Horticulture, Floriculture, Commercial crops, Bamboo Production – MIDH, NFSM-CC, etc.

Horticulture crop output seen at record 305.4 mt in 2017-18


Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country,

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: What is horticulture?

Mains level: Specially mentioned in the syllabus


Data on Horticultural produce

  1. Production of horticulture crops like vegetables and fruits is likely to touch a record 305.4 million tonnes (mt) in 2017-18, about 1.6% higher than the previous year and 8% higher than the previous five years’ average
    (source: Agriculture ministry)

What it shows?

  1. The data suggests a structural change in Indian agriculture where farmers are increasingly growing perishable commercial crops due to a growing market and a quicker cash flow as these crops require less time from sowing to marketing

Risk for farmers

  1. Price volatility continues to be a major risk in horticulture, with prices of onions, tomatoes and potatoes plunging below growing costs several times last year
  2. Retail and wholesale prices of perishables are also at a large variance from each other, implying fragmented markets and poor cold chain facilities


What is Horticulture?

  1. Horticulture is the science and art of growing (plants) – fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar
  2. It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management, landscape and garden design, construction, and maintenance, and arboriculture
  3. In contrast to agriculture, horticulture does not include large-scale crop production or animal husbandry
  4. Horticulturists apply their knowledge, skills, and technologies used to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs
  5. Their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses
  6. They work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture. Horticulture even refers to the growing of plants in a field or garden
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