Capital crisis: on Delhi’s deteriorating air quality

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Note4students:

Mains Paper 3: Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Causes of environmental pollution
Mains level: Measures to reduce air pollution

News

Context
1. The article talks about the the reasons for deteriorating air quality in Delhi
2. The central idea of the article is follows: There is an urgent need to address the issue of deteriorating air quality through state action.
Current Situation in Delhi
1. The extremely hazardous levels of air quality have turned into a public health emergency in the capital
2. The smog is worsened by the burning of biomass in Punjab and Haryana and the winter atmosphere is marked by poor ventilation
3. Construction dust, vehicular pollution, domestic and industrial emissions add to this poor quality of air
4. Civic agencies are ignoring the problem of rising dust levels that are caused by unpaved surfaces
 
Effects of this air pollution
1. Such toxic air causes extreme suffering especially among people with respiratory ailments and impaired lung function.
2. The post monsoon burning of rice and wheat residues release aerosols that contribute to the volume of PM2.5 that gets embedded in lungs.
3. Exposure to PM2.5 produces morbidity from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and leads to premature death
Measures undertaken
1. Ban on deepavali crackers
2. Shift to Compressed Natural Gas for commercial vehicles
3. Odd and Even Policy
4. Ministry of Environment’s Orders in 2015 under the Air(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,1981 for greening Delhi’s road margins
Way Forward
1. Governments of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, assisted by the Centre, should address the problems of farm residue burning and construction dust
2. The State Machinery should support the farmers for sustainable residue removal
3. Shifting more of the city’s travel to public transport will reduce the emission of fine particles
4. Measures undertaken in China to reduce PM2.5 emissions could be implemented here
Conclusion
A determined response and an integrated state action is essential for reducing the pollution levels in the National Capital.
Air Pollution
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