Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: World Air Quality Report 2018
Mains level: Ever increasing air pollution in India
- Fifteen of the top 20 most polluted cities in the world are located in India, according to an analysis of air quality in several cities around the world.
World Air Quality Report 2018
- The report was compiled by IQAir Group, a manufacturer of air-monitoring sensors as well as purifiers and environmentalist group Greenpeace.
- It relies on ground-based sensors located in 3,000 cities from 73 countries.
- The main objective behind the report was to measure the presence of fine particulate matter known as Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5, which has been recorded in real-time in 2018.
- Exposure to PM 2.5 pollution increases the risk of lung cancer, stroke, heart attack and respiratory diseases, including asthma symptoms among all age groups.
Highlights of the Report
- Gurugram, in Haryana, topped the list with an average annual particulate matter (PM 2.5) quality of 135 g/m3 (micrograms/cubic metre), in 2018.
- Delhi — a frequent fixture on global pollution hotspots — was only the 11th most noxious city behind Lahore, Pakistan (10th) and Hotan, China (8th).
- When ranked by country, Bangladesh emerged as the most polluted followed by Pakistan and India respectively.
- Jakarta and Hanoi emerged as Southeast Asia’s two most polluted cities and average concentrations in the cities in China fell by 12% from 2017 to 2018.
- Beijing ranks now as the 122nd most polluted city in the world in 2018 and China, the 12th most polluted country in the world.
- Of the countries analyzed, Iceland emerged as the one with the cleanest air.