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Mother and Child Health – Immunization Program, BPBB, PMJSY, PMMSY, etc.

[op-ed snap] Sexual and reproductive health data need to be accurate to form effective basis for policy

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Reproductive Health

Context

On World Contraception Day, there is a need to talk about reproductive health practices and the rights of people in India. 

Reproductive health

  • The government has been vocal about the need for a small and healthy family to contribute to India’s socio economic growth in the long term.
  • To achieve this vision, there is a need for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR), which are fundamental for family planning and the overall well-being of individuals.

Family planning

  • India’s family planning programme dates back to the 1950s and it has made significant progress. 
  • The recent emphasis on increasing spacing between children and providing access to the basket of contraceptive choices poses the promise of universal access to reproductive health services.
  • The NFHS 4 shows that the use of modern contraceptive methods (mCPR) continues to be around 48% since 2006. 
  • In the states which showed mCPR decline, sterilisation contributed to more than 70% of contraceptive use. 
  • Further, according to NFHS 4, female sterilisation in India continues to be around 37% since 2006, despite health complications and deaths, highlighting the gender inequality in contraceptive use. 
  • This could be because of lack of accessibility or awareness of other contraceptive methods and requires immediate redressal.
  • According to NHFS 4.36% females and only 0.3% males underwent sterilisation which showcases the level of the disparity. 
  • With male sterilisation on rapid decline, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare released the National Health Policy 2017 which aims uptake of male sterilisation to 30%.

The issue of data

  • India has a vast repository of health and demographic data. But such a repository can also be confusing. 
  • Contraceptive use data from large-scale surveys show different levels in selected geographies, making planning challenging. 
  • These inaccuracies could be due to errors in data collection. But the errors in data collection impact the quality of data, which compromises the survey findings.
  • Researchers have pointed out that data quality gets affected due to factors like interviewer bias, which leads to incorrect data entry. 
  • The level of the bias has been found to be higher in the states that recorded a decline in mCPR. It reflects that the findings were influenced due to errors in data collection. 
  • Also, there is difficulty in distinguishing between methods like sterilisation and hysterectomy for some interviewers, which leads to incorrect reporting.
  • Research shows that state-level decline in the utilisation of mCPR and decline in sterilisation acceptance could lead to a reduction in the use of mCPR.

Way ahead

  • There is a need to address data quality issues and introduce technological interventions in data collection, training, and capacity-building of survey officials. 
  • The role of the National Data Quality Forum (NDQF), a multi-institutional initiative hosted by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) becomes crucial in addressing the gaps between data collection and analysis and using that data for advocacy and policy making.
    • NDQF aims at improving data quality for better and efficient research, identify discordance and errors, and establish protocols and good practices for improving data quality. 
    • It plans to create an integrated platform to share new ideas, develop advanced techniques with the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and technology, for improving data quality in health and demographic research for effective policy planning.
  • The onus should be on making data collection inclusive of people, choice, agency, awareness, and decision-making. 
  • It is also crucial to address women’s reproductive rights.

Conclusion

The focus should be on improving data for identifying the issues in contraceptive use and addressing gender inequality in SRHR in India. 

Social Media: Prospect and Challenges

[op-ed snap] Peekaboo, guess who

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing Much

Mains level : Accountability for online abuse

Context

The Supreme Court, responding to a plea by Facebook, has expressed serious concern about the electronic Wild West that internet technology has opened up. It  directed the government to file an affidavit within three weeks outlining a strategy to get social media platforms to share information with law enforcement without compromising the privacy of citizens.

What the court said

  • It asked why citizens must suffer being trolled and maligned with the impunity conferred by anonymity, and without hope of easy legal remedy.

What are the problems in handling the issue

  • The society has become eager to both give and take offence.

  • There are countervailing claims of different rights.

  • None of the stakeholders involved have practised fully ethical practices.

  • The government itself permits the rampant misuse and abuse of the law against citizens who speak out online.

  • Even after the offensive Section 66A of the Information Technology Act was struck down as unconstitutional in 2015, the harassment of citizens involved in opinionating, advocacy or discussion has continued, without the government requiring application of mind from the police.

  • Some governments have stooped to using the instrument directly against their own people.

