Communicable and Non-communicable diseases – HIV, Malaria, Cancer, Mental Health, etc.

[op-ed snap] A Matter of Dignity

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Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Dementia, Global Action Plan on the Public Health Response to Dementia 2017-2025

Mains level: Along with demographic dividend, the number of ageing people is also rising in India and hence an increase in diseases related to older age. How can India tackle this problem in line with global actions.


Context

Increase in cases of dementia

  1. The rapid increase in ageing population across countries requires national strategies to deal with age-related diseases and thus dementia care is becoming a significant issue
  2. According to the WHO, it affects 50 million people worldwide; a number that is projected to increase to 82 million by 2030 and 152 million by 2050
  3. According to some estimates, one person gets affected by dementia every three seconds

About dementia

  1. Dementia is a form of cognitive impairment that affects memory and other cognitive abilities and significantly interferes with a person’s ability to perform daily activities
  2. Data from many parts of the world reveals age as a risk factor for dementia — though the debilitating condition is not an inevitable consequence of ageing

Social stigma related to dementia

  1. Studies have revealed how the stigma attached to the disease leads to the social isolation of patients, their families and careers
  2. Research has thrown light on the deterioration in the quality of their lives
  3. Studies that draw on interactions with people affected by dementia, their families and caregivers indicate that several of the needs of such people — social, economic or those related to health — remain unfulfilled
  4. For instance, leave concessions at work, adaptable housing environments, adequate diagnostic facilities, treatment options, care provisions and risk reduction measures for people with dementia are not in place
  5. Many require psychological support, biomedical facilities, appropriate medications, counselling services and end of life care. But these are not available

WHO action plan on dementia

  1. The complexity of needs cutting across health, economic and social sector requires attention and policy responses
  2. 2018 WHO dementia plan focuses on the urgent need for a multi-phased approach and a multi-sectoral policy response to address the needs of people with dementia, their carers and families
  3. Over a year ago, the World Health Assembly in Geneva adopted the Global Action Plan on the Public Health Response to Dementia 2017-2025
  4. India endorsed the plan, confirming its commitment to improving the lives of people with dementia, their carers and families

Policy action that needs to be taken in India

  1. The country’s commitment to Sustainable Development Goals — especially with respect to Goal 3 that deals with good health and well being — and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities should push it into formulating a strategy to deal with this debilitating condition
  2. Such a plan should incorporate public awareness campaigns and research

Way forward

  1. As the percentage of aged people in the country increases, improving the lives of people with dementia and their families and careers must become a national priority
  2. These programmes could be aligned with existing policies and care models
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