From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Melanin
Mains level : Preventing Adulteration of Milk
- The government has extended the ban on import of milk and its products, including chocolates, from China till laboratories at ports for testing presence of toxic chemical melamine are upgraded.
Ban over Melamine
- Food regulator FSSAI had recommended extending the ban until all labs at ports are modernized to test the chemical.
- The ban was first imposed in September 2008 and extended subsequently from time to time.
- Although India does not import milk, milk products from China, it has imposed the ban as a preventive measure.
- However, it has not mentioned any timeline for upgradation of that capacity of all laboratories.
- Melamine content of more than 1 ppm in infant formula and more than 2.5 ppm in other foods should be viewed with suspicion of adulteration.
- Addition of melamine into food is not approved by the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius (food standard commission), or by any national authorities.
- Chinese milk scandal: In 2008, at least four babies in China died and around 100,000 became sick after consuming powdered milk baby food laced with melamine.
- Melamine is a chemical compound that has a number of industrial uses, including the production of laminates, glues, dinnerware, adhesives, molding compounds, coatings and flame retardants.
- It is a name used both for the chemical and for the plastic made from it. In this event, all references are to the chemical.
- It is illegally added to inflate the apparent protein content of food products.
- Because it is high in nitrogen, the addition of melamine to a food artificially increases the apparent protein content as measured with standard tests.
Milk Production in India
- India is the world’s largest producer and consumer of milk. It produces around 150 million tonne milk annually.
- Uttar Pradesh is the leading state in milk production followed by Rajasthan and Gujarat.