  • Supreme Court ruling in Shreya Singhal vs Union of India said that “It is clear that Section 66A arbitrarily, excessively and disproportionately invades the right of free speech and upsets the balance between such right and the reasonable restrictions.” In the judges’ view, Section 66A suffered from the deficit of “vagueness”, encouraging arbitrariness.

  • The guidelines which the government is required to produce may be as arbitrary in practice, because perceptions of right and wrong are socially determined, rather than legally.

  • The social media platforms which would follow these guidelines have not consistently been ideal guardians of the balance between privacy and accountability.

  • Facebook is still firefighting the Cambridge Analytica scandal and allegations of letting its platform be used to influence the US elections and Brexit. And troll-teeming Twitter is permanently beleaguered by allegations of unresponsiveness to complaints of abuse.

Way ahead

  • Clarity concerning guidelines would remove the arbitrariness with which action has been sought and draconian curbs applied.

  • Caution is required since the imperative of public order and safety is often used to justify innovations that are revealed to be intrusive or coercive.

Conclusion

The court, has, over the years has expanded the contours of free speech. It may finally rely on existing laws and processes. If applied prudently and morally, they should suffice the purpose.

North-East India – Security and Developmental Issues

[op-ed snap] After Assam NRC, troubles may visit ‘sister’ Tripura

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Impact of NRC on Tripura

Context

The National Register of Citizens (NRC) can negatively impact the politics and ethnic unrest alike in North-east India.

Problems with the exercise

  • Assam released a list which could make 1.9 million people stateless. A large number are Hindus. This is proving to be tricky for the government.

  • Both BJP and RSS stands on the proposal to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955, would allow non-Muslim immigrants from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan the opportunity for naturalization by reducing residency requirements.

Tripura – a background

  • In Tripura, the matter has received focus in an unexpected manner. The largely Bengali population of Tripura, more Hindu than Muslim, are essentially not from Tripura.

  • While many are settlers for a generation or more, some are more recent arrivals.

  • Tripura was not long ago a kingdom. The Manikya kings ruled in a nearly unbroken line from the 15th century.

  • The current titular king, Pradyot, identifies himself as Tiprasa, as the province’s indigenous collective of peoples call themselves.

  • Tiprasa as an identity is more inclusive than Borok because it includes people beyond the Tripuri tribes who have immigrated over the past several centuries.

  • It’s an important nuance because this identity is distinct from Tripura’s overwhelming Bengali identity.

  • In 1949, the queen regent, Kanchan Prava Devi, Pradyot’s grandmother, signed a treaty of accession to India.

  • It stopped being Twipra, the land by the water, jettisoned the British-colonial Hill Tipperah, and emerged fully as the Sanskritized Tripura.

  • Tripura went from being majority indigenous Borok people – Tripuri, Reang, Noatia, Halam and some Meitei (Manipuri) to being majority Bengali.

  • Between 1941 and 1951 the percentage of tribal folk in Tripura dropped from a little over 53% to a little over 37%. By 1981, it had dropped below 30%. The census of 2011 showed the tribal population hovering above 30%.

The arrival of Bengalis

  • Bengalis arrived as refugees from East Pakistan as a result of communal violence years after 1946 and 1947, and wars with India, in waves of hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands and sometimes, hundreds of thousands.

  • In 1952, close to a quarter of a million refugees poured in.

  • Pakistan’s conflict with India over 1964–1965 drew more than a hundred thousand. Pakistan’s actions in Bangladesh in 1971 opened the floodgates. Tripura’s population of about 1.5 million at the time—already majority Bengali—swelled by a third.

  • Dainik Sangbad, a daily newspaper in Agartala, in mid-1971, estimated refugees at nearly 1.3 million. Nearly all were Bengalis.

  • Tripura took them all in, during what is called the Regency Period, when Kanchan Prava Devi ran affairs on behalf of her minor son from 1947 to Tripura’s formal accession to India in 1949.

Conclusion

The ethnic churn of Tripura’s past and present is evident now. The BJP’s ally in Tripura, the Indigenous People’s Front of Tripura (IPFT), has also demanded NRC. Pandora’s box is wide open.

