Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics etc.
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Not Much
Mains level: India’s stance for peaceful use of space applications
- India assured the world that it did not violate any international treaty or understanding with the anti-satellite (A-SAT) missile testing.
A message to the world
- While the government has conceded that India has long had ASAT capabilities, this is the country’s first demonstration to the world.
- It has shown that it is capable of bringing down a satellite, and disrupting communication.
- Because the test was carried out on a satellite placed in the low-earth orbit, one might question whether India can hit any satellite.
- Targeting satellites in the higher orbits, however, is only a matter of scale of powering the rockets enough to go deeper in the space.
Defying the taboo
- Destroying space infrastructure like satellites is also taboo in the international community just like the use of a nuclear weapon.
- Almost every country agrees that space must not be used for wars and has spoken against weaponisation of space.
- There are international treaties governing the use of space that mandate that outer space and celestial bodies like the Moon, must only be exploited for peaceful purposes.
Outer Space Treaty of 1967
- The Outer Space Treaty, to which India is a signatory, prohibits countries from placing into orbit around the Earth “any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction”.
- Among its principles, it bars states party to the treaty from placing weapons of mass destruction in Earth orbit, installing them on the Moon or any other celestial body, or otherwise stationing them in outer space.
- The moon and other celestial bodies shall be used by all state parties to the treaty exclusively for peaceful purposes, says the treaty.
- There are at least four more multilateral treaties that deal with specific concepts agreed to in the Outer Space Treaty. None of these, however, prohibits the kind of test that India carried.
- India believes in peaceful use of the common outer space that belongs to humanity.
- India is not in violation of any international law or treaty to which it is a party or any national obligation.
- The MEA said the A-SAT test was not directed against any country and that India plans to play a role in future in drafting global laws on prevention of arms race in outer space.
- As is mandatory for any missile test, India did issue a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) to airline authorities across the world informing them about an impending missile test.
- MEA reiterated India’s support of Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space (PAROS) in the Conference on Disarmament “where it has been on the agenda since 1982.