From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Indian Bullfrog
Mains level : Not Much
- Indian bullfrogs introduced in the Andaman islands are invasive, and eat native wildlife including fish and lizards.
- The Indian bullfrog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (native to the Indian subcontinent) has rapidly invaded the Andaman islands after it was introduced there in the early 2000s.
- In human-dominated areas, it now shares space with other native (and often endemic) frog species.
- The bullfrogs are prolific breeders: they have short breeding seasons, and each egg clutch can contain up to 5,750 eggs.
- Its tadpoles are carnivorous and eat other tadpoles (including their own species).
- Now, experiments reveal that the frogs take to this invasive behaviour early in their lives.
- Even in the developmental stages, the large bullfrog tadpoles eat other native frog tadpoles.
- The survival of both endemic frog tadpoles reduced to zero when bullfrog tadpoles were present.
- The proportion of bullfrog tadpoles surviving was greater in the presence of both endemic frog tadpoles.
- This is worrying because other native frog species – many of which are only being described – could also be affected.