Explained: Impeachment of a US President

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Impeachment Process

Mains level : Comparison of the process with that of Indian process

  • The speaker of US House of Representatives announced that it would launch an impeachment inquiry against President Trump.
  • Trump is accused for his efforts to pressure Ukraine to investigate Joe Biden, Trump’s potential rival in the 2020 elections.

Impeachment in US

  • Impeachment is a provision that allows Congress to remove the President of the United States.
  • Under the US Constitution, the House of Representatives (Lower House) has the “the sole power of impeachment” while the Senate (Upper House) has “the sole power to try all impeachments”.
  • The Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court has the duty of presiding over impeachment trials in the Senate.

Grounds for impeachment

  • The President can be removed from office for “treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors”.
  • What constitutes these “high crimes” and “misdemeanors” (misdemeanors), however, is not clearly spelt out.
  • The NY Times explained that the expression “high crimes and misdemeanors” came out of the British common law tradition.
  • Essentially, it means an abuse of power by a high-level public official. This does not necessarily have to be a violation of an ordinary criminal statute.
  • Historically, in the US, it has encompassed corruption and other abuses, including trying to obstruct judicial proceedings.

Impeachment history

  • No US President has ever been removed as a direct result of impeachment.
  • The House did impeach two Presidents — Andrew Johnson (1968) and Bill Clinton (1998) — but the Senate did not convict them.
  • In between, President Richard Nixon (1974) resigned before he could be removed.

The process

House Vote

  • It begins with an investigation by a House committee.
  • In the Nixon and Clinton cases, the House Judiciary Committee held that investigation and recommended articles of impeachment to the full House.
  • In Trump’s case, six committees are investigating him on impeachable offences. I
  • If they find that there is enough evidence of wrongdoing, it will refer the matter to the full House (see flow chart).
  • When the full House votes, if one or more of the articles of impeachment gets a majority vote, the President is impeached. Next, the proceedings move to the Senate.

Senate Trial and Vote

  • The Senate holds a trial, overseen by the chief justice of the Supreme Court.
  • A team of lawmakers from the House, known as managers, play the role of prosecutors.
  • The President has defence lawyers, and the Senate serves as the jury.
  • If at least two-thirds of the Senators present find the President guilty, he is removed and the Vice President takes over as President.

Back2Basics

Impeachment of President of India

  • The president may be removed before the expiry of the term through impeachment for violating the Constitution of India by the Parliament of India.
  • The process may start in either of the two houses of the parliament.
  • The house initiates the process by levelling the charges against the president.
  • The charges are contained in a notice that has to be signed by at least one-quarter of the total members of that house.
  • The notice is sent up to the president and 14 days later, it is taken up for consideration.

Procedure

  • A resolution to impeach the president has to be passed by a two-thirds majority of the total number of members of the originating house.
  • It is then sent to the other house.
  • The other house investigates the charges that have been made. During this process, the president has the right to defend oneself through an authorised counsel.
  • If the second house also approves the charges made by special majority again, the president stands impeached and is deemed to have vacated their office from the date when such a resolution stands passed.
  • No president has faced impeachment proceedings so the above provisions have never been used.

Legal immunity

  • As clarified by the Supreme court in the case Rameshwar Prasad & Ors vs Union Of India & Anr on 24 January 2006; the president cannot be prosecuted and imprisoned during his term of office.
  • He/She can be prosecuted after he/she steps down from the post for the guilty committed during the term of presidency as declared earlier by the courts.

Waste Management – SWM Rules, EWM Rules, etc

Draft National Resource Efficiency Policy

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : NREP

Mains level : Need for enhancing resource efficiency


  • Against the backdrop of resource depletion in India the MoEFCC has drafted a National Resource Efficiency Policy (NREP).

About the Policy

  • It aims to double the recycling rate of key materials to 50% in the next five years and enable upcycling of waste.
  • The agenda is to develop a circular economy.
  • This can be achieved by two measures—
  1. by recycling the materials, and
  2. by increasing the efficiency of use of these resources.
  • The draft has proposed significant policy instruments like addressing regulatory gaps in implementation of waste laws, landfill taxes, high tipping fees especially for bulk generators of waste, etc.

