Climate Change Negotiations – UNFCCC, COP, Other Conventions and Protocols

Nations may focus on human and economic losses at climate talks

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Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the G-77 and COP23

Mains level: The G-77 is an important organisation. And it is important to know its working, its focus area, its concerns, etc.(all of which are explained in the article)


23rd round of UN-sponsored climate talks: UN Climate Conference or COP23

  1. Officials from 196 countries gathering in Bonn to work on a collective plan to slow down global warming at the 23rd round of UN-sponsored climate talks

Issues raised by the developing countries

  1. Developing countries are highlighting the urgent need to step up efforts to address the serious human and economic losses already taking place due to climate change
  2. Developing countries are calling for the urgent need to secure long-term finance flows to help poor countries take the measures required to tackle climate change and deal with its impaact
  3. Developing countries are suggesting that a quantified goal for long-term finances, beyond the $100 billion by 2020, be agreed on to help poor countries

Focus of the ‘G-77 and China’

  1. It is planning to focus on the need to proactively address the clear impact that climate change is already having
  2. Their focus will be on ensuring the flow of finance, technology, and building capacities in developing countries to deal with climate change
  3. The group will also push for increased discussions of adaptation that will help countries to adjust to changes that are already underway
  4. The ‘G-77 and China’ is expected to draw attention to the “serious human and economic losses” to urge greater focus on efforts by countries, particularly industrialised ones, in the period before 2020

Future plans of the G-77

  1. It would like the work on loss and damage to integrated into the broader discussions under the UNFCCC
  2. This will help identify and implement concrete alternatives of support and cooperation for developing countries hit by extreme weather events
  3. To this end, the G-77 plans to call for the inclusion of loss and damage as a permanent item on the agenda
  4. The G-77 is proposing to construct a proper way to recognise and register adaptation efforts and measures

Concerns of the G-77

  1. It is expressing concern about the decline in funding available for efforts to adapt to climate change
  2. Their particular concern is the manner in which specific multilateral funds, such as the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and Global Environment Facility (GEF) are operating
  3. The group will raise the issue of unwarranted requirements that have not been agreed to by all countries
  4. And the manner in which these are placing an additional burden to developing countries
  5. The other issue that the G-77 is flagging is that of long-term finance

Expectations from the Bonn meeting

  1. The developing countries hope that the discussion over the next two weeks in Bonn will help to identify the needs and priorities of developing countries, particularly on adaptation, financing, technology and capacity building
  2. These discussions could result in a new long-term financial goal that would include a new collective quantified goal beyond the “already committed and yet insufficient floor of $100 billion per year”


Group of 77(G-77)

  1. The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members’ collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations
  2. There were 77 founding members of the organization, but by November 2013 the organization had since expanded to 134 member countries
  3. Since China participates in the G77 but does not consider itself to be a member, all official statements are issued in the name of The Group of 77 and China.
  4. Ecuador holds the Chairmanship for 2017.
  5. The group was founded on 15 June 1964, by the “Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries” issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
  6. The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun
  7. There are Chapters of the Group of 77 in Geneva (UN), Rome (FAO), Vienna (UNIDO), Paris (UNESCO), Nairobi (UNEP) and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C. (International Monetary Fund and World Bank)
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