Climate Change Negotiations – UNFCCC, COP, Other Conventions and Protocols

Developed, developing nations lock horns on pre-2020 action

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Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Pre-2020 action, G-77, ALBA, AILAC, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, Doha Amendments

Mains level: Climate change and actions being taken by developed and developing countries


Major stand-off at the climate change conference in Bonn

  1. The issue of ‘pre-2020 action’ has led to the first major stand-off at the climate change conference in Bonn
  2. How? Developing countries want to get this included in the formal agenda of discussions, and the developed nations are opposing the move saying the schedule was already “very busy”
  3. India and ‘like-minded developing countries’ had protested against the fact that ‘pre-2020 action’ was not part of the official agenda of the conference

Everyone in support

  1. Almost every developing country grouping — the G-77, which is the largest negotiating group with over 130 countries, the African group, the Arab group, the ALBA and AILAC group of Latin American and Caribbean countries, and the small island states — supported the demand

What is ‘pre-2020 action’?

  1. The ‘pre-2020 action’ refers to the obligations of the developed countries under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol that has still three more years to run
  2. The Paris Agreement, finalized in 2015, is essentially a successor treaty for the post-2020 world

Kyoto Protocol timeline and obligations

  1. The Kyoto Protocol had put the responsibility of reducing emissions only on a small group of rich and developed countries
  2. These countries had to achieve targeted cuts in the period 2005 and 2012
  3. Later, in the Doha climate conference, amendments to the Kyoto Protocol extended its mandate till 2020 with fresh targets for these countries
  4. The Doha Amendments, as they came to be called, have still not become operational as adequate number of countries have not yet ratified it
  5. India has repeated its demand for a deadline for ratification of the Doha amendments


ALBA Group of countries

  1. ALBA or ALBA-TCP is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean
  2. It was formally known as the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America – Peoples’ Trade Treaty
  3. Founded initially by Cuba and Venezuela in 2004, it is associated with socialist and social democratic governments wishing to consolidate regional economic integration based on a vision of social welfare, bartering and mutual economic aid
  4. The eleven member countries are Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Cuba, Dominica, Ecuador, Grenada, Nicaragua, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Venezuela
  5. ALBA nations may conduct trade using a virtual regional currency known as the SUCRE.
  6. The name “Bolivarian” refers to the ideology of Simón Bolívar, the 19th-century South American independence leader born in Caracas who wanted Hispanic America to unite as a single “Great Nation”

AILAC Group of countries

  1. The Independent Association of Latin America and the Caribbean is a group of eight countries that share interests and positions on climate change
  2. Its main objective is to generate coordinated, ambitious positions and contribute to the balance in the multilateral negotiations on climate change with a coherent vision for sustainable development that is responsible to the environment and future generations
  3. AILAC was established as a formal negotiating group under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in December 2012, during the Conference of the Parties in Doha, Qatar
  4. AILAC comprises the following countries: Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, Paraguay, Peru

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