Discolouration of Periyar

Mains Paper 3 : Conservation, Environmental Pollution & Degradation, Eia |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Periyar River, Eutrophication

Mains level : Riverine water pollution in India


News

  • There has been continued discolouration of water in the Periyar River turning into pitch black.

What caused discolouration?

  • The discolouration was due to the poor quality of water as a result of eutrophication.
  • When excessive nutrients reach the waterbody, it leads to algal bloom.
  • A few days later, algae die and decay, resulting in a foul smell and discolouration of water.
  • Water in some reaches of the river system has been stagnant. Reduced water flow in the system has added to the deteriorating water quality.
  • Huge quantities of organic load in the form of sewage from nearby townships are regularly reaching the river system.

What is Eutrophication?

  • Eutrophication is the response to the addition of nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates naturally or artificially, fertilizing the aquatic ecosystem.
  • Algal blooms are the consequence of Eutrophication.
  • Eutrophication occurs naturally due to deposition of nutrients [such as in depositional environments] carried by flood waters. It takes over centuries for eutrophication to occur naturally.
  • Phytoplankton (algae and blue-green bacteria) thrive on the excess nutrients and their population explosion covers almost entire surface layer. This condition is known as algal bloom.
  • Oxygen in aquatic ecosystem is replenished by photosynthetic aquatic plants. Algal Blooms restrict the penetration of sunlight resulting in death of aquatic plants, and hence restricts the replenishment of oxygen.
  • The oxygen level is already depleted due to the population explosion of phytoplankton.
Water Management – Institutional Reforms, Conservation Efforts, etc.
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