Climate Change Negotiations – UNFCCC, COP, Other Conventions and Protocols

European Union defensive on pre-2020 action; India, China reject compromise formula

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Mains Paper 3 | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Prelims level: Paris Agreement, Kyoto Protocol, Doha Amendments, G-77

Mains level: This article gives insights about how EU played down an ongoing confrontation with developing countries over ‘pre-2020 actions’. Also highlights the demands of developing countries at the meet



EU and Pre 2020 actions

  1. A defensive European Union played down an ongoing confrontation with developing countries over ‘pre-2020 actions’on climate change and a compromise solution was nowhere in sight yet,
  2. India and China comprehensively rejected initial proposals to address their demands

EU’s stand on the issue

  1. Although EU was yet to ratify the Doha amendments, it is already on course to meet commitments for the pre-2020 period
  2. EU does consider ‘pre-2020 actions’ important
  3. According to EU, it was more about finding the right forums, in several parallel meetings, to discuss this so that the main work of finalizing the rule-book for Paris Agreement is not affected

Developing Countries at COP-23

  1. Amidst effort at this conference to finalize the rule-book for implementation of Paris Agreement, developing countries have been trying to emphasize that actions promised for the pre-2020 period under Kyoto Protocol should not be neglected
  2. In a parallel development, the developing countries, at the instance of India and China, have also decided to request the UN climate change secretariat to organize an event at the conference next week to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the adoption of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol
  3. The developing countries hope this would help bring more attention to ‘pre-2020 actions’and put further pressure on developed countries to deliver on their promises.
  4. The G-77 group of developing countries, with more than 130 members also sent a formal proposal in this regard to the Secretariat
  5. The developing countries have been accusing the developed world of trying to run away from their obligations under Kyoto Protocol that has three more years to run
  6. Since the start of the conference, developing countries have been protesting against non-inclusion of the ‘pre-2020 actions’ in the official agenda of discussions

Kyoto Protocol

  1. Kyoto Protocol had placed mandatory emission cut targets on rich and developed countries.
  2. These countries had to achieve these cuts in the 2005-2012 period.
  3. Later, through amendments made in Doha in 2012, the mandate of Kyoto Protocol was extended till 2020 with fresh targets for these countries.
  4. The Doha Amendments have still not become operational as an adequate number of countries have not yet ratified it
  5. The Paris Agreement, finalized in 2015, is essentially the successor agreement to Kyoto Protocol
  6. The Paris Agreement does not assign any emission targets on countries, letting them decide for themselves what actions to take

3 Point Formula by Fiji

  1. Fiji has put forward a three-point compromise formula
  2. It has proposed that discussions on ‘pre-2020 actions’ be held at a scheduled review meeting next year
  3. Then every subsequent year after that
  4. And a new website be set up providing information on ‘pre-2020 actions’ being taken
  5. India and China have rejected the compromise formula

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