Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Particulars of the report.
Mains level: Preventing discrimination against HIV/AIDS positive persons.
Missing the Target
- India’s long battle against AIDS is not likely to end any time soon, if the latest figure released by the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) is any indication.
- The data revealed that, as of 2017, there were still around 21.40 lakh people living with HIV in India, with the prevalence among adults stood at 0.22 per cent.
Particulars of the Report
- There were around 87,000 new HIV infections and over 69,000 AIDS-related deaths (ARDs) in 2017.
- Around 22,675 mothers needed Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
- The report has noted that the rate of decline in annual new HIV infections has been relatively slower in recent years.
- In 2015, India had reported 86,000 new HIV infections.
- Of these, children (<15 years) accounted for 12 per cent (10,400) while the remaining (75,000) were adults (15+ years).
Importance of the Report
- The impact of the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) has been significant, with more than an 80 per cent decline in estimated new infections from the epidemic’s peak in 1995.
- The objective of HIV estimations is to provide updated information on the status of the HIV epidemic in India at the national and State/Union Territory level.
- Estimations of adult HIV prevalence, annual new infections (HIV incidence), AIDS-related mortality, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) needs are produced as outcomes of HIV estimations.
- The modeled estimates are needed because there is no direct reliable way of measuring these core indicators, which are used to track the epidemic and monitor and evaluate the response in countries around the world.
HIV estimation in India
- The HIV Estimations 2017 is the 14th round in the series of HIV-estimations under the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP).
- NACO undertakes HIV estimations biennially in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) – National Institute of Medical Statistics (NIMS).
- The first round of HIV estimation in India was done in 1998.