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[op-ed snap] A single-party majority govt was the unique factor of the 16th Lok Sabha

Note4Students

Mains Paper 2: Polity | Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Basic knowledge of working of 16th Lok Sabha.

Mains level: The news-card analyses the performance of 16th Lok Sabha, in a brief manner.


Context

  • The 16th Lok Sabha, which adjourned on 13th Feb 2019, was notable for the fact that it saw a single party take majority in the House.

Background

  • A single-party majority government was in office for the first time in 30 years—the key factor lending uniqueness to this Lok Sabha.
  • It came after a long line of coalitions between 1989 and 2014.
  • The 16th Lok Sabha saw a single party getting a majority with 282 seats and with the support of allies that number going up to more than 300.

In terms of performance, 16th Lok Sabha did not distinguish itself much

  • There were legislation like the goods and services tax (GST) Bill which were passed.
  • The high point of this Lok Sabha was the midnight session of Parliament to mark the coming into effect of GST.
  • There was also the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code and the Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill that will be counted among major Bills passed by this Lok Sabha.
  • These will be seen as useful in terms of setting the economy on a sound track.
  • However, if one were to look at legislation passed in terms of the prime minister’s slogan of “Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas” or inclusive development, the record of this Lok Sabha has been disappointing.
  • There have been too few laws passed that make an impact such as constitutional amendments or in terms of legislation on social issues.

Very few legislations for inclusive development

  • It is disappointment to thinking people that at the end of five years the government is not any closer to the dream of inclusive development.
  • However, two legislations—the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill or triple talaq Bill and the Bill to provide 10% reservation for economically weaker sections of society—could come into the above category of inclusive.
  • But experts would contend that these are rather controversial.
  • The former deals with a civil issue which is marriage and divorce and divorcing ones’s wife by uttering talaq thrice has been made a criminal offence.
  • In the case of the latter, reservations were brought in to remove social backwardness in society, or empowering those kept out of the power system.
  • With the 10% reservation for economically backward sections of society, the government has moved away from the fundamental precept for which reservations were conceived in the first place.

Trend of disruption of house continued

  • Another thing we saw in this Lok Sabha is the trend of disruptions that has continued from the past few Lok Sabha sessions.
  • In fact, it was seen to have become worse in the 16th Lok Sabha.
  • Some sessions of the current Lok Sabha were completely lost to disruptions.
  • Last year’s budget was passed without any discussion.
  • Usually the finance Bill is something on which there is debate and discussion. Members suggest or move amendments.
  • But last year, the budget was not subject to scrutiny.

No dialogue between the ruling party and the opposition

  • The responsibility of ensuring that the House runs and business is conducted rests on the ruling party.
  • Unfortunately, in this Lok Sabha, there was no dialogue between the ruling party and the opposition.
  • We have seen leaders in the past like Indira Gandhi, who had scant respect for the opposition, reach out to them to ensure the House runs smoothly.
  • There would be a dialogue with the opposition and, as a result, there would be cooperation on important legislation getting passed.
  • The opposition parties would be given time to speak.
  • The opposition, too, would do their research, and put the government on the mat.

Conclusion

  • In the current Lok Sabha, there is an impression of a complete breakdown of dialogue between the ruling party and the opposition.
  • There is an impression that the government does not want debate or discussion.
  • The ruling party has to be sensitive to the grievances of the opposition.

Back2Basics

Adjournment: An adjournment suspends the work in a sitting for a specified time, which may be hours, days or weeks. In this case, the time of reassembly is specified. An adjournment only terminates a sitting and not a session of the House. The power of adjournment lies with the presiding officer of the House.

Adjournment Sine Die: Adjournment sine die means terminating a sitting of Parliament for an indefinite period. In other words, when the House is adjourned without naming a day for reassembly, it is called adjournment sine die. The power of adjournment sine die lies with the presiding officer of the House.

Prorogation: Prorogation means the termination of a session of the House by an order made by the President under article 85(2)(a) of the Constitution. Prorogation terminates both the sitting and session of the House. Usually, within a few days after the House is adjourned sine die by the presiding officer, the President issues a notification for the prorogation of the session. However, the President can also prorogue the House while in session.

