History- Important places, persons in news

M.N. Roy and his contribution for anti-colonial struggle in India


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : MN Roy and his contributions

Mains level : Role of Indians in Communism across India and the world


  • The October Revolution in Russia (1917) ignited the spark of left wing ideology in India and other parts of the world.
  • By the second decade of the 20th century, the political thinking in India swung between Gandhian ideology and radical Communism.
  • This was so much that Bengali militant nationalist Manabendra Nath Roy became one of the founders of global Communism.

M. N. Roy

  • Having begun his political career at an early age, Roy first emerged as a powerful radical voice against the 1905 Partition of Bengal.
  • By 1915, as the WW I raged in Europe, he and several others were convinced that the only way of fighting the British in India was with German help.
  • Roy, who left India during this period to raise funds, soon found himself intimately involved in the growing Communist struggle across the world.

M. N. Roy in Mexico

  • When Roy set out from India in 1915, Mexico was nowhere on his itinerary. His destination was the Indonesian island of Java.
  • This trip turned out to be the prelude to many others, which took him to China, Japan as well as both coasts of the United States by late 1916.
  • In April 1917, when the US declared war on Germany, Indians implicated in the Indo-German conspiracy were under the spotlight along with their German backers.
  • Roy, like many other Indian revolutionaries, escaped America and moved south to Mexico.
  • In Mexico, he continued to organise revolutionary activities for India with the help of German diplomats.
  • As the success of the conspiratorial alliance with Germany appeared ever less likely, Roy began socializing with a group of North American Leftists.

Spread of Communism in America 

  • Under the influence of the Bolshevik revolution that had broken out in 1917, Roy along with the American Leftists and Mexican unionists and anarchists founded the Mexican Communist Party (PCM) in November 1917.
  • The PCM was one of the first legitimate Communist parties to be established outside Russia and played an important role in organising the workers’ movement in Mexico.
  • With the founding of the PCM, Roy’s name came to be associated with the expansion of Communism globally.
  • He and his party were invited by head of the Soviet Union Vladimir Lenin to be part of the Communist International’s Congress.
  • Roy helped Lenin develop the Communist International’s — also known as Third International — policies towards the colonies.

Contribution in anti-colonial struggle in India

  • Roy’s conversion from an Indian nationalist financed by the Germans to an international revolutionary thus occured in Mexico.
  • However, he continued to be focused on the anti-colonial struggle in India.
  • In 1922, he prepared a detailed programme for the consideration of Indian National Congress. In this he proposed nationalization of railways, mines, water ways.
  • He also suggested that the aim of the Congress party should be complete national independence from British domination.
  • He established CPI in Tashkent in 1925.
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