Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: NMSKCC, Talanoa Dialogue, Under2 Coalition, etc.
Mains level: Various reports, MoU, Dialogue, Coalition and Indian government’s plans, on climate change, discussed in the newscard.
The Emissions Gap Report 2017
- It had underlined that fulfilment of national pledges related to carbon emission reductions under the Paris Agreement would be inadequate to keep global warming below 2°C
- Thus, a renewed focus on climate governance is imperative
The Talanoa Dialogue of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
- Beginning this month
- It will facilitate the parties to take stock of progress post-Paris
- India’s role: As a key player in international climate governance, India could set the precedent in deepening the dialogue process
Contribution of Indian States is important for achieving India’s Climate Targets
- In a federal democracy like India, subnationals or States are a vital part of the grand coalition between the Centre, civil society, businesses, and key climate stakeholders
- India’s State Action Plan on Climate Change supports the integration of national climate change goals into subnational policies
- India has committed to meet its current target of 33% reduction in emission intensity of the 2005 level by 2030, by generating 40% of its energy from renewables
- States are important for the realisation of this goal
The Under2 Coalition
- It is an MoU by subnational governments to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions towards net-zero by 2050
- It is generating a unique precedent for bold climate leadership, with its member states and regions surpassing 200 in number
- Currently, Telangana and Chhattisgarh are signatories to this pact from India
- Comparision: 26 subnational governments in China and 24 in the U.S.
- Greater representation of Indian States is crucial
Need of knowledge action networks
- States have enormous mitigation potential, but the evidence pertaining to its effectiveness is still scarce.
- Therefore, India must look towards creating knowledge action networks and partnerships under both national and State action plan frameworks
- Kerala has taken the lead to build such a knowledge network funded by the National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
The National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change (NMSKCC)
- Formation of knowledge networks among the existing knowledge institutions engaged in research and development relating to climate science.
- Establishment of global technology watch groups with institutional capacities to carry out research on risk minimized technology selection for developmental choices
- Development of national capacity for modeling the regional impact of climate change on different ecological zones within the country for different seasons and living standards
- Establishing research networks and encouraging research in the areas of climate change impacts on important socio-economic sectors like agriculture, health, natural ecosystems, biodiversity, coastal zones, etc.