Dissolution: A dissolution ends the very life of the existing House, and a new House is constituted after general elections are held.  Rajya Sabha, being a permanent House, is not subject to dissolution. Only the Lok Sabha is subject to dissolution.

Note: When the Lok Sabha is dissolved, all business including bills, motions, resolutions, notices, petitions and so on pending before it or its committees lapse.

Legislative Council in States: Issues & Way Forward

[op-ed snap] Exam and Peace

Note4Students

Mains Paper 2: Social Justice| Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Basic knowledge of Education system in India.

Mains level: The news-card analyses the issues with the education system in India, in a brief manner.


Context

  • As the board examinations approach, the dialectic of “success” and “failure” will begin to haunt young learners and their anxiety-ridden parents.

About

  • The pattern of education we have normalised is inherently pathological.
  • The creation of a violent/hierarchical/schooled consciousness seems to be its latent function.
  • Even though an empathic look at the educational ideals of Rabindranath Tagore, Sri Aurobindo and J Krishnamurti would suggest that there is no dearth of critical and creative thinking on liberating pedagogy.
  • However, we dislike experimentation and new possibilities, and make a superficial distinction between “pragmatism” and “idealism”.

Glorifying the success stories, stigma of “failure”

  • People have become used to the routinisation of the practice of glorifying the “success stories” of the “toppers”.
  • And at the same time, inviting the psychiatrists on television channels to reflect on the “suicide narratives” of those who could not bear the stigma of “failure”.

Meanwhile, everything would function as usual

  • the practice of “black education” would flourish in coaching centres,
  • the publishers of “guide books” would make a lot of money, and
  • school principals heavily burdened with the “ranking” of their schools would alert insecure parents of “problematic” children that in the age of inflated “cut off points” for admission in “branded” colleges, the future is bleak without 99 per cent marks in some subjects.

Why is it so?

There are three reasons:

  1. Here is a system that closes the mind of the young learner, and abhors the desirability of making meaningful choices relating to academic quest and vocation.
  • How are choices possible if schools have already hierarchised knowledge traditions i.e. Science or economics for the “intelligent” ones, and humanities for the “leftovers”.
  • Or does the child ever get the space to contemplate on her own inclinations and aptitudes at a time when peer pressure negates self-reflection and generates a crowd mentality.
  • Or when struggling parents have already decided that she has to pass through the most travelled “Aakash/Fitjee/IIT” highway, and all other paths are “risky” and “impractical”.

Strange classification of academic disciplines

  • Moreover, we have promoted a strange classification of academic disciplines.
  • It is impossible for one to opt for, say, Physics, History and Music.
  • It is taken for granted that if you have interest in literature, you cannot be equally inclined towards statistics.
  • In other words, we decide the fate of our children so early.
  • It is not surprisingly then, schooling prepares the ground for an alienated existence.

2. Here is a system obsessed with the quantification of knowledge and evaluation.

  • With the burden of information, examinations as ceremonies of power, and a reckless process of measuring even one’s “happiness” and “moral quotient”, schools have robbed the practice of education of the ecstasy of social awakening, scientific reasoning and poetic imagination.

Children as “exam warriors”

  • A careful look at weekly tests, classroom transactions and summer projects would suggest that the system asks a young child to become as an “exam-warrior”.
  • It is devoid of joy and humour, and creative play and aesthetic celebration.
  • While the “successful warriors” join the IITs and colleges like LSR, Presidency and Stephen’s, those who are not so lucky would be compelled to realise that it is painful to be young, wounded and stigmatised.
  • There is no peace in this system, even if schools hire counsellors, invite motivational speakers, and ask children to read self-help books in their “relaxed” times.

3. “Success” is equated with a purely instrumental orientation to life

  • “Success” is equated with a purely instrumental orientation to life, and the virtues of the doctrine of the “survival of the fittest” are celebrated with all sorts of media simulations.
  • Education becomes merely a “performance”, a packaged good for sale.
  • A teacher becomes merely a “subject expert” or a “skill-provider”.
  • There is no sunset that Jidu Krishnamurti wanted children to look at; and there is no union of the “physical, vital, mental and psychic” that Sri Aurobindo imagined.
  • What prevails is only a standardised scale of measurement intoxicated with the urge to eliminate innumerable young minds and throw them into the dustbin of a “meritocratic” universe.
  • And our exam-centric education sanctifies it.

