From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Constructive Vote of No-confidence
Mains level : Viability of simultaneous elections in India
- In the debate over simultaneous elections, one question being raised is what happens to the common cycle if any one of these simultaneously elected legislatures is brought down by a no-confidence motion.
- The ruling govt. in Odisha where Assembly and general elections already coincide has proposed a solution, a provision what is followed in Germany.
Constructive Vote of No-confidence
- Article 67 [Vote of no confidence] of Basic Law in Germany (Constitution of Germany) sets conditions for moving a no-confidence motion against the Chancellor.
- The Bundestag (German parliament) may express its lack of confidence in the Federal Chancellor only by electing a successor by the vote of a majority of its members and requesting the Federal President to dismiss the Chancellor.
- The President must comply with the request and appoint the person elected.
- Article 68 [Vote of confidence] states that if a motion of the Chancellor for a vote of confidence is not supported by a majority of members, the President, upon the proposal of the Chancellor, may dissolve the Bundestag within 21 days.
- The right of dissolution shall lapse as soon as the Bundestag elects another Chancellor by a majority vote.
- The provision allows Parliament to withdraw confidence from a head of government only if there is a majority in favour for a prospective successor.
- This narrows down the scope of the Opposition to overthrow the government at will and necessitate elections before the government ends its term.
- The underlying premise is that there is a fixed five-year-tenure (for the House) and that there will be a government no matter what.
- The government will be presumed to have a majority unless another grouping is in a position to demonstrate that they have greater numbers.
- This is based on a concept called “constructive vote of no-confidence”, also recommended by the Law Commission of India in a 2018 draft report.