Water Management – Institutional Reforms, Conservation Efforts, etc.

India world’s 13th most water-stressed country: WRI

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas

Mains level : Water stress

NEWS

India is placed thirteenth among the world’s 17 ‘extremely water-stressed’ countries according to the Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas released by the World Resources Institute (WRI)

Details about the report

  1. Twelve of the 17 were from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region
  2. The gap between supply and demand will likely widen due to climate change and drought-like situations, coupled with uncontrolled groundwater extraction
  3. A region is said to be under ‘water stress’ when the demand for water exceeds the available volume or when poor quality restricts the use
  4. ‘Extremely high’ levels of water stress means an average 80% of the available water in a country is used by irrigated agriculture, industries and municipalities every year

Details about India

  1. Both surface water and groundwater in India was highly exploited
  2. Groundwater levels declined at more than eight centimeters per year between 1990 and 2014 in northern India
  3. Chandigarh was the most water-stressed, followed by Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh
  4. Groundwater resources were over-exploited in 1,186 of 6,881 assessment units in India
  5. Groundwater runs 94.5% of all minor irrigation schemes in India

Way ahead

  1. The government must focus on more sustainable surface water schemes
  2. Reusing wastewater could help countries overcome water stress and become water secure
  3. Using safely-treated wastewater has been included in the water resources management plans of several Arab countries
  4. Oman treats 100% of its collected wastewater and reuses 78% of it
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