Climate Change Negotiations – UNFCCC, COP, Other Conventions and Protocols

[op-ed snap] A sum of contributions: Climate Changeop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: NMSKCC, Talanoa Dialogue, Under2 Coalition, etc.

Mains level: Various reports, MoU, Dialogue, Coalition and Indian government’s plans, on climate change, discussed in the newscard.


The Emissions Gap Report 2017

  1. It had underlined that fulfilment of national pledges related to carbon emission reductions under the Paris Agreement would be inadequate to keep global warming below 2°C
  2. Thus, a renewed focus on climate governance is imperative

The Talanoa Dialogue of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

  1. Beginning this month
  2. It will facilitate the parties to take stock of progress post-Paris
  3. India’s role: As a key player in international climate governance, India could set the precedent in deepening the dialogue process

Contribution of Indian States is important for achieving India’s Climate Targets

  1. In a federal democracy like India, subnationals or States are a vital part of the grand coalition between the Centre, civil society, businesses, and key climate stakeholders
  2. India’s State Action Plan on Climate Change supports the integration of national climate change goals into subnational policies
  3. India has committed to meet its current target of 33% reduction in emission intensity of the 2005 level by 2030, by generating 40% of its energy from renewables
  4. States are important for the realisation of this goal

The Under2 Coalition

  1. It is an MoU by subnational governments to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions towards net-zero by 2050
  2. It is generating a unique precedent for bold climate leadership, with its member states and regions surpassing 200 in number
  3. Currently, Telangana and Chhattisgarh are signatories to this pact from India
  4. Comparision: 26 subnational governments in China and 24 in the U.S.
  5. Greater representation of Indian States is crucial

Need of knowledge action networks

  1. States have enormous mitigation potential, but the evidence pertaining to its effectiveness is still scarce.
  2. Therefore, India must look towards creating knowledge action networks and partnerships under both national and State action plan frameworks
  3. Kerala has taken the lead to build such a knowledge network funded by the National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change


The National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change (NMSKCC)
Mission Objectives

  1. Formation of knowledge networks among the existing knowledge institutions engaged in research and development relating to climate science.
  2. Establishment of global technology watch groups with institutional capacities to carry out research on risk minimized technology selection for developmental choices
  3. Development of national capacity for modeling the regional impact of climate change on different ecological zones within the country for different seasons and living standards
  4. Establishing research networks and encouraging research in the areas of climate change impacts on important socio-economic sectors like agriculture, health, natural ecosystems, biodiversity, coastal zones, etc.
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