Conclusion

  • As adults, teachers and policy-makers have betrayed the children of this nation.
  • It is time to rectify the Education system of India so that the country can reap the full potential of its demographic dividend.
Primary and Secondary Education – RTE, Education Policy, SEQI, RMSA, Committee Reports, etc.

[op-ed snap] Every drop matters

Note4Students

Mains Paper 2: Social Justice| Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Basic knowledge of regulatory framework related to blood in India.

Mains level: The news-card analyses the issues in the regulatory framework of blood donation in India and why it must be reformed to ensure access to safe and sufficient blood, in a brief manner.


Context

  • The regulatory framework in India must be reformed to ensure access to safe and sufficient blood

Background

  • A ready supply of safe blood in sufficient quantities is a vital component of modern health care.
  • In 2015-16, India was 1.1 million units short of its blood requirements.
  • Here too, there were considerable regional disparities, with 81 districts in the country not having a blood bank at all.
  • In 2016, a hospital in Chhattisgarh turned away a woman in dire need of blood as it was unavailable.
  • She died on the way to the nearest blood bank which was several hours away.
  • Yet, in April 2017, it was reported that blood banks in India had in the last five years discarded a total of 2.8 million units of expired, unused blood (more than 6 lakh litres).

Issue

Vigil after collection

  • To prevent transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs), collected blood needs to be safe as well.
  • Due to practical constraints, tests are only conducted post-collection.
  • Thus blood donor selection relies on donors filling in health questionnaires truthfully.
  • The collected blood is tested for certain TTIs such as HIV and if the blood tests positive, it has to be discarded.
  • However, these tests are not fool-proof as there is a window period after a person first becomes infected with a virus during which the infection may not be detectable.
  • This makes it crucial to minimise the risk in the first instance of collection.

Professional donors

  • Collecting healthy blood will also result in less blood being discarded later.
  • Blood that is donated voluntarily and without remuneration is considered to be the safest.
  • Unfortunately, professional donors (who accept remuneration) and replacement donation (which is not voluntary) are both common in India.
  • In the case of professional donors there is a higher chance of there being TTIs in their blood, as these donors may not provide full disclosure.

Replacement donation

  • In the case of replacement donation, relatives of patients in need of blood are asked by hospitals to arrange for the same expeditiously.
  • This blood is not used for the patient herself, but is intended as a replacement for the blood that is actually used.
  • In this way, hospitals shift the burden of maintaining their blood bank stock to the patient and her family.
  • Here again, there could be a higher chance of TTI’s because replacement donors, being under pressure, may be less truthful about diseases.

Scattered laws, policies and guidelines

  • The regulatory framework which governs the blood transfusion infrastructure in India is scattered across different laws, policies, guidelines and authorities.
  • Blood is considered to be a ‘drug’ under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940.
  • Therefore, just like any other manufacturer or storer of drugs, blood banks need to be licensed by the Drug Controller-General of India (DCGI).
  • For this, they need to meet a series of requirements with respect to the collection, storage, processing and distribution of blood, as specified under the Drugs & Cosmetics Rules, 1945.
  • Blood banks are inspected by drug inspectors who are expected to check not only the premises and equipment but also various quality and medical aspects such as processing and testing facilities.
  • Their findings lead to the issuance, suspension or cancellation of a licence.

Blood Transfusion Councils

  • In 1996, the Supreme Court directed the government to establish the National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) and State Blood Transfusion Councils (SBTCs).
  • The NBTC functions as the apex policy-formulating and expert body for blood transfusion services and includes representation from blood banks.
  • However, it lacks statutory backing (unlike the DCGI), and as such, the standards and requirements recommended by it are only in the form of guidelines.
  • This gives rise to a peculiar situation — the expert blood transfusion body can only issue non-binding guidelines, whereas the general pharmaceutical regulator has the power to license blood banks.
  • This regulatory dissonance exacerbates the serious issues on the ground and results in poor coordination and monitoring.

Poor policies and regulations of Drug Controller-General of India

  • The present scenario under the DCGI is far from desirable, especially given how regulating blood involves distinct considerations when compared to most commercial drugs.
  • It is especially incongruous given the existence of expert bodies such as the NBTC and National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO), which are more naturally suited for this role.
  • The DCGI does not include any experts in the field of blood transfusion, and drug inspectors do not undergo any special training for inspecting blood banks.