National Resource Efficiency Authority

  • The draft policy envisions setting up a National Resource Efficiency Authority which will help develop resource efficiency strategies for different sectors and adopt them into a three-year action plan.
  • To begin with, seven key sectors have been identified—automobile, plastic packaging, building and construction sector, electrical and electronic equipment sector, solar photo-voltaic sector, and steel and aluminium sector.

Why need such Policy?

  • Linear production and consumption is leading to a lot of wastage in the entire value chain.
  • Opportunities exist at each and every stage of the product cycle which can be utilized, especially at a time, when the economy is going through a rough patch.

For various sectors

The Automobile Sector

  • The NGT had imposed ban on diesel vehicles more than ten years old in the National Capital Region in view of the rising pollution levels.
  • Following which, more vehicles will end up as end-of-life vehicles.
  • Under the policy, the government plans to set up centres to collect such vehicles and carry out the deregistration process, and shredding centres which would segregate materials for recycling.
  • As many as 20 official dismantlers would be established across major urban centres by 2020.
  • The plan is to ensure 75% recycling rate for vehicles made before 1990, 85% recycling rate for vehicles made between 1990 and 2000, and 90% recycling rate for vehicles made after 2000.

Plastic wastes

  • Another concern is plastic waste, contributing 8% of the total solid waste.
  • The draft policy aims to achieve a 100% recycling and reuse rate polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic by 2025.

Construction materials

  • The draft policy also aims to gradually reducing dependence on virgin materials and enhance re-use of construction and demolition waste.
  • There will be emphasis on developing codes and standards for quality of secondary raw materials to ensure confidence in the product, so that by 2025, at least 30% of total public procurement of construction materials can be from recycled materials.

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

IPCC report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : IPCC

Mains level : Key highlights of the report

  • With representatives from nearly 200 countries at the UN Climate Summit underway in the United States, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) made public a special report.
  • It underlined the dire changes taking place in oceans, glaciers and ice-deposits on land and sea.

About the report

  • The ‘Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate’ was prepared following an IPCC Panel decision in 2016 to prepare three Special Reports.
  • It follows the Special Reports on Global Warming of 1.5°C (SR1.5), and on Climate Change and Land (SRCCL).

 Unprecedented conditions ahead

  • Over the 21st century, the ocean is projected to transition to unprecedented conditions with increased temperatures, further ocean acidification, marine heatwaves and more frequent extreme El Niño and La Niña events,” according to the report.
  • It is virtually certain that the global ocean has warmed unabated since 1970 and has taken up more than 90% of the excess heat in the climate system (high confidence).
  • Since 1993, the rate of ocean warming has more than doubled.
  • Marine heatwaves have very likely doubled in frequency since 1982 and are increasing in intensity, the report notes.
  • The Southern Ocean accounted for 35%–43% of the total heat gain in the upper 2,000 m global ocean between 1970 and 2017, and its share increased to 45%–62% between 2005 and 2017.

Sea level rise

  • Globally sea levels are estimated to rise 1.1 metre by 2100, if countries are not able to restrict emissions “well below” 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
  • This is likely to have a direct impact on the lives of 680 million people living in low-lying coastal zones.

Back2Basics

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  • The IPCC is an intergovernmental body of the UN dedicated to providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change, its natural, political and economic impacts and risks, and possible response options.
  • The IPCC was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and was later endorsed by the UNGA.
  • Membership is open to all members of the WMO and UN.
  • The IPCC produces reports that contribute to the work of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the main international treaty on climate change.
  • In addition to climate assessment reports, the IPCC publishes Special Reports on specific topics.

Soil Health Management – NMSA, Soil Health Card, etc.

Radioactive Cesium Technology for measuring Soil Erosion

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : About the technology

Mains level : Preventing Soil Erosion

  • Indian scientists have now developed a method to measure the rate of soil erosion and associated decrease in organic content in soil by assessing levels of radioactive cesium in soil.

Radioactive Cesium Technology

  • Researchers at the ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Dehradun have developed a way to monitor soil erosion and decrease in carbon content in soil by relating it with levels of radioactive cesium in soil.
  • Carbon concentration is soil correlates with levels of isotope of cesium.
  • Different sites were found to have varying levels of cesium pointing at different degrees of soil degradation in different sites.
  • By applying various formulas, the cesium loss was then used to calculate erosion and associated carbon loss in soil.
  • For measuring cesium levels in soil, gamma spectroscopy technique was used.

