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[pib] Kimberley Process

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional & global groupings & agreements involving India &/or affecting India’s interests

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Kimberley Process

Mains level: International collaboration against illegal trade of Diamonds


News

Kimberley Process

  1. The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) is the process established in 2000 to prevent conflict diamonds from entering the mainstream rough diamond market.
  2. It was ruled by UNGA Resolution 55/56 following recommendations in the Fowler Report.
  3. The process was set up to ensure that diamond purchases were not financing violence by rebel movements and their allies seeking to undermine legitimate governments.

Why in news?

  1. The KPCS Plenary 2018, was held in Brussels, Belgium in November 2018 and EU handed over the chair of KPCS to India from January, 2019.
  2. The next session is slated to be held in India as Chair. Botswana and the Russian Federation will serve as Vice-Chair during the period of 2019-2020.

India and KPCS

  1. India is the founding member of KPCS and is actively involved in KP activities to ensure that almost 99% of the diamond trade in the world is conflict free.
  2. India is committed to maintain KP as an efficient and effective process in order to ensure the conflict diamond free status.
  3. India is at the forefront in addressing the issue of differentiation between Natural Diamonds and Lab Grown Diamonds and ensure responsible business in this area.
  4. India chaired the Ad hoc Committee on Review and Reform (AHCRR).

Importance of KPCS

  1. This year was the fifteenth anniversary of KPCS. Since its launch in 2003, the Kimberley Process has contributed towards peace, security and prosperity.
  2. It has proven to be an effective multilateral tool for conflict prevention in stemming the flow of conflict diamonds.
  3. The Kimberley Process has made valuable developmental impact in improving the lives of most people dependent on the trade in diamonds.
Trade Sector Updates – Falling Exports, TIES, MEIS, Foreign Trade Policy, etc.

FSSAI launches awareness drive on trans fats

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Eat Right Movement, Swastha Bharat Yatra, Heart Attack Rewind

Mains level: Read the attached story.


News

  • The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has launched a new mass media campaign in order to create awareness about trans fats and eliminate them in India by 2022.

Heart Attack Rewind

  1. It is a 30-second public service announcement to be broadcast in 17 languages for a period of four weeks on YouTube, Facebook, Hotstar, and Voot.
  2. It will also be placed on outdoor hoardings and run on radio stations in Delhi and the National Capital Region.
  3. The campaign will warn citizens about the health hazards of consuming trans fats and offer strategies to avoid them through healthier alternatives.
  4. This campaign will concentrate on the demand side (consumers), who in turn, will push the supply side (food manufacturers) to come up with various strategies in order to reduce and later replace trans fats.

What are Trans Fats?

  1. Artificial Trans fats are created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid.
  2. Since they are easy to use, inexpensive to produce and last a long time, and give foods a desirable taste and texture, they are still widely used despite their harmful effects being well-known.

Why this move?

  1. Studies have recently shown that 60,000 deaths occur every year due to cardiovascular diseases, which in turn are caused due to high consumption of trans fats.
  2. Since the impact of trans fats on human health is increasing exponentially, it is very important to create awareness about them.

Other FSSAI Initiatives

  1. Heart Attack Rewind is a follow-up to an earlier campaign called “Eat Right”, which was launched on July 11, 2018.
  2. As part of the campaign, edible oil industries took a pledge to reduce trans fat content by 2 per cent by 2022.
  3. Later, food companies also took a pledge to reformulate packaged foods with reduced levels of salt, sugar and saturated fat.
  4. Swasth Bharat Yatra, an initiative started under the “Eat Right” campaign which started on October 16 and will end on January 27, 2019, will also seek to create awareness among citizens about trans fats.

A Move to adopt WHO guidelines

  1. In May this year, the WHO released a step-by-step guide for the elimination of industrially-produced trans-fatty acids from the global food supply.
  2. Since then, a lot of countries have made efforts to reduce the levels of trans fats and in some cases, have completely banned them.
  3. India is also moving towards same by first reducing the levels from 5 per cent to 2 per cent and then altogether by 2022.
Food Safety Standards – FSSAI, food fortification, etc.

G20 summit: India presents 9-point agenda on fugitive economic offenders

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: IR | Important International institutions, agencies & fora, their structure, mandate.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: G-20

Mains level: International Cooperation to counter Fugitive Economic Offenders


News

  • Nineteen leaders of the world’s biggest economies and a representative of the European Union are set to meet on Friday and Saturday in Buenos Aries, Argentina as part of the Group of 20 summit.

9 Point Agenda

  1. India has presented a nine-point agenda to G20 member nations calling for strong and active cooperation among them to comprehensively deal with fugitive economic offenders.
  2. The agenda was presented by PM Modi in the second session of the G20 Summit on international trade, international financial and tax systems.
  3. The agenda rules for cooperation in legal processes such as effective freezing of the proceeds of crime, early return of the offenders and efficient repatriation of the proceeds of crime should be enhanced and streamlined.
  4. The G-20 forum should consider initiating work on locating properties of economic offenders who have a tax debt in the country of their residence for its recovery.