Towards a solution

  • In order to ensure the involvement of technical experts who can complement the DCGI, the rules should be amended to involve the NBTC and SBTCs in the licensing process.
  • Given the wide range of responsibilities the DCGI has to handle, its licensing role with respect to blood banks can even be delegated to the NBTC under the rules.
  • This would go a long way towards ensuring that the regulatory scheme is up to date and accommodates medical and technological advances.

Way Forward

  • Despite a 2017 amendment to the rules which enabled transfer of blood between blood banks, the overall system is still not sufficiently integrated.
  • A collaborative regulator can take the lead more effectively in facilitating coordination, planning and management.
  • This may reduce the regional disparities in blood supply as well as ensure that the quality of blood does not vary between private, corporate, international, hospital-based, non-governmental organisations and government blood banks.
  • The aim of the National Blood Policy formulated by the government back in 2002 was to “ensure easily accessible and adequate supply of safe and quality blood”.
  • To achieve this goal, India should look to reforming its regulatory approach at the earliest.
Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

Kerala takes the lead in tackling trans fat hazard

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Eat Right Movement, Swastha Bharat Yatra, Heart Attack Rewind, TFA

Mains level: Read the attached story.


News

  • The Kerala state Health Department has drawn up an action plan to generate public awareness on the harmful effects of trans fatty acids (TFA) in commercially available food items.

Plan to phase out TFA

  1. The plan is aimed to encourage the local food industry to meet the current statutory limits set for TFA.
  2. An unhealthy diet with a high TFA content is a significant factor that pushes up metabolic syndrome and the burden of its associated complications amongst Keralites.
  3. The year-long action plan has specific components on building awareness on trans fat amongst food business operators (FBOs) and giving them scientific sessions and training on how they can keep their food TFA-free.
  4. Generating public awareness on the harmful effects of trans fat, especially among schoolchildren, is being given special focus.
  5. Clear timelines are being set as to when each of the components of the plan should be completed and when enforcement should begin.

Focus on low Sodium content food

  1. Salt being a major contributor to hypertension and stroke, the action plan also plans to address the high salt content in processed foods, pickles, papads and condiments by encouraging manufacturers to move to low sodium options.
  2. The pickle industry is in agreement that good hygienic and manufacturing practices and low sodium options can reduce the salt content in their products.

Need for alternatives

  1. The food industry is willing to ditch partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs, one of the main sources of TFA in industrially produced food ).
  2. It aims to switch to TFA-free margarine or shortening to produce baked goods.

Support for initiative

  1. The department is being supported in this initiative by Vital Strategies, the nutrition wing of the World Bank, WHO, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).
  2. The State Food Safety wing will be in charge of enforcement.
  3. An experts’ group has been constituted for the implementation of the guidelines on TFA and salt reduction.

Back2Basics

Trans Fats

Food Safety Standards – FSSAI, food fortification, etc.

99.82% projects in forests got nod

Note4students

Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: about NBWL

Mains level: Issues related to the clearances of forest lands for industrial purpose


News

Easy or Hasty Clearance?

  1. India’s apex National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) has cleared 682 of the 687 projects (99.82%) that came up for scrutiny.
  2. NBWL is the agency charged with allowing forest land in Protected Areas to be diverted for industry
  3. Only five projects were rejected since August 2014.

About National Board for Wildlife (NBWL)

  1. The NBWL is a “Statutory Organization” constituted under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
  2. Theoretically, the board is “advisory” in nature and advises the Central Government on framing policies and measures for conservation of wildlife in the country.
  3. However, it is a very important body because it serves as apex body to review all wildlife-related matters and approve projects in and around national parks and sanctuaries.

Functions of NBWL

  1. Primary function of the Board is to promote the conservation and development of wildlife and forests.
  2. It has power to review all wildlife-related matters and approve projects in and around national parks and sanctuaries.
  3. No alternation of boundaries in national parks and wildlife sanctuaries can be done without approval of the NBWL.