Benefits of this technique

  • Radioactive cesium technology is a more rapid and less expensive method for soil erosion studies in the severely intensive croplands.
  • It gives more accurate results for all types of erosion studies including historic, comparative and long-term soil and soil organic carbon erosion.
  • This method can help in monitoring the effects of soil erosion and effectiveness of soil conservation strategies.

Why monitor Soil Erosion?

  • Soil supports plants, insects and microbial life and is formed by natural forces over a long period of time.
  • Carbon reaches soil through the microbial action on withering plant parts and remains in soil, changing its physio-chemical properties and also enhancing its fertility.
  • This way soil also sequesters carbon helping in regulating carbon levels in the atmosphere.
  • Soil erosion, which involves disaggregation and displacement of soil, leads to decrease in its organic content and eventually its fertility.
  • Natural and human activities are contributing to soil erosion and posing problems for both food production and climate change.
  • Therefore, monitoring of soil erosion induced-carbon loss from soil is important.

Innovations in Sciences, IT, Computers, Robotics and Nanotechnology

Quantum Supremacy

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Quantum Supremacy

Mains level : Quantum Computing


  • A draft research paper claimed Google researchers have achieved a long-ought-after goal in physics called “quantum supremacy”.

Quantum supremacy

  • It refers to a quantum computer solving a problem that cannot be expected of a classical computer in a normal lifetime.
  • This relates to the speed at which a quantum computer performs.
  • The phrase “quantum supremacy” was coined in 2011 by John Preskill, Professor of Theoretical Physics at the California Institute of Technology in a speech.
  • According to reports the quantum processor took 200 seconds to perform a calculation that the world’s fastest supercomputer, Summit, would have taken 10,000 years to accomplish.
  • The draft paper is believed to be an early version of a paper that has been submitted to a scientific journal.

What is quantum computing?

  • Quantum computing takes advantage of the strange ability of subatomic particles to exist in more than one state at any time.
  • Due to the way the tiniest of particles behave, operations can be done much more quickly and use less energy than classical computers.

How is Quantum computer different from a traditional computer?

  • What differentiates a quantum computer from a traditional computer is the way the two store information.
  • Quantum computers perform calculations based on the probability of an object’s state before it is measured – instead of just 1s or 0s – which means they have the potential to process exponentially more data compared to classical computers.
  • Classical computers carry out logical operations using the definite position of a physical state.
  • These are usually binary, meaning its operations are based on one of two positions. A single state – such as on or off, up or down, 1 or 0 – is called a bit.
  • In quantum computing, operations instead use the quantum state of an object to produce what’s known as a qubit.
  • These states are the undefined properties of an object before they’ve been detected, such as the spin of an electron or the polarisation of a photon.

Back2Basics

Quantum Mechanics

  • Quantum mechanics (QM) is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
  • It is the body of scientific laws that describe the wacky behavior of photons, electrons and the other particles that make up the universe.

[pib] Sardar Patel National Unity Award

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Sardar Patel National Unity Award

Mains level : Significance of the award


  • Government of India has instituted the highest civilian award in the field of contribution to the unity and integrity of India, in the name of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

Sardar Patel National Unity Award

  • The Award seeks to recognize notable and inspiring contributions to promote the cause of national unity and integrity and to reinforce the value of a strong and united India.
  • The award will be announced on the occasion of the National Unity Day, i.e. the birth anniversary of Sardar Patel on 31st October.
  • The Award shall be conferred by the President by a Sanadunder his hand and seal and presented by him in a presentation ceremony along with the Padma award presentation ceremony held in Rashtrapati Bhawan.

Components of Award

  • The Award would consist of a medal and a citation.
  • No monetary grant or cash award would be attached to this Award.
  • Not more than three Awards would be given in a year.
  • It would not be conferred posthumously except in very rare and highly deserving cases.

Award Committee

  • An Award Committee would be constituted by the PM, which would include the Cabinet Secretary, Principal Secretary to the PM, Secretary to the President, Home Secretary as Members and three-four eminent persons selected by the PM.

