From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA)
Mains level : About the mission
- Among all the causes that will eventually cause the extinction of life on Earth, an asteroid hit is widely acknowledged as one of the likeliest.
- Over the years, scientists have suggested different ways to ward off such a hit, such as blowing up the asteroid before it reaches Earth, or deflecting it off with a spacecraft.
- Now, scientists have embarked on a plan to test their expertise with the second of these two methods.
Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA)
- It is an ambitious double-spacecraft mission to deflect an asteroid in space, to prove the technique as a viable method of planetary defence.
- The mission, which includes NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), is known as the Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA).
- The target is the smaller of two bodies in the “double Didymos asteroids” that are in orbit between Earth and Mars.
- Didymos is a near-Earth asteroid system. Its main body measures about 780 m across; the smaller body is a “moonlet” about 160 m in diameter.
- The project aims to deflect the orbit of the smaller body through an impact by one spacecraft.
- Then a second spacecraft will survey the crash site and gather the maximum possible data on the effect of this collision.
Tools of the mission
- NASA is building the Double Asteroid Impact Test (DART) spacecraft for launch in summer 2021.
- It is planned to collide with the target at 6.6 km/s in September 2022.
- Flying along with DART will be an Italian-made miniature CubeSat, called LICIACube, to record the moment of impact.
- ESA’s contribution is a mission called Hera, which will perform a close-up survey of the post-impact asteroid, acquiring measurements such as the asteroid’s mass and detailed crater shape.
- Hera will also deploy a pair of CubeSats for close-up asteroid surveys and the very first radar probe of an asteroid.
- All this would allow researchers to model the efficiency of the collision.
- This can help turn this experiment into a technique that could be repeated, as needed, in the event of a real threat.