Defeating pneumonia

Note4students

Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not Much

Mains level: U5 mortality in India and measures to prevent them


News

Context

  1. The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health summit is to be hosted by India in December.
  2. In 2016, pneumonia was the leading cause for under-five deaths in India, and more than 25 million children under the age of two were found not immunized

Menace of Pneumonia

  1. A report by Save the Children (“Fighting for Breath”) showed that pneumonia kills two children in this age group every minute — more than malaria, diarrhoea and measles combined.
  2. More than 80% of victims have weakened immune systems caused by malnutrition or insufficient breastfeeding and unable to fight the infection.

Indian Case

  1. The “Fighting for Breath” report says that globally, a million children are dying from pneumonia annually, even though it can be treated with antibiotics costing as little as ₹26.
  2. In 2016, pneumonia was the leading cause for under-five deaths in India, and more than 25 million children under the age of two were found not immunized with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
  3. While the Indian government has taken several steps to improve the health of children, India continues to top the world ranking in the number of deaths due to the disease
  4. The number of unvaccinated children in the 0-2 age range in developing countries is estimated to be at around 170 million, with India dominating.

Caused by air pollution

  1. Air pollution is a major risk factor for pneumonia.
  2. The sources of pollution vary across and within countries.
  3. Outdoor air pollution, which is associated with emissions from factories, the burning of rubbish and coal, and traffic, is a growing concern.
  4. Children living in urban slum environments often face high levels of exposure to these sources of pollution.

Indoor Pollution is worsening the Situation

  1. Indoor air pollution is a major contributor of respiratory infection in many high-burden pneumonia countries, where the burning of biomass for cooking, heating and lighting are the common sources of pollution.
  2. According to the International Energy Agency’s Energy Access Outlook 2017 report, over 63% of households in India use biomass energy sources.
  3. Research shows that that the association between pneumonia and air pollutant exposure is particularly strong during the first year of life.

Way Forward

  1. It is a well known that exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months acts as an effective vaccine and continued breastfeeding with the gradual introduction of complementary food is another risk-reducer.
  2. Defeating pneumonia necessitates multi-sectoral action plans.
  3. Concerted action by the government, backed by civil society, corporates and communities can help save children’s lives, but we need to move fast.
Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.
  • Subscribe

    Do not miss important study material

Leave a Reply

Please Login to comment
  Subscribe  
Notify of