Composition

  1. The NBWL, formally headed by the Prime Minister, adjudicates on industrial projects, road diversions or the like that could encroach into Protected Areas or eco-sensitive zones of forests.
  2. The environment ministry has delegated all powers of the NBWL to a compliant Standing Committee which regularly meets and clears projects in Protected Areas with due diligence.
  3. A smaller Standing Committee of the NBWL is charged with deliberating on the merits of projects that come to it for scrutiny.
  4. The committee comprises scientists and government officials and is chaired by Union Environment Minister.
Wildlife Conservation Efforts

Centre to revamp minimum support for minor forest produce

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies & interventions for development in various sectors & issues arising out of their design & implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: MFPs and other forest products

Mains level: Issues related to forest rights


News

  • The Centre will frame new guidelines and extend the coverage of Minimum Support Price (MSP) for minor forest produce (MFP) scheme, which is aimed at benefiting a majority of 10 crore tribals.
  • The government is also considering increasing the MSP for various MFPs by around 40 per cent.

MSP for MFP scheme

  1. The MSP for MFP scheme was started in 2013 to ensure fair and remunerative prices to MFP gatherers.
  2. The new system would be decentralized with district collectors holding the responsibility of implementing the scheme.
  3. Moreover, self-help groups will be formed to sell MFP in village haats and value addition centres will be set up.
  4. The area of operation would be expanded to 307 districts across 27 states.

Why such scheme?

  1. Tribals depend on MFP for food, fodder, shelter, medicines and cash income.
  2. It provides them critical subsistence during lean seasons, particularly for primitive tribal groups such as hunter, gatherers, and the landless.
  3. In fact, according to Planning Commission data, tribals derive 20-40 per cent of their annual income from MFP.

Need for proper implementation

  1. While it has been more than five years since the scheme was launched, it has not been implemented properly.
  2. Despite the MFP rights being given to tribal communities under the Forest Rights Act, many states have nationalized MFPs like tendu, monopolising their trade, which is against the law.
  3. The allocations made under the scheme have over the years been heavily under-utilized, so much that around 90 per cent of the funds since the inception of the plan have remained unspent.

Back2Basics

Forest Produce

  1. The essential condition to be qualified as a forest produce is that the products should be either found in or be brought from forest.
  2. Section 2(4) of the Indian Forest Act 1927 defines only “forest-produce” and this term connotes to those products whether found in, or brought from a forest such as
  • timber, charcoal, caoutchouc, catechu, wood-oil, resin, natural varnish, bark, lac, mahua flowers, mahua seeds, kuth and myrabolams,
  • trees and leaves, flowers and fruits, and all other parts or produce of trees,
  • plants not being trees (including grass, creepers, reeds and moss), and all parts or produce of such plants,
  • wild animals and skins, tusks, horns, bones, silk, cocoons, honey and wax, and all other parts or produce of animals, and
  • peat, surface soil, rock and minerals (including lime-stone, laterite, mineral oils), and all products of mines or quarries;

Minor Forest Produce

  • Minor Forest Produce (MFP) is a subset of forest produce and got a definition only in 2007 when the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, was enacted.
  • Section 2(i) of the said Act defines a Minor Forest Produce (MFP) as all non-timber forest produce of plant origin and includes bamboo, brushwood, stumps, canes, Tusser, cocoon, honey, waxes, Lac, tendu/kendu leaves, medicinal plants and herbs, roots, tuber and the like.
  • ***Thus, the definition of “minor forest produce” included bamboo and cane, thereby changing the categorization of bamboo and cane as “trees” under the Indian Forest Act 1927.
  • ***Now, Bamboo is taxonomically a grass now ceases to be a tree as per the ordinance promulgated by the President in 2017.
Tribal Development

World Government Summit

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: IR | Important International institutions, agencies & fora, their structure, mandate

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: World Govt. Summit

Mains level: Read the attached story


News

  • Global leaders gathered in Dubai for the World Government Summit, a forum dedicated to “shaping the future of governments”.

World Government Summit

  1. The World Government Summit is a global platform dedicated to shaping the future of governments worldwide.
  2. It is an annual summit held in Dubai, UAE.
  3. It is a neutral, non-profit organization at the intersection of government and innovation.
  4. It functions as a knowledge exchange platform for leaders in the public and private sectors to convene and collaborate with world-renowned experts to create a positive impact for citizens worldwide.
  5. Each year, the Summit sets the agenda for the next generation of governments, focusing on how they can harness innovation and technology to solve universal challenges facing humanity.
  6. The Museum of the Future is one of the famous exhibitions within the World Government Summit.

[pib] National Commission for Safai Karmacharis

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Polity | Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: NCSK

Mains level: Welfare of Safai Karmacharis


News

  • The Union Cabinet has approved the extension of tenure of the National Commission for Safai Karmacharis (NCSK) beyond 31.3.2019 for three years.

About NCSK

  1. The NCSK is a statutory body that looks into matters concerning the Safai Karamcharis’ welfare and makes recommendations to the government.
  2. For the first time, NCSK was constituted as a statutory body under the NCSK ACT, 1993.
  3. This commission continued till February 2004, when the relevant Act expired. Thereafter, the tenure of the commission has been extended from time to time, as a non-statutory body, the last such extension being up to 31 March 2016.
  4. It is working for the welfare of both Safai Karamcharis and Manual Scavengers.
  5. It is mandated to work towards the elimination of inequalities in status facilities and opportunities for Safai Karamcharis and has an important role to ensure rehabilitation of all the identified manual scavengers on a time-bound basis.
  6. Under Section 31 of the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act 2013, the Commission is to perform functions namely:
  • To monitor the implementation of the Act;
  • To inquire into complaints regarding contravention of provisions of the Act; and
  • To advice Central and State Governments for effective implementation of the Act.

Why extend the tenure?

  1. NCSK works for the welfare and upliftment of the Safai Karmacharis and persons engaged in manual scavenging in the country.
  2. The number of Manual Scavengers identified under the MS Act Survey as on 31.01.2019 is 14226.
  3. Under the National Survey undertaken by Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment at the behest of NITI Aayog is 31128.
  4. Though the Government has taken many steps for the upliftment of the Safai Karamcharis, the deprivation suffered by them in socio-economic and educational terms is still far from being eliminated.
  5. Further the practice of manual scavenging is still prevalent in the country and its eradication continues.
Human Rights Issues

[pib] National Policy for Domestic Workers (draft)

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies & interventions for development in various sectors & issues arising out of their design & implementation

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: National policy for domestic workers

Mains level: Welfare measures for domestic workers


News

Draft Policy for Domestic Workers

  • The Ministry of Labour & Employment is considering to formulate a National Policy on Domestic Workers which is in the draft stage.
  • The govt. has not enacted any separate law to protect the interest of domestic workers.

Salient features of the proposed draft National Policy on Domestic Workers

  • Inclusion of Domestic Workers in the existing legislations.
  • Domestic workers will have the right to register as unorganized   workers. Such registration will facilitate their access to rights & benefits.
  • Right to form their own associations/unions
  • Right to minimum wages, access to social security
  • Right to enhance their skills
  • Protection of Domestic Workers from abuse and exploitation
  • Domestic Workers to have access to courts, tribunals for grievance redressal
  • Establishment of a mechanism for regulation of private placement agencies.
  • Establishment of a grievance redressal system for domestic workers.

 Other Policy Measures

  1. The Unorganized Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008 has been enacted for providing social security to all unorganized workers including domestic workers.
  2. The Act provides formulation of social security schemes viz life and disability cover, health and maternity benefits & old age protection.
  3. The State Governments are mandated under the Unorganized Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008 to formulate suitable welfare schemes for the unorganized sector workers.

Initiatives by states

  • The State Governments of AP, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerela, Odisha, Rajasthan, Haryana,  Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Tripura have  included domestic workers in the schedule of Minimum Wages Act.
  • The matter of constitution of State Domestic Workers Board is under the jurisdiction of the State Governments.
Human Rights Issues

[pib] e-AUSHADHI Portal

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health etc.

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: e-Aushadhi Portal

Mains level: Need of promoting AYUSH system of medicines


News

e-AUSHADHI Portal

  • Ministry of AYUSH has launched the e-AUSHADHI portal, for online licensing of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy drugs.
  • The portal is intended for increased transparency, improved information management facility, improved data usability and increased accountability. T
  • In this direction, this new e-portal is an acronym for Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy Automated Drug Help Initiative. He further added that
  • This portal will aid the licensing authority, manufactures and consumers.
  • It will also provide real time information of the licensed manufactures and their products, cancelled and spurious drugs, contact details of the concerned authority for specific grievances.
AYUSH – Indian Medicine System