Air Pollution

Domestic biomass burning deadliest source of air pollution: Study


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Global Burden of Disease report, PM 2.5

Mains level: Rising air pollution and ways to tackle it

Deadliest air pollution source in India

  1. Emissions from domestic biomass burning has emerged as the deadliest air pollution source in India
  2. It is responsible for around a quarter of the deaths caused by PM2.5, a global study has found

Global Burden of Diseases (GBD MAPS) report

  1. The report is published by the Boston-based Health Effects Institute
  2. It builds on the GBD report, which was launched in November last year
  3. That report had attributed over 1.1 million deaths recorded in 2015 to outdoor exposure to PM2.5
  4. PM 2.5 are ultrafine air-borne particulates as tiny as 30 times the width of a human hair

Role of biomass burning

  1. The latest study focuses on the major sources of PM2.5 that are behind the deaths namely, residential biomass burning, coal combustion in industries and thermal power plants, burning of crop residue and vehicular combustion
  2. The study does not take into account indoor exposure to biomass burning, especially in rural areas where charcoal, firewood and animal dung are used for cooking in the absence of cleaner fuels

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