Mains Paper 2: Governance | Mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of the vulnerable sections.
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Fifth and Sixth Schedules
Mains level: Development of Tribal Areas
- The government has introduced a Constitution Amendment Bill in Rajya Sabha to increase the financial and executive powers of the 10 Autonomous Councils in the Sixth Schedule areas of the NE region.
- The Bill is introduced in the wake of protests in the region following the passage of the Citizenship Amendment Bill, 2019, in the Lok Sabha.
The Constitution (125th Amendment) Bill, 2019: Key Proposals
- The Finance Commission will be mandated to recommend devolution of financial resources to them.
- The Autonomous Councils now depend on grants from Central ministries and the State government for specific projects.
- The proposed amendments provide for elected village municipal councils, ensuring democracy at the grassroot level.
- The village councils will be empowered to prepare plans for economic development and social justice including those related to agriculture, land improvement, implementation of land reforms, minor irrigation, water management, animal husbandry, rural electrification, small scale industries and social forestry.
- At least one-third of the seats will be reserved for women in the village and municipal councils in the Sixth Schedule areas of Assam, Mizoram and Tripura after the amendment is approved.
- The amendment will impact one crore tribal people in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
Why in Raja Sabha?
- A call was taken to introduce in the Rajya Sabha so that the legislation remains alive even after the House has adjourned sine die.
- Introducing it in the Lok Sabha would have meant that the Bill’s life is co-terminus with that of the term of the Lok Sabha.
- The fate of the Citizenship Amendment Bill, 2019 is uncertain as it was passed by the Lok Sabha but has to be passed by the Rajya Sabha in the current session to become a law.
Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution