From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Nothing much
Mains level : India's entry to UNSC
Prime Minister called upon all like-minded nations to push for an overhaul of the United Nations (UN) structure.
Need for reforms
- Misused by some members – The UN is being used by some members as a tool rather than an institution to resolve global conflicts.
- Losing relevance – It formed in 1945 after World War II with that war’s victors, the US, Russia, the UK, France, and China, as permanent members of its Security Council. For decades afterward, the Big Five exercised disproportionate clout in world affairs due to their nuclear arsenals. This is no longer so.
- Need other veto holders – If contemporary geopolitical realities are to be taken into account, then the Council needs to induct other countries as veto holders as well.
- The power matrix remains the same – the UN’s apex decision-making unit has remained stuck in time. Such structural deficiencies have rendered the UN largely ineffective on matters of war and peace.
Signs of losing authority
- 2003 Iraq war – The most glaring sign of the UN’s lost authority was the US’s 2003 offensive against Iraq in response to the 9/11 attacks. This campaign did not have any UN sanctions, nor was it sought, unlike America’s previous strikes.
- Unilateral powers – Since then, unilateral military actions by major world powers gained a measure of legitimacy. The idea of the Council working out solutions to international problems has turned anachronistic.
- Reduced multilateralism – open disregard for multilateral deliberations has reduced the UN to a talk shop.
- Asian century – As the American century gives way to an Asian one, it’s more crucial that the UN regains the stature needed to act as a force for peace.
A strong case for India
- Economy – India is a rapidly emerging economy. It provides large numbers of soldiers to the UN for peacekeeping missions and is armed with nuclear weapons, for which it has a clear no-first-use policy stated upfront.
- Population – India accounts for almost one-fifth of all humanity.
Challenges to entry
- Nuclear power – Nuclear hyphenation with Pakistan has been a stumbling block. Pakistan’s ties with Beijing make this hyphenation hard to remove.
- India’s market potential could change how strongly other nations rally to India’s cause.
- Realpolitik may determine the eventual outcome of structural reform.
- India could do with a better record of conflict resolution.
- A country of our strength and diversity simply cannot be left out of the power matrix for much longer.