Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Kordylewski clouds, Lagrange Points
Mains level: Various space missions and their objectives
Three Moons for Earth
- The existence of the two extra ‘moons’ was hotly debated for over 50 years but as per a recent National Geographic report, Hungarian astronomers and physicists have finally provided enough data to confirm.
- The moon has at least two other companions made entirely of dust.
- The team of researchers confirmed their presence through photographs of the natural bodies at a distance of approximately 250,000 miles more or less the same distance as our moon.
Facts about the newly discovered dust moons
- The presence of the dust ‘moons’ or Kordylewski Clouds had been inferred by researchers since long before
- The first glimpse of the clouds was seen only in 1961 by Polish astronomer Kazimierz Kordylewski, after whom the dust clouds were named
- The new findings note that each Kordylewski cloud is about 15 by 10 degrees wide, or equal to 30 by 20 lunar disks in the night sky
- They are spread over a space area that is almost nine times the width of Earth — about 65,000 by 45,000 miles in actual size
- The dust ‘moons’ are huge but they are made of tiny dust particles that barely measure one micrometre across
How to spot them?
- When sunlight hits the dust particles, they glow very faintly, much like the zodiacal light we receive from the dust scattered in between planetary orbits
- Since these satellite dust clouds emit an extremely faint light, they are very difficult to find amidst the star light, sky glow, galactic light and zodiacal light in the sky
- The recent study revealing the existence of the two dust ‘moons’ used special polarizing filters on cameras to reveal the scattered light coming from the reflection of the individual dust particles in the clouds
Kordylewski clouds are always changing
- The Kordylewski clouds are always changing.
- They might be stable in orbit and may have existed for millions of years, but the ingredients that make the clouds the dust particles are always getting swapped for others.
- Some escape to gravitational pulls from Earth or the moon, while others come from interplanetary spaces and meteor showers
How Lagrange points in space helped find the extra ‘moons’
- Speculations about Earth having multiple moons have taken turns in astronomer circles for years.
- It was realized that if extra moons did exist, they could only do so in stable points in Earth’s orbit.
- Lagrange points are sweet spots in a planetary orbit where the pull of gravity working from two opposing celestial bodies is balanced due to the centripetal force of their orbits.
- Thus, an object at a Lagrange point will remain fixed at a constant distance from both the moon and Earth.
- In the 1950s, Kordylewski searched two Lagrange points L4 and L5 where he found the first glimpse of the two dust clouds orbiting Earth.
Aspect associated with Dust Clouds
- These huge clouds of dust could add much to space exploration efforts when it comes to fuel consumption and safety issues.
- Sometimes, satellites need to be parked at the Lagrange points so that the spacecraft consumes minimal fuel and can still stay in orbit.
- The James Webb Space Telescope will be set up at the L2 Lagrange point in 2020 for this purpose.
- Moreover, space agencies are also planning to use Lagrange points as transfer stations for Mars missions.