Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Polio Virus, Mission Indradhanush
Mains level: Preventing resurgence of Polio in India
- To prevent the re-emergence of poliovirus in India, the ministry of health and family welfare is now targeting mobile and migratory population from neighbouring countries such as Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
- The government has already started the process of identifying children living with mobile and migratory families to prevent the spread of the virus.
- Health Ministry officials have prepared a database of children living near brick kilns, streets, tent houses and nomad families.
Still prevalent in the neighbourhood
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO), at least 11 cases have been registered in 2018 in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
- Since there is a possible movement of people from the countries to India, the Centre is continuing with the Pulse Polio campaign as a preventive measure despite being polio-free.
Polio incidence in India
- Polio is a highly infectious viral disease, which primarily affects young children.
- The virus is transmitted through person-to-person and spreads through the faecal-oral route or through contaminated water or food.
- It multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis.
- The last reported cases of wild polio in India were in West Bengal and Gujarat on 13 January 2011.
- On 27 March 2014, the WHO declared India a polio-free country, since no cases of wild polio had been reported for three consecutive years.
- Currently, two types of vaccines–oral polio vaccine and injectable polio vaccine–are being used in India to provide enhanced protection.
- The nation-wide polio campaigns are continued along with routine immunisation under initiatives such as Mission Indradhanush.
- So far, the government has been administering polio doses to children under five years through the door-to-door Pulse Polio campaign, the immunisation programme seeks to eliminate poliomyelitis (polio) in India