focus country in Izmir International Trade Show


Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Source India Pavilion, Izmir International Trade Show

Mains level: India-Turkey Bilateral Relations


Izmir International Trade Show

  1. The Trade Promotion Council of India (TPCI) led a75-member Indian delegation for the ongoing 87th Izmir International Trade Show in Turkey.
  2. The delegation had several B2B meetings and business tie-ups with members of the Turkish business community.

Source India Pavilion

  1. India is the Focus Country in the trade show with a standalone pavilion named ‘Source India’.
  2. The India Pavilion is a multi-product pavilion, including companies displaying products like ceramics, cereals and mechanical appliances.
  3. These events serve the purpose of opening new areas for co-operation in trade and investment between India and the rest of the world.

India- Turkey Trade

  1. Bilateral trade between the two countries was $7 billion in 2017, an increase of 8% over the previous year.
  2. There is a huge potential for tie-ups between Indian and Turkish agriculture and food processing sectors.
  3. The collaborations may range from farming technology, high yielding varieties, farm machinery, food processing and cold storage.


Trade Promotion Council of India (TPCI)

  1. TPCI is an apex trade and investment promotion organization notified in the Foreign Trade Policy. TPCI is also recognized and supported by the Department of Commerce, Govt. of India.
  2. It provides policy suggestions which are essentially based on inputs collated from research and industry stakeholders.
  3. Aim: To accelerate India’s global trade through advanced research and trade promotion.
  4. Working: Creating global platform for the industry by organizing seminars, trade shows and business delegations through measures usch as-
  • Advanced Trade Research:- Supporting India’s trade policy and economic diplomacy through research.
  • Trade Promotion:- Exploring international trade opportunities in untapped markets and promoting new exporters.
  • Trade Facilitation:- Identifying bottlenecks and bridging the gap between industry and authority by continuous interaction.
  • Investment Promotion:- Exploring scope and facilitating investment in potential business and sectors.
Foreign Policy Watch- India-Central Asia

[op-ed snap] Technology for better case management


Mains Paper 2: Polity | Structure, organization & functioning of the Executive & the Judiciary

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Rising pendency in the judiciary and ways to reduce it


Pending cases in the judiciary

  1. With over 27 million cases pending in subordinate courts across the country, there is a need to look beyond traditional summary statistics
  2. At the national conference on “Initiatives to Reduce Pendency and Delays in Judicial System” in July, the Chief Justice of India spoke about the immense pendency in courts and measures to tackle it
  3. He highlighted the need for effective case management

Case management suggestions

  1. Monitor the progress of cases based on urgency and the type of case
  2. Time limits to dispose certain types of cases
  3. Not allow dilution of statutorily prescribed timelines or guidelines for adjournments
  4. Understand why some courts perform well despite a shortage of judges and adopt such courts as role models
  5. Committees at the high court level to be more proactive and functional

SC initiatives

  1. The Supreme Court pushed for the implementation of case flow management rules in 2005
  2. These rules provide timelines for the disposal of cases based on their subject matter and mandate a bifurcation of cases listed for the day into two lists
  • the first list to be called before the judge on substantive matters
  • the second list to be called by the registrar or deputy registrar on procedural matters

Gaps in implementation

  1. The first gap is the accurate recording of required court data
  2. The second gap is with regard to systems that make such monitoring possible

How to address these gaps?

  1. It is of utmost importance that the right tools be used to systematically and continuously analyse the data to keep the judges informed of the progress of cases pending before them
  2. Technological interventions can also be made to ensure that cases are listed before judges in a scientific manner and take into consideration certain parameters, such as the age of the case, the subject matter, the number of days between each hearing, and the timeline within which it has to be disposed
  3. The right analytics tools can also be developed in a manner that helps the judges monitor cases based on parameters such as how long an accused has been in judicial custody, cases that can affect the general public or cases that have been long pending due to the accused remaining absconding
  4. The head of each court establishment—either the principal district and sessions judge or the chief justice of a high court will need to take ownership of monitoring the court data and driving necessary changes

Way Forward

  1. There is a need to enable effective monitoring, curb repeated adjournments, and bring to fruition established timelines
  2. The digitization of case records has now opened up avenues for the use of technology in ensuring a smooth flow of cases
  3. Even the best tools and technology will be unable to bring about any change without the requisite human intervention to push people in the system towards better practices
Judicial Pendency