Mains Paper 2: Governance | Mechanisms, laws, institutions & Bodies constituted for the protection & betterment of these vulnerable sections
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Kanyashree and Syawangsiddha Schemes
Mains level: Various laws/schemes against trafficking and their effectiveness in curbing it
- Despite being 56.09 lakh beneficiaries of the scheme in 2016-18 Human trafficking still persists in West Bengal at an unprecedented level.
- As the per NCRB data, West Bengal reports the highest number of cases.
- Data for 2016 shows that of the 8,132 cases in the country, 3,579 cases (around 44%) were from West Bengal.
- The Kanyashree Prakalpa (KP) introduced by the Govt. of West Bengal in 2013 is a conditional cash transfer (CCT) scheme aimed at simultaneously reducing underage marriage and adolescent dropout among girls.
- This scheme received widespread recognition at both national and international levels.
- Most recently it awarded the first in the Asia-Pacific group for the category “reaching the poorest and most vulnerable through inclusive services and participation” by the United Nations in 2017.
- This two-tier scheme consists of an annual grant of Rs750 for unmarried girls between the age of 13 and 18 years who are enrolled in some educational institution (KP1).
- And a one-time grant of Rs 25,000 upon the attainment of 18 years, conditional upon her remaining both unmarried and continuing studies till that age (KP2).
- Kanyashree is an overarching scheme apart from several other schemes aimed at combating trafficking.
- In September 2018, West Bengal government rolled out Swayangsiddha scheme run by the West Bengal police to prevent trafficking.
- Under the scheme (which means self reliance) complaint boxes have been installed in the schools where girls can submit any complaint of stalking or harassment faced by them or any of their friends.
- Syawangsiddha is a scheme and is not as widespread as Kanyashree.
Lacunae in the Schemes
- The situation had somewhat improved due to intervention of Kanyashree, still there were cases of girls from school going missing and being trafficked.
- Trafficking is a complex problem and one scheme, which provides impetus to girls to remain in school, cannot put an end to trafficking.
- Under the K1 scheme the benefit of Rs. 750 annually is hardly a deterrent to trafficking.