Call for Joint efforts

  1. India also called for joint efforts by G-20 countries to form a mechanism that denies entry and safe havens to fugitive economic offenders.
  2. Principles of United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (UNOTC), especially related to ‘International Cooperation’ should be fully and effectively implemented asked India at the summit.

Greater role for FATF

  1. India suggested the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) should be called upon to assign priority and focus to establishing international cooperation that leads to timely and comprehensive exchange of information between the competent authorities and financial intelligence units.
  2. FATF should be tasked to formulate a standard definition of fugitive economic offenders.
  3. FATF should also develop a set of commonly agreed and standardized procedures related to identification, extradition and judicial proceedings for dealing with fugitive economic offenders.

Back2Basics

G-20

  1. G-20 is made up of 19 countries and the EU.
  2. The countries are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States.
  3. The other invited members are Chile, Netherlands, Spain and representatives of regional groups of Jamaica, Rwanda, Singapore and Senegal.
  4. G-20 members represent 75% of international trade, half of foreign direct investment flows, half of foreign flows and 80% of global production.
G20 : Economic Cooperation ahead

Private Members Bill

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Polity | Parliament & State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges & issues arising out of these

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Private member’s bill, Parliamentary procedures related to passing of bills

Mains level: Various provisions in constitution to empower democracy


News

  • A Member of Parliament has recently said that he would bring a Private Member Bill in the Lok Sabha for the construction of a Temple.

Private member’s bill

  1. Members of Parliament other than ministers are called private members and bills presented by them are known as private member’s bills.
  2. A private member bill can be introduced by both ruling party and opposition MPs.
  3. They can introduce a bill in the parliament after giving prior notice of one month.
  4. The bill needs to be passed in both houses of parliament.
  5. Once passed in both the houses, bill needs to get assent of the president to become an act.
  6. By set tradition, President can easily exercise his absolute veto power against such bills.
  7. In Lok Sabha, the last two and a half hours of a sitting on every Friday are generally allotted for transaction of “Private Members’ Business”, i.e., Private Members’ Bills and Private Members’ Resolutions.

UNESCO lists wrestling, reggae and raiho-shin rituals under “intangible heritage”

Note4students

Mains Paper 1: Arts and Culture| Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Intangible Cultural Heritage mentioned in the newscard

Mains level: India’s rich cultural treasure and ways to preserve it


News

  • Jamaican reggae, Georgian wrestling and Japanese rituals are among the six new elements added by UN cultural agency UNESCO to its list of “intangible heritage” for the world to treasure.

Chidaoba Wrestling

  1. From the border between Asia and Europe, in Georgia, it added Chidaoba, which combines elements of wrestling, music, dance and special garments.
  2. The practice encourages a healthy lifestyle and plays an important role in intercultural dialogue, according to UNESCO, which called its code of conduct “chivalric”.
  3. It noted that occasionally the wrestlers leave the arena with a Georgian folk dance.

Jamaican Reggae

  1. It is a style of popular music with a strongly accented subsidiary beat, originating in Jamaica.
  2. It became widely known in the 1970s through the work of Bob Marley; its lyrics are much influenced by Rastafarian ideas.
  3. Reggae contributes to international discourse on issues of injustice, resistance, love and humanity underscores the dynamics of the element as being at once cerebral, socio-political, sensual and spiritual.

Japan’s Raiho-shin rituals

  1. They are used to admonish laziness and teach children good behavior.
  2. Stemming from folk beliefs that deities visit communities and usher in the new year or season, local people dress in outlandish costumes and visit houses as deities.
  3. By performing the rituals, local people — notably children — have their identities moulded, develop a sense of affiliation to their community, and strengthen ties among themselves.

Back2Basics

Intangible Cultural Heritage

  1. The term ‘cultural heritage’ has changed content considerably in recent decades, partially owing to the instruments developed by UNESCO.
  2. Cultural heritage does not end at monuments and collections of objects.
  3. It also includes traditions or living expressions inherited from our ancestors and passed on to our descendants, such as oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, rituals, festive events, knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and skills to produce traditional crafts.

9 Indian Arts in the UNESCO’s List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage

UNESCO

  1. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
  2. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms etc.
  3. UNESCO implements its activities through the five programme areas: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information.
  4. It designates projects and places of cultural and scientific significance, such as:
  • Global Geoparks Network
  • Biosphere reserves (Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB), since 1971)
  • City of Literature
  • Endangered languages and linguistic diversity projects
  • Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
  • Memory of the World International Register, since 1997
  • Water resources management (International Hydrological Programme (IHP), since 1965)
  • World Heritage sites
  • World Digital Library
Festivals, Dances, Theatre, Literature, Art in News