Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Combat casualty drugs
Mains level: Utility of CCDs for soldiers on battleground
- DRDO’s medical laboratory has come up with a range of ‘combat casualty drugs’ that can extend the golden hour till the trooper is shifted to hospital.
- These indigenously made medicines will be a boon for paramilitary and defence personnel during warfare.
Combat Casualty Drugs
- These drugs are developed at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), a laboratory of the DRDO.
- The main battlefield emergencies are excess bleeding, sepsis, shock, hypovolemia (decreased blood volume) and pain.
- The spectrum includes bleeding wound sealants, super absorptive dressings, and glycerated salines, all of which can save lives in the event of warfare in a jungle and high altitude areas as well as in terror attacks.
Why such move?
- There is only one medical person and limited equipment to take care of soldiers during combat in most cases.
- This is compounded by battlefield conditions such as forests, hilly terrain, and inaccessibility of vehicles, experts said.
- Chances of survival and minimum disability are highest when effective first aid care is given within the golden hour.
Take a look of few CCDs
I. Glycerated Salines
- Among the drugs developed is glycerated saline, a battlefield intravenous fluid that does not freeze till -18C and is useful in handling trauma cases in high altitude areas.
- The glycerated saline, unlike normal saline, reduces inflammation.
- The drug can be life-saving, particularly if the traumatic edema(the collection of fluid in tissues and cavities of the body) is in the brain or lungs.
- It has life-saving capacities as it gives more time to the medical personnel to shift the wounded patient to a higher care facility.
II. Special Medicated Dressing
- INMAS has also developed a special medicated dressing material which is 200 times more absorptive than normal dressings during bleeding wounds.
- The cellulose fibre-based dressings are more effective in stopping bleeding and keeping the wound clean.
- Additionally, antiseptics, antibiotics and curcumin can be impregnated in the dressing which acts as a slow drug release system.
III. Chitosan gel
- INMAS has developed a chitosan gel which helps in preventing blood loss by forming a film over the wound.
- Coupled with platelets and red blood cells aggregation, it stops the bleeding.
- Its antibacterial and wound health properties are of added benefit.
IV. Hypocholorous acid disinfectant
- Part of the range is hypocholorous acid (HOCL), a disinfectant for troopers involved in jungle warfare.
- It is helpful in treating necrotising fascitis, a rapidly progressing bacterial infection of soft tissues.
- Bacterial toxins cause local tissue damage and necrosis, as well as blunt immune system responses.
- In such cases, pure 0.01% HOCL which has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity can rapidly neutralise bacterial toxins.
V. Nalbuphine injection
- INMAS scientists have also discovered a new route for administering the Nalbuphine injection to reduce pain during mutilating war injuries.
- The 10 mg injection of Nalbuphine hydrochloride is more effective for an injured trooper if it is given through the submental/sublingual route instead of intra-muscular or intravenous route.