Mains Paper 2 : Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and agreements involving India |
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Nothing Much
Mains level : Refugees are not criminals and they should not be treated in that manner.
The Mexican border was closed for hours on November 25, 2018 at the San Ysidro Port of Entry to the U.S., after a group of migrants, including children and women, in Tijuana reportedly stormed the area.Global political action is required to reinforce the legitimate identity of a worker.
Rise of Xenophobic tendencies
- Since the 1990s, not just international but even interregional workers have slowly been pushed into the rubric of ‘criminals’.
- U.S. President Donald Trump is a prime example of this: his victory was largely founded on his ability to depict international workers, particularly those crossing the U.S.-Mexico border, as ‘criminals’.
- This tendency is present, though in less obvious versions, in almost all developed and developing countries, including the social welfare democracies of Europe.
- It is also present within nations, as we in India witnessed in the recent ‘Gujarati’ backlash against workers from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
- Politicians can garner extra votes by implicitly or explicitly equating international/interregional ‘workers’ with ‘criminals’, and states can openly devise blatantly differential treatment for them — as the children ripped away from their parents and the workers tear-gassed at the U.S. border can testify. This marks a significant development in recent years.
Reasons for labelling refugees as criminals
Most immigrants crossing a border are law-abiding and industrious workers, not ‘criminals’ — this remains the case today, as it was in the past.
1.Nature of capitalism – It longer needs workers as much as it did in the past.
2.Financial speculation –
- Financial speculation has increasingly dwarfed international trade from the 1990s onwards.
- More than that, much of financial speculation is based on factors other than the productivity of a sector. A world dominated by financial speculation does not need workers in two ways:
- Financial speculation does not depend on the production of workers.
3. Post-humanism –
- It is used to suggest a world after human beings, a world run by artificial intelligence.
- Inevitably, for those in power — either in terms of a monopoly on wealth or a monopoly on knowledge — a world of financial speculation leads to a ‘post-human’ world run by artificial intelligence.
- Once workers become redundant and numbers are sufficient, then, inevitably, one can think complacently of replacing human intelligence with artificial intelligence.
- Universal Solution – Solution has to be ‘universal’ and global. Global political action is needed to ensure international working rights, linked to human status and not the caprice of state or capital.
- Otherwise, as the right to work can currently be ensured only by national governments, it will always be used to define other — ‘foreign’ — workers as actual or potential criminals.
- The threat of monopoly of corporations– Soon it might well become the monopoly of corporations. It is basically being used to criminalise those workers who are not allowed — by nation-states or neoliberal capitalism or both — the legitimate identity of a worker.
- And as this is a shrinking identity — there are fewer and fewer active workers under the impact of rampant financial speculation — it simply adds to the official metamorphosis of more workers into ‘criminals’.