Hunger and Nutrition Issues – GHI, GNI, etc.

21% Indian children are under-weight: Global Hunger Index


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Global Hunger Index

Mains level: India’s consistently unchanged performance to its previous level against child malnutrition is a cause of concern.


Global Hunger Index 2018

  1. India has been ranked at 103 out of 119 countries in the Global Hunger Index 2018, with hunger levels in the country categorized as “serious”.
  2. At least one in five Indian children under the age of five is wasted, says the report.
  3. The only country with a higher prevalence of child wasting is the war-torn nation of South Sudan.
  4. India’s ranking has dropped three places from last year, although the Index says its results are not accurately comparable from year to year and instead provides a few reference years for comparable data.
  5. The 2018 scores reflect data from 2013-2017.

About the report

  1. The report terms hunger and forced migration for the severity worldwide.
  2. The report is a peer-reviewed publication released annually by Welthungerhilfe and Concern Worldwide.
  3. The International Food Policy Research Institute was also involved with the publication until this year.

Four Main Indicators

The GHI scores are based on a formula that captures three dimensions of hunger—insufficient caloric intake, child undernutrition, and child mortality—using four component indicators:

  1. UNDERNOURISHMENT: the share of the population that is under-nourished, reflecting insufficient caloric intake
  2. CHILD WASTING: the share of children under the age of five who are wasted (low weight-for-height), reflecting acute undernutrition.
  3. CHILD STUNTING: the share of children under the age of five who are stunted (low height-for-age), reflecting chronic undernutrition
  4. CHILD MORTALITY: the mortality rate of children under the age of five

India’s Overall Performance

  1. India has shown improvement in three of the indicators over the comparable reference years.
  2. The percentage of undernourished people in the population has dropped from 18.2% in 2000 to 14.8% in 2018.
  3. The child mortality rate has halved from 9.2% to 4.3%, while child stunting has dropped from 54.2% to 38.4% over the same period.
  4. However, the prevalence of child wasting has actually worsened in comparison to previous reference years.
  5. It stood at 17.1% in 2000, and increased to 20% in 2005. In 2018, it stands at 21%. South Sudan’s child wasting prevalence is at 28%.

Other highlights of the report

  1. Child wasting is high across South Asia, constituting a “critical public health emergency”, according to UN organisations.
  2. The report notes that wasting rates are highest for infants aged 0 to 5 months, suggesting that attention to birth outcomes and breastfeeding is important.
  3. Also, child wasting in the region is associated with a low maternal body mass index, suggesting the need for a focus on the nutritional status of the mother during pregnancy.
  4. Factors that could reduce child stunting in South Asia include increased consumption of non-staple foods, access to sanitation, women’s education, access to safe water, gender equality, and national food availability.

Way Forward

  1. Globally, the level of hunger still falls into the “serious” category, despite improvement over the last two decades.
  2. The Index projects that at the current rate of progress, 50 countries will fail to reach the “low” hunger category by 2030.
  3. This puts the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 2, which aims to end hunger by 2030, in jeopardy.

To read the short and concise synopsis of the report, navigate to this page:

Global Hunger Index

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