Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Candida Auris
Mains level : Read the attached story
- auris is a mysterious and dangerous fungal infection that is among a growing number of germs that have evolved defenses against common medicines.
- It is a fungus that, when it gets into the bloodstream, can cause dangerous infections that can be life-threatening.
- It preys on people with weakened immune systems, and it is quietly spreading across the globe.
- Scientists first identified it in 2009 in a patient in Japan.
What makes it so freaky?
- It causes serious infections: It can cause bloodstream infections and even death, particularly in hospital and nursing home patients with serious medical problems.
- It’s often resistant to medicines: Its infections have been resistant to all types of antifungal medicines.
- It’s becoming more common: Although auris was just discovered in 2009, it has spread quickly and caused infections in more than a dozen countries.
- It’s difficult to identify: It can be misidentified as other types of fungi unless specialized laboratory technology is used. This misidentification might lead to a patient getting the wrong treatment.
- It can spread in hospitals and nursing homes: It has caused outbreaks in healthcare facilities and can spread through contact with affected patients and contaminated surfaces or equipment.
What made it so strong?
- For decades, public health experts have warned that the overuse of antibiotics was reducing the effectiveness of drugs that have lengthened life spans by curing bacterial infections once commonly fatal.
- But lately, there has been an explosion of resistant fungi as well, adding a new and frightening dimension to a phenomenon that is undermining a pillar of modern medicine.
- Simply put, fungi, just like bacteria, are evolving defences to survive medicines.
- Antibiotics and antifungals are both essential to combat infections in people, but antibiotics are also used widely to prevent disease in farm animals, and antifungals are also applied to prevent agricultural plants from rotting.
- Scientists cite evidence that rampant use of fungicides on crops is contributing to the surge in drug-resistant fungi infecting humans.