Air Pollution

At 2.5 million, India tops list of pollution-linked deaths: Study

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Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health, NGO Pure Earth, Global Alliance on Health and Pollution, Global Burden of Disease study

Mains level: Various aspects related to air and other forms of pollution

India has highest death rate due to pollution

  1. India has topped the list of countries with pollution-related deaths in 2015
  2. 2.51 million people died prematurely in the country that year due to diseases linked to air, water and other forms of pollution
  3. This is according to a new study published in the reputed medical journal, The Lancet

Pollution is now the largest environmental cause of disease and death

  1. The Lancet study concluded that pollution is now the largest environmental cause of disease and death in the world today
  2. Three times more than those from HIV-AIDS, TB and malaria put together
  3. The report found that pollution from outdoor and indoor air, water and soil contamination, and chemical pollutants is one of the largest risk factors leading to premature death

Low and middle-income countries more affected

  1. Most of the pollution-related deaths — 92 percent — were reported in low and middle-income countries
  2. And in rapidly industrializing nations such as India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Madagascar and Kenya

Diseases caused by pollution

  1. Most of these deaths were due to non-communicable diseases caused by pollution
  2. Such as heart disease, stroke, lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

About Study and stakeholders

  1. The Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health’s study is part of a two-year project that involved more than 40 international health and environmental authors
  2. These include Philip Landrigan, an environmental scientist, and Richard Fuller, founder of NGO Pure Earth
  3. The secretariat of the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution is also involved
  4. For the study, researchers also used data from the Global Burden of Disease study
  5. It brings together comprehensive estimates on the effects of pollution on health, provides economic costs, and reveals the extent of contaminated sites across the world for the first time

Aim of commission

The aim of the Lancet Commission is to

  1. raise global awareness on pollution,
  2. end neglect of pollution-related diseases, and
  3. mobilize resources and political will to effectively confront pollution


Global Alliance on Health and Pollution

  1. The Global Alliance on Health and Pollution (GAHP) was formed in 2012 by Pure Earth, the World Bank, UNEP, UNDP, UNIDO, Asian Development Bank, the European Commission, Ministries of Environment and Health of many low- and middle-income countries to address pollution and health at scale
  2. GAHP envisions a world where the health of present and future generations, especially children and pregnant women, is safe from toxic pollution
  3. GAHP is a collaborative body, made up of more than 50 members and dozens of observers that advocates on behalf of its low- and middle-income country members for resources and solutions to pollution problems
  4. GAHP seeks to build demand for pollution prevention and mitigation programs that are implemented by its members
  5. GAHP builds public, political, technical and financial support to address pollution globally, tracks pollution impact and interventions, promotes scientific research on pollution and raises awareness on the scope and impacts of all types of pollution
  6. GAHP also directly assists low- and middle-income countries to prioritize and address pollution through health and pollution action planning (HPAP) and other development planning processes, in collaboration with its members


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