Nominations

  • The Nominations would be invited every year.
  • The applications would need to be filed online on the website specifically designed by MHA.
  • All citizens, without distinction of religion, race caste, gender, place of birth, age or occupation, and any institution/organization would be eligible for the Award.
  • Any Indian national or institution or organization based in India would be able to nominate an individual for consideration for this Award. Individuals may also nominate themselves.
  • State Governments, UT Administrations and Ministries of Government of India may also send nominations.

Swachh Bharat Mission

[pib] PM receives ‘Global Goal Keeper Award’ for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SBM , Goalkeeper Award

Mains level : Success of SBM


  • PM Modi received the ‘Global Goalkeeper’ Award by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.

About the award

  • ‘Goalkeepers’ is an initiative of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
  • Its aim is to bring together leaders from around the world to accelerate progress toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).
  • The organization also provides reports and data flow charts over SDGs progress.

Back2Basics

Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM)

  • SBM is a nation-wide campaign in India for the period 2014 to 2019 that aims to clean up the streets, roads and infrastructure of India’s cities, towns, urban and rural areas.
  • The objectives of Swachh Bharat include eliminating open defecation through the construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets and establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring toilet use.
  • Run by the GoI, the mission aims to achieve an “open-defecation free” (ODF) India by 2 October 2019, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi by constructing 90 million toilets in rural India.
  • The mission will also contribute to India reaching Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6), established by the UN in 2015.
  • It is India’s largest cleanliness drive to date with three million government employees and students from all parts of India participating in 4,043 cities, towns, and rural areas.
  • The mission has two thrusts: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (“gramin” or ‘rural’), which operates under the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation; and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (‘urban’), which operates under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

Indian Navy Updates

[pib] Exercise MALABAR  2019

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Exercise Malabar

Mains level : Significance of the multilateral exercise

  • The 23rd edition of the Trilateral Maritime Exercise MALABAR, is scheduled between the navies of India, Japan and USA from 26 Sep to 04 Oct 19 off the coast of Japan.

Exercise Malabar

  • Exercise Malabar is a trilateral naval exercise involving the United States, Japan and India as permanent partners.
  • Originally begun in 1992 as a bilateral exercise between India and the United States, Japan became a permanent partner in 2015.
  • Past non-permanent participants are Australia and Singapore.
  • The annual Malabar series began in 1992 and includes diverse activities, ranging from fighter combat operations from aircraft carriers through Maritime Interdiction Operations Exercises.
  • Malabar 2019 would encompass conduct of complex maritime operations in the surface, sub-surface and air domains, and focus on Anti-Submarine Warfare, Anti-Air, Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO) including Visit Board Search and Seizure (VBSS) etc..
  • In addition, the partner navies would conduct official protocol visits, professional interactions including Subject Matter Expert Exchanges (SMEE), reciprocal ship visits, sports fixtures and social events during the harbour phase.

Tuberculosis Elimination Strategy

[pib] ‘TB Harega Desh Jeetega’ Campaign

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : ‘TB Harega Desh Jeetega’ Campaign

Mains level : Elimination of TB from India


  • Union Ministry for Health and Family Welfare has recently launched a new ‘TB Harega Desh Jeetega Campaign’.

About the campaign

  • The campaign aims to improve and expand the reach of TB care services across the country, by 2022.
  • It has three pillars – clinical approach, public health component and active community participation.
  • There are some other supporting aspects of the campaign including – patient support, private sector engagement, political and administrative commitment at all levels.
  • The government will ensure that all patients, at private or public hospitals, receive free-of-cost and high-quality TB care.
  • United Nations has marked 2030 as a global target to eliminate TB worldwide but the GoI has made 2025 as its target to eliminate tuberculosis from the country.

National TB Report 2019

  • According to the report, 21.5 lakh TB cases were reported in 2018 to the government.
  • In 2017 the number of TB cases was 18 lakhs and in 2019 it has been increased to 17% in one year.
  • Notifications from private-sector health care providers reached 5.4 lakhs, an increase of 40%, contributing to 25% of all TB notifications.
  • Under the scheme, Nikshay Poshan Yojana, a total amount of Rs. 427crore has been paid to over 26 lakhs beneficiaries through direct transfers to